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J, J. McKnight 








The Five-Fooi Shelf of Books 


THE HAltV'AKt> CC.ASSli:?, 

Ik: - 

Stories from th.:' 
Thousand anJ ( ) Nights 

(the ahabean^ HKp-ITs' * '■ 

■'!' M* ^ 

TKANSLA1- '.\\ 


REVISED m sriNury lavi j-,, i 

'■irr jlyft 

p. F. Collier .'■ ■-" ■ ^ 

1^ r-jrion 



Shahra%ad yehling aJioiy to the Sultan 


Stories from The 
Thousand and One Nights 





^itk XntrodiiCiiGn and Np^tv 
Volume t6 

P. F. Collier & Son Corporation 


By p. F. Collier & Son 

MAY 2 3 1953 





The Stogv OF THE Merchant AND THE JiNsi ; : 15 

The SroflY of the Fibst Sheykh and the Gazelle 17 

The Story of the Second Shevkh asd the Two Black Hol'kds . 2: 

The Story of the Teiipd Shevkh and the Mlle , - , . . .34 


The Stopy of the Fisherman ... 1 ........ aj 

The Storv of King Yunan and tice Sace Duban , . . . , 30 

The Story of the Hu&eand anu the Pahbot - - 33' 

The Stobv of THEEsvroLs We^ibanuthe Pbisce and theGhuleh ^5 

The Story of TiiE Yotyc King of the Black Lilands , . - , 46 

NIGHTS 9'i3 

The Story of the Porter anj> teie Lad1£5 or Baghdad, as'd of the 

Theee Roval Me-vdicants^ Etc. , , , , , , , . - 55 

The Story of the First Royal Mendicant .-,,,,. j 6fi 

The Story of the Second Royal Mendicant ..,,,. -'^^ 

The Story of the Envier and the Envied . ^ . , .v ,. .- fs 

The Story of the Third Royal Mendicant . 88 

The Storv of tice First ot tije Three Ladtes of Baghdad . . 100 

The Story of the Secosd of the Three Ladies oh BAiiHD.^D , 107 

NIGHTS 24-32 

The Stoev of the Humpback :. . . tig 

The Stotiv Told by the Christias Buokeb .,,,,.. 120 

The Storv Told bv the Sut,tan's Steward ..,.-.. 133 

The Story Thld by the Jewish Phy&icmn . . ^ . . , 142 

Tile Stogy Told by the Tailor . , ^ » , 149 



The Barber's Story of HtMSELF , ...,,,,. 162 

The Bakeeh^s Stokv of His First Beoxher 164 

The Bjvrrer^s Story of His Second Brother 16S 

The Battber's Story of Hrs Third Brother . 171 

The Barber's Story of His Fourth Brother ,...,. 174 

The 13arber*s Fifth Brother .- , -, , . 177 

The ]Jarber's Stohv qe tiia Sixtu Brother ....,-. 184 

NIGHTS 32-36 
The Story of Nur-Ed-Din and Enis-El-Telis . . . ^ -, . 193 

NIGHTS 537-566 

The SroifV of Ei-SiNDiBAD of theSea as'd Es-SiXDiftAD of tiieLand 231 

The Fru&T Vdyage of Es-Sindicad of the Sea ...... 234 

The Secomd Voyage of Es-Sini>id.\i> of the Se.\ ...... 243 

TttE Third Voyage ot Es-Sikdibad of the Sea ^ . . - - . 250 

The Fourth Voyage of Es-S^ndibad of the Sea -,.... 260 

The Fifth Voyage OP Es-Si-jDiDAD OF THE Sea --,... 273 

The Sixth Voyage of Es-Sikdibad of the Sea .,,.,. 282 

The Seventh Vov.^ge of Es-Stnciead of teie S£A - ■.. , 290 

NIGHTS 566-578 
The Story of the City of Brass ^ . 296 

NIGHTS 738-756 
The Story OF Ji;llanar OF THE Sea . .. _ . 326 


The Stoby of 'Ala-e^Din and the Wonderful Lamp, h , . 34T 
The Story of 'Ali Baba and TifE Fupty Thieves . . . - , 424 


'The Thousand axu One Nights" is one of the great story-book? of 
the world. It wns introduced ro European reader? by the French scholar 
Galhad, who diacuvcrcd the Ai,ibic original and translated it into French 
in ihe first decade of the eighteenth ci^ntury; but its earher history is 
still involved in obscurity. There existed 3S early as the tenth century 
of our era a Persian coHection of a thousand i^les^ enclosed in a frame- 
work which is piaciically the one used in die present collection^ teUing 
or a King who was in the habit of killing his wives after the first night, 
and who was led to abandon this practise by the cleverness of the We^^ir's 
daughter, who nightly told him a tale which she left uniiniahed at dawn, 
so that his curiosity led him to spare her till the taie should be completed. 
Whether more than tlie ftsmework of the Arabian collection was bor- 
rowed from this Persian work iii uncertain. The Liles in the collection of 
Galland and in more complete editions discovered since his time are 
chiefly Persian, Indian, and Arabian in source, and in ultimate origin 
come from all the ends of the earth. No two manuscript? have precisely 
the same contents, and some of the most famous of the tales here printed 
are probably not properly to be regarded as beion^in^; to the collection, 
but owe (heir association with the others lo their having been included 
by Galland. Thus "'Ah Bal^a and the Forty Thieves" is found in no 
Oriental version of the "Nights/* and " "Ala-cd-Din and the Wonderiul 
Lamp" was Jong supposed to be in the same situation, though within 
recent years it has turned up in two manuscripts. 

Both the place and the dale of the original compilation arc still matters 
o£ dispute among scholars. From such evidences as the detailed nature 
of the references to Cairo and the prevailing Mohammedan background. 
Lane argued that it must have been put together in Egypt; buc this 
opinion is by no means uni^'ersally accepted. As to date, estimates \'sry 
by several centuries. Burton, who believed in a strong Persian element, 
[bought that some of the oldest tales, such as that of "Sindibad," might be 
as old as the eighth century of our era; some thirteen he dated tenth 
century, and the latest in the si>;teenth. There is s fair amount of agree- 
ment on the thirteenth century as the date oi arrangement in the present 
framework, though they were probably not committed to writing till some 
two centuries later. 

Of a collection of fables^ fairy-stories, and anecdotes or historical per- 
sonages such as this, there can, of course, be no question of a single 



aurhor. Eolh before and after they were place<i in ihc mouih of ShiiKra- 
zad, they were handed down by oral reciiatioD, the usual form of siory- 
lelling among the Arabs, As in the case of our own popular balUd^t 
whatever marks of individual authorship any one story may originally 
have borne^ wouUl be obliterated in the course of K^nerations of tradition 
by word of mouth* Of che personality of an original editor or compiler, 
even, we have no trace. Long after writing had to some extent fixed their 
forms^ the oral repetition went on; and some of thtm could be heard in 
Mohammedan countries almost down to out own times - 

In ihe two hundred years of their currency in the West^ the stories of 
the "Nights" have engrafted themselves upon European culture. They 
have made ihe fairy-land of the Oriental imagination and the mode of 
life of the medieval Arab, his manners and his morals, familiar to young 
and old; and allusions to their incidents and personages arc wrought into 
the language and literature of all the modern civilized people^- Their 
mark is found upon music and painting as well as on leiters and the 
common speech, as is witnessed by such diverse resuhs of their inspira- 
tion as the music of Rimsky-Korsakoff, the illussrations of Parrish, and 
the marvelous idealisation of their background and atmosphere in Tenny- 
aon^s ^'Recollections of the Arabian Nights/' '"Barmecide Feast," "Opea 
Sesame/* "Old Lamps for New/* ^^Solomon^s Seaf/' "The Old Man of 
the Sca/^ "The Slave oi the Lamp/' "The VaUey of Di^monds/^ "The 
Roc's Egg/' Haroun"a[ -Rase hid and his **Garden of I>elight/' — these 
and many more phrases and allusions of cvery-day occurrence suggest 
how^ pervasive has been the influence of this wonder-book of the mysteri- 
ous East- 

The translation by E. W* Lane used here has been the standard English 
version for general reading for eighty years. The translations of " 'Ali 
Baba* and " 'Ala-ed-Din" are by S- Lane-Poole and for permission to 
use the latter we are indebted to Mossrs. G. P. Pucnam's Sons. 


In the nams of God, ihe Companionate, the Mercifu!- 

Peai^e be to God, the Beneficent King, the Creditor of the universe, 
who haih raised the heavens withoui: pillars, and spread out the earth as 
a bed; and blessing and peace be on the lord ot apoade^, our lord and 
our ma^rer Mohammad, and his Family; blessing and peace, enduring 
and constant, unto the day of judgment. 

To proceed:— The lives of former generaiions are a lesson to posterity; 
that a man may review the remarkable events which have happened to 
others, and be admonished; and may consider the history of people of 
preceding ages^ and of all that hath befallen them, and be restrained. 
Extolled be the perfection of Him who hach thus ordained the history 
of former generaiion* to be a lesson to those which foJIow^. Such are the 
Tales of a Thousand and One Nights, with their romantic stories and 
their fables, 

Ic is related (but God alone is all-knowing, as well as alt-wise, and 
almighty, and all-bDuniiful}, that there was, in ancient times, a King of 
the countries of India and China, pos-iessing numerous troops, and 
guards, and servants, and domestic dependents; and he had two sons; 
one of whom was a man of mature age; and the other, a youth. Both of 
these princes were brave horsemen; but especially the elder, wlio inherited 
the kingdom ot his father, and governed his subjects with such justice 
that the inhabitants o£ his country and whole empire loved him. He 
was called King Shahriyar: his younger brother was named Shah- 
Zeman,^ and was King of Samarkand. The administration of their 
governments wa^ conducted with rectitude, each of them ruling over his 
subjects with justice during a period of twenty years with the utmost 
enjoyment and happiness. After this period, the elder King felt a strong 
desire to see his brother, and ordered his Wezir^ to repair to hira and 
bring him. 

Having taken the advice of the Wezir on this subject, he ijiimedralelj' 
gave orders to prepare handsome presents, such as horses adorned with 

USbahrijar, "Fnend nf the CiE>:" Shjh-Zemin, "KinH of the Age,"! 
^ [Jn PcrsJjJi antl Turkithn Vcair; pii|jular, VizJer.] 



gold and cosiTy jewels, anti memluksj^ ancf beautiful virgins, and expon- 
sive scufTs. He chen wrote 31 letter to his brother, expressive of his great 
dtsire to see him; and having sealed lE, and given it to the Wezir, to 
^^ethcr with the prcsenis above mentioned, he ordt^red the minister to 
strain his ner\es^ and tuck up his skirts, 3nd use all expediiion in rcUirn- 
ing. The Wexir ansvveredj without delay^ [ hear and obey; and forthwiLh 
prepared for the journey: he pucked his baggage, removed the burdens, 
and made ready all his provtstons within three days; and on ihe fourth 
day, he took leave of the King Eshahriyar^ and went forth towards the 
deserts and wastes. He proceeded riight and day; and each ol the kini;s 
under the authority o£ King Shahriyar by whose residence he passed 
came forth to meet liim, with costly presents^ and gifts of gold and 
silver, and entertained him three days; aEter whEch, on the fourth day, 
he accompanied him one day's journey^ and look leave of him. Thus he 
continued on his way until he drew near to the city oi Samarkand^ when 
he sent forward a messenger to inbrm King Shah-Zeman of his ap- 
proach. The messenger entered the citys inquired the way to the palace, 
and, introducing himself to the King, kissed the ground before him, and 
acquainted him with the approach of his brother^s Wczir; upon which 
Shah-Zeman ordered the chse( officers oi his court, and the great men of 
his kingdom^ to go forth a day's journey to meet him; and they did so^ 
and when they met him^ they welcomed him, and walked by his stirrups 
until they returned to the city. The Weiir then presented himself before 
the King Shah-Zeman, greeted him with a prayer for the divine assistance 
in his favour, kissed the ground before him, and informed him of his 
brother's desire to see him; after wliich he handed to him the letter. The 
King took itj read it, and understood it? contents; and answered by 
expressing his readiness to obey the commands of his brother* But, said 
he (addressing the Wezir), I will not go until I have entertained thee 
three days. Accordingly, he lodged him in a palace befitting his rank, 
accommodated liis troops in tents^ and appointed them all things requisite 
in the way of food and drinkt and so they rernaincd three days. On the 
fourth day, he equip|ied himself for the journey, made ready his baggage, 
and collected together costly presents suitable to his brother's dignity. 

These preparations being completed^ he sent forth his tents and camels 
and mules and servants and guards, appointed his WeKir to be governor 
of the country during his absence, and set out tow^ards his brother's 
dominions^ At midnight^ however, he remembered that he had left in 
his palace an article which he should have brought with him] and hav- 

^Mate while slav^s^ 


ing returned to the palace to fetch it, he there behdd his wife sleeping 
in his bed^ and ailended by a male negro slavCj who had f^len asleep 
by her side. 

On beholding ihis s«ine^ the world became h!ack before his eyes; and 
he said wiihin himself^ If this is the case when 1 have not departed from 
ihe ciiy^ what will be the conduct of this vile woman while I am sojouro- 
ing with my brother^ He tlien drew his sword^ and slew them both in 
the bed: after which he immediaEely returned^ gave orders for departure, 
and journeyed to his brother^s capitaL 

Shabriyar, rejoicing at the tidings of his approach^ went forth to meet 
hinij saluted him, and welcomed him with the utmost delight. He then 
ordere<3 ihaf the city should he decorated on the occasion, and sat down 
to enEeriain his brother with cheeiful conversation; hut the mind of K-ing 
Shah-Zcman was distracted by reflections upon the conduct of his wite; 
excessive grief look possession of him; and his coumenance became 
sallow; and his frame ettiaciated. His brother observed his altered con- 
dition, andj imaginiEig that it was occasioned by his absence from his 
dominions^ abstained from Troubling him or asking res|>ecting tiie cause^ 
until after the lapse of some days^ when at length he said to him, O my 
brother^ I perceive that thy body is emaciated^ and thy countenance is 
become sallow. He answered^ O brother, I have an internal sore: — ^nd 
he informed him not of the conduct of his wife which he had witnessed. 
Shahriyar then said, I wish ihar thou wouldcsc go out with me on a 
hunting excursion; perhaps thy mind might so be diverted: — but he 
declined; and Shahrtyar went alone to the chase^ 

Nov^ there wi^re some windows in the King's palace commanding a 
view of his ^rden; and while his brother was looking out from one of 
these, a door of ihe palace was opened^ and iheie came forth from it 
twenty females and twenty male black slaves; and the King^s wife, who 
was distinguished by extraordinary beauiy and elegance^ accompanied 
them to a fountain^ where they all disrobed themselves, and sat down 
together- The King's wife then called ont^ O Mes'ud! and immediately 
a black slave came to her, and embraced her; she doing the like. So also 
did the other slaves and the women; and all of them continued revelling 
together uniil the close of the day. When Shah-Zeman beheld this spec- 
tacle^ he said within himself, By Allah! my aSliciion is lighter than ihisE 
His vexation and grief were alleviated^ and he no longer abstained from 
sufficient food and drinks 

When his brother returned from his excursion, and they bad saluted 
each otber, and King Shahriyar observed his brother Shah-Zeman, that 


his folotir had returned, that his face had recovered the flush of healthy 
and that he ate with appetite^ after liis late abstinence, he was surprised, 
and said» O my brother, when I saw ihee last, thy countenance was 
sallow, and now chy colour haih returned to thee: acquaint me wi^h ihy 
state. — As to ihe change of my jiaiural complexion, answered Shah- 
Zcni3n, I will inform thee of its cause; but excuse my explaining to thee 
the return of my colon r.^First, said Shahriyar, relate to me the cause of 
the change of thy proper conipli^xion, and ot thy weakness: let me hear 
It. — Know tlicn, O my brother, he answered, that when thou seniest thy 
Wezir to me Co invite me lo djy presence, I prepared myself for the 
journey, and when I had gone forth from the city, I rememl>ered that I 
had left behind mc the jewel tliat 1 have given thee; J therefore returned 
to my palace for ii, and there I found my wife sleeping in my bed, and 
attended by a black male slave; and I killed them both, and came to thee: 
but my mind was occupied by reflections upon this alTair, and this was. 
die causG of the change of my complexion, and o( my weakness: now, as 
to the return of my colour, excuse my informing thee of its cause, — 
But uhen his brother heard these words, he said, I conjure thee by 
Allah that thou acquaint me wi^h the cause of the return of ihy colour:-^ 
so he repeated to him all that he had seen. J would see [his, spid Shah- 
riyar, wjdi my own eye. — Then, said Shali-Zeman, give out that chou 
art going again to the chase, a[id conceal thyself here with me, and thou 
shah witness this conduct, and obtain ocular proof of it. 

Shariyar, upon this, immediately announced that it was his intention 
to make another excursion. Tlic troops went oui of the city with ilie 
tents, and the King followed them; and after he had reposed awhile in 
the camp, he said to his servants. Let no one come in to mei — and he 
disguised himself, and returned to his brother in the palace, and sat in 
one of the windows overlooking the garden; and when he had been 
(here a short time, the women and their mistress entered the garden with 
the black slaves, and did as his brother had described, continuing so until 
the hour of the afrernoon-prayer. 

When Kin^ Shahriyar beheld this occurrence, reason fled from his 
head, and he said to his brother, Shah-Zeman, Arise, and let us travel 
whither we please, and renounce the regal state, until we see whether 
such a calamity as this have befallen any other person like unto us; and 
if not, our death will be preferable to our life. His brother agreed to 
his proposal, and diey went out from a private door of the palace, and 
journeyed continually, days and nights, until they arrived at a tree in 
the midst of a meadow, by a spring of water, on the shore of the sea. They 


drank of this springs and sat down to rest; and when the day had a lilde 
advanced, the sea became troubled before them, and ihcre arose from it 
a black pillar, astending towards the sky, and approaching the meadow. 
S[rxiclc with fear at the sight, they cUmbed up into the tree, which was 
lofty; and thence ihey gazed to see what thi^ might be: and behold* fl 
was a Jinni* of gigantic stature, broad-fronted and bulky, bearing on his 
head a chest. He landed, and came lo the tree into which the two Kings 
had climbed, and, having seated himself beneath it, opened the chest, 
and took out of it another box, which he also opened; and there came 
forth from it a young woman, fair and beautiful, like the shining sun. 
When the Jinni cast his eyes upon her, he said, O lady of noble race, 
whom I carried off on thy wedding-night, J have a desire to sleep a little: 
and he placed his head upon her knee, and slept. The damsel then 
raised her head towards the tree, and saw thete the two Kings; upon 
which she removed the head of the Jinni from her knee, and, having 
placed it on the ground, stood under the tree, and made signs to the 
two Kings, as though she would say. Come down, and fear not this 
'Efrit, They answered her. We conjure ihee by Allah that thou excuse 
us in this matter. But she said, I conjure you by the same that ye come 
down; and if ye do not, I will rouse this 'Efrit, and he shall put you to 
3 cruel death. So, being afraid, ihey came down Co her; and, after they 
had remained with her as long as she required, she look from her pocket 
a purse, and drew out from this a string, upon which were ninety-eight 
seal-rings; and she said to them, Know ye what are these? They an- 
swered, We know not. — The owners of these rings, said she, have, all 
of them, been admitted lo converse wilh me, like as ye have, unknown 
lo this foolish 'Efrit; therefore, give me your two rmgs, ye brothers. So 
they gave her their two rings from, their fingers; and then she said Co 
them. This 'Efrii carried me off on my wcdding-night, and put me in 
the box, and placed ihe box in the chest, and affixed to ihe chest seven 

^ing. of Jinn (GcDiiJ, being crcaied of fir?- The &pecic^ oi Jinn is ^^id to havu 
beta crciii^ ^aoic thoiij^mrs ol yciiii before Adam. Accotdinj^ to a tradiiioo from 
ilic ProphpCh ihia ^pE^ics cojisi&cs oi five orders or cl^i&^^i nsmely, Jann (i^ho arc ihp 
]r:3at puwcifuL of all), JLan, Shcytada (or Dc-vjls), 'bfdi^H and Ma^ids. The laM, ii is 
added, ace the mo^E powerful; and ihe Janci are [rantfarmed Jinnj like as ccTiaia 
apes and «wjnc were iransformpd men. The ienn$ Jmn and Jann, hoi^'cvcfH are gcn- 
eralfy a^vd indiKTiminacely, as names nf rhc vholc spwics (including the oihcr 
orders above meniioned)^ wheiher ^ood or ba<ii rhe former term is [he- more com- 
mon. iTblis is SaUn^ iheir King.] "Shcylan" is commfinly used to signify any evil 
Jinn. An 'EiriT is a powerful evil Jinni; a Marid^ sn evil (inni of the ino^i powerful 
ela». The Jinn (but generally speahingt evil ones) are cilfed by the Ptfjjans Divs; 
the innsi powerful evil Jinn, Narahs (which signifies "males," Though [hey are said lo 
be males and temale$); ihc good (inn, Peris, ihoiigh lEii$ Teini is commonly applied to 


locks, and deposited m^j thus imprE^fnied^ in the bottom of the roaring 
£ea^ benealh iKe dashing waves; not knowing that, when one o£ our 5ex 
desires to accomplish any objooij nothing can prevent her. In accordance 
with this, says one of die poets' 

Never trusc in women; nor rely upon their voiv$; 

For ihcir pleasure And displeasure depend upon their passions. 

They offer a talse ailection; for perfidy lurks within their clothing. 

By the tale ot Yu^uf be admonished, and guarJ against ihecr stratagems. 

Dost ihou not consider that Iblis ejected Adam by means of won^an? 

And another poet says: — 

Abstain from 4:ensure; for it s^ill strengthen the cen^ured^ and increase 

desire into violent passion. 
If T sulTer such passion, my case is but the same as that of many a man 

hefore nie: 
For greatly indeed lo be wotideied 3E is he who hath kept himself safe 

from women's artifice-: 

When the two Kings beard these ^vords from her lips they were struck 
with the utmost asconishmenE, and said^ one lo the other^ If this is an 
^Efriij and a greater calamity hath happened unto him than that which 
haih befallen us, this is a cErcumAlance that should console us: — and 
iijimediately they departed, and returned to the city- 

As soon as ihev fiad entered the palace, Shahriyar caused his wife to 
be beheaded, and in like manner the women and black slaves; and 
thenceforth he matle it his regular custom, every time that he took a 
virgin to his bed, to kill her at the e?Epirauon of the night- Thus he 
continued to do during a period of three years; and the people raided 
an outcry against him^ and fl.ed with their daughters^ and there remained 
not a virgin in the city of a suflicient age for nnarriage- Such vi^as the case 
when the King ordered the Wez[r to bring him a virgin according to 
his custom; and the Wezir went forth and searched, and found none; 
and he went back to his house enraged and vexed, fearing what the 
King might do to him. 

Now the Wezir had two daughters; the elder of whom wa? named 
Shahrazad; and the younger, Duny?ad- The former had read various 
books of histories, and the lives of preceding kings, and stories of past 
generations: it is asserted that she had collected together a thousand 
books of histories, relating to preceding generations and kings, and 
works of the poets: and she said to her fath*;r on this occasion. Why do 


I see thee itius changedj and oppressed with solicitude and sorrows? It 
has been said by one of the poets: — 

Tell him who is oppressed with anxiety^ Ehat anxiety wili not Last: 
As happiness passeth away^ so passeth away anxiety^ 

Wiien the Wesir heard ihesc words from his daughter, he related to her 
al! that had happened to him with regard to the King: upon which she 
saidj By Allah, O my father^ give me in marriage to ihis King: eiiher I 
shall die^ and be a ransom for one of the daughters of the MusiimSp or 
I shall Uve, and be the cause oi their deliverance from him, I conjure 
thee by Allah, exclaimeti he, that thou expose not thyself to such peril:^— 
hut she said. It must be eo* Then, said he^ f fear for thee that the same 
will befall thee that happened in the case of the Ass and the Bull and 
the husbandman-^— And what, she asked, was that, O my father? 

Know, O iny daujjher^ said the Wezir, that there was a certain mer- 
chant, who possessed wealth and caiile, and had a wife and children; 
and Godp whose name be exalted^ had also endowed him wLth the knowl- 
edge of the languages of bcasis and birds. The abode of this merchant 
was in the country; and he had^ in his house^ an ass and a bull^ When 
the bull came to the place where the ass was tfed^ he found it swept and 
sprinkled; in his manger were sifted barley and siited cni straw, and ihe 
ass was lying at his ease; his master being accustomed only to ride him 
occasionally^ when business required^ and soon to return: and it hap- 
pened^ one day, that the merchant overheard the bull saying to the ass^ 
May ihy food benefit thee! I am oppressed wtih faligue^ while thou arc 
enjoying repose: thou eatest sifted barley^ and men serve thee- and it is 
only occasionally that ihy master rides thee, and returns; while I am 
continually employed in ploughing, and turning the mill. — The ass 
answered. When thou goest out to the field, and they place the yoke 
upon thy neck, lie down, and do not lise again, even if they beat ihcc; 
or, i[ thou rh^^ lie down a second time; and when they take [hce back, 
and place the beans before thce^ cat them not, as though thou wert sick: 
abstain from eating and drinking a day or [wo daySj or three; acid so 
shalt thou find rest from trouble and Ubour. — Accordingly, when the 
driver came to the fjull with his fotider, he ale scarcely any of it- and on 
the morroWj when the driver came again to take him to plough, he 
found him apparently quite infirm: so the merchant said. Take the ass^ 
and make him draw the plough in his stead all the day. The man did 
so; and when the ass relumed at the close of the day, the bull ihankod 


him for the favour he had conferred upon him by relieving him of his 
trouble on that day; but the ass renurned him no answer^ for he repented 
most grievously. On the next day, the ploughman came again, and took, 
the ass, and ploughed with him till evening; and the ass returned with 
his neck flayed by ihe yoke, and reduced to an c;(treme state of weakness^ 
and the bull looked upon him, and thanked and praised him. The ass 
exclaimed, I was living at ease, and nought but my meddling hath in- 
jured me! Then said he to the bull, Know that 1 am one who would give 
thee good advice; I heard our master say, I( the bull rise not from his 
piace, lake him to che butcher, that he may kiil him, and make a nac*^ 
of his skin: — I am therefore in fear for thee, and so I have given ihee 
advice; and peace be on thee! — When the bull heard these words of the 
ass, he thanked him, and said. To-morrow 1 will go with alacrity: — so 
he ate the whole ot his fodder^ and even licked the manger.— Their 
master, meanwhile, was listening 10 their conversation. 

On the following morning, the merchant and his wife went to the 
bull's crib, and sat down ihere; and the driver came, and took out the 
bull; and when the bull saw his master^ he shook his tail, and showed 
his alacrity by sounds and actions, bounding about in such a manner 
that the merchant laughed until he fell backwards. His wife, in surprise, 
asked him, At what dose thou laughf He answered, At a thing that I 
have heard and seen; but 1 cannot reveal it; for if I did, I should die. 
She said. Thou must inform me of the cause of thy laughter, even if 
ihou die. — 1 cannot reveal it, said he: the fear of death prevents me. — 
Thou laughedst only at mj, she said; and she ceased not to urge and 
importune him until he was quite overcome and distracted. So he called 
together his children, and sent foe the Kadi and witnesses, that he might 
make his will, and reveal the secret to her, and die: for he loved her 
excessively, since she was the daughter of his paternal uncle, and the 
mother ot liis children, and he had lived with her to the age of a hundred 
and twenry years. Having assembled her family and his neighbours, he 
related to them his story, and told them that as soon as he revealed his 
secret he must die; upon which every one present said to her, We con- 
jure thee by Allah that thou give up this alfair, and let not thy husband, 
and the father of thy children, die. But she said, 1 will not desist until 
he tell me, though lie die for it. So they ceased to solicit her; and the 
merchant left them, and went to the stable to perform the abluuon, and 
then to return, and tell them the secret, and die. 

Now he had a cock, with fifty hens under him, and he had also a dog; 

^Nat'i a larec round piece of leather which, s^ircad jpon ihe firDund, strvcs as a 
tabic for dinner, eic- 


and he heard the dog call to liie cockj and reproach hlm^ saying, Art 
thou happy when our masKt is going to die? The cock asked^ How so? 
— and ihe dog reiancd to him the story; upon which the cock exclaimed. 
By Allah! our master has Utde sense: / have fifty wives; and I please 
this, and provoke thac; while he has but one otj^ wife^ and cannot man- 
age this al^air with her: why does he not take some twigs of the mul- 
bcriy-iieCj and enter her chambctj and Iwai her until she dies or repents? 
She vvouUl never, after that, ask him a question respecting anything* — 
And when the merchant heard the words of the cock, as he addressed 
the dogj he recovered his reason, and made up hts mind lo beat her. — 
NoWj said the Wezir to his daughter Shahrazad^ perhaps I may do to 
thee as the merchant did to his wife. She asked, And what did heP He 
answeredj H& entered her chamber after he had cut off some iwigs of 
the muiberry-treej and hidden them there; and then said to her, Come 
into the cliamber, that I may tell thee the secret while no one sees me, 
and then die: — and when she had entered^ he locked the chamber^Joor 
upon her, and beat her until she became almost sensekss and cried outj 
I repent: — and she kissed his hands and his feet, and repented^ and went 
cut with him; and all the company, and her own family, rejoiced; and 
they Jived together in the happiest manner until death* 

When the Wej^ir*s daughter heard the words of her father, she said 
to him, ft must be as I liave requested. So he arrayed her, and went to 
the King Shahriyar, Now she had given directions to her younger sister 
saying to her^ When I have gone to ihe Kang^ J wilt send to request thee 
to come; and when thou come^t to me^ and seest a convenient time, do 
thou say to me^ O my siscer^ relate to me some sirange story to beguile 
our waking hour: — and I will relate to thee a siory that shall, if it be the 
will of Godj be the means of procuring deliverance. 

Her father, the Wezir, then took her to the King, who, when he 
saw h[mj was rejoiced^ and said, IlasE thou brought me what I desired? 
He answered Yes. When the King, therefore^ introduced himself to her, 
she wept; and he said to her. What aileth thee? She answered, O King^ 
I have a young sister, and I wish to take leave ot her* So the King scni 
to her; and she came to her sister, and embraced her, and sat near the 
fpot of the bed; and after she had waited for a propei opportunity, she 
said, By AUahl O my sister, relate to us a slory [o beguile the waking 
hour of our night. Most wiUingly, answered Shahrazad, if this virtuous 
King permit me. And [he King^ hearing these words, and being rest- 
less, was pleased with the idea of listening to [he story; and thus, on the 
first night of the thousand and one^ Shahrazad commenced her reciia- 


[Nig/its i-^] 
Tbe Story of the Merchant and the J^n^i 

IT has been related to mc, O happy King, said Shahrazad, that 
there was a certain merchant who had great wealth, and traded 
extensively wlch surrounding countries; and one day he 
mounted his horse, and journeyed to a neighbouring country to col- 
lect what was due to him, and, the heat oppressing him, he sat under 
a tree, in a garden, and put his hand into liis saddle-bag, and ate a 
morsel of bread and a date which were among his provisions. Hav- 
ing eaten the date, he threw aside the stone, and immediately there 
appeared before him an "Efrtt, of enormous height, ^vho, holding a 
drawn sword in his hand, approached him, and said. Rise, that 1 
may kill thee, as thou hast killed my son. The merchant asked him, 
How have 1 killed thy son? He answered, When tliou atest the date, 
and threwest aside [he stone, it struck my son upon the chest, and, 
as fate had decreed against him, he instantly died. 

The merchantj on hearing these words, exclaimed, Verily to God 
we belong, and verily to Him we must return! There is no strength 
nor power but in God, the High, the Greatf U 1 killed him, I did 
it not intentionally, but without knowing it; and I trust in thee that 
thou wilt pardon me.— The Jinni answered, Thy death is indis- 
pensable, ^s thou hast killed my son: — and so saying, he dragged 
him, and threw him on the ground, and raised his arm to strike him 
widi the sword. The merchant, upon this, wept bitterly, and said to 
the Jinni, I commit my affair unto God, for no one can avoid what 
He hath decreed: — and he continued his lamentation, repeating the 
following verses: — 



Time consists of iwo day;; ihis, bright^ and iliac, gloomy; and life* of 

two moitftii^si tliis* safe; and ihnl, fearfiiL 
Say to him who hath taunted us on accoanE of misfortunes, Doth fortune 

oppose any but the eminent? 
Dost thou observe that corpses Hoar upon the sea, while the precious 

pearls remain in its furthest depths? 
When I he hands of time play wicii us, misfortune is imparted to us by 

ju protracted kiss. 
In the heaven are stars that cannot be numbtircdi but none is eclipsed 

save the sun and the moon. 
How many green and dry trees are on ihe earth; but none is assailc]d 

with stones save ihac which beareth fruitl 
Thou thoughiest well of ihc clays when they went well with thee, and 

fearedst not the evil that destiny was bringing. 

— When he had finished reciting these verses, the Jlnni said to him, 
Spare thy words, for thy death is unavoidable. 

Then said the merchant, Know, O 'Efrii, that 1 have debts to pay, 
and I have much property, and cliildren, and a wife^ iind 1 have 
pledges also in my possession: lei me, therefore, go back to my house, 
and give to every one his due, and then 1 will return to thee: I bind 
myself by a vow and covenant that 1 will return to thee, and thoa 
shalt do what thou wilt; and God is witness of what 1 say. — Upon 
[his, the Jinni accepted his covenant, and liberated him; granting 
him a respite until the e>:piration of the year. 

The merchant, therefore, rcturried to his town, accomplished all 
that was tipon his mind to do, paid every one what he owed him, 
and informed his wife and children of the event which had befallen 
him; upon hearing which, they and all his family and women wept. 
He appointed a guardian over his children, and remained with his 
family until the end of the year; when he took his grave-clothes 
under his arm, bade farewell to his household and neighbours, and 
all his relations, and went forth, in spiic of himself; his family rais- 
ing cries of lamentation, and shrieking. 

He proceeded until he arrived at the garden before mentioned; 
and it was the first day of the new year; and as he sat, weeping for 
the calamity which he expected soon to befall him, a shcykh, ad- 
vanced in years, approached him, leading a gazelle whh a chain 
attached to its neck. This sheykh saluted the merchant, wishing him 
a long life, and said to him^ What is the reason of thy sitting alone in 
this place, seeing that it is a resort of the JinnP The merchant there- 


fore informed him o£ whiit had befallen him with the 'Efrit, and of 
ihe cause of his sitrijig there; at which the sheykh, the owner of the 
g:Lzel[e, was astojiished, and said, By Allah^ O my brother, thy faith- 
fulness IS great, and thy story is wonderful! if it were engraved upon 
the intellect, it would be a lesson to him who would be admonishedl 
—And he sat down by his side, and said, By Allah, O my brother, 
1 will not quit this place until I see what will happen unio thee with 
this 'Efrir, So he sat down, and conversed with him. And the mer- 
chant became almost senseless; fear entered him, and terror, and 
violent grief, and excessive anxiety. And as the owner of the gazelle 
sat by his side, lo, a second sheykh approached th(?m, with two black 
hounds, and inquired o£ them, after saluting ihem, the reason of 
their sitting in that place, seeing that it was a resort of the Jann: 
and they told htm the story from beginning to end. And he had 
hardly sat down when there approached them a third sheykh, with 
a dapple mule; and he asked them the same question, which was 
answered in the same manner. 

Immediately after, the dust was agftated, and became an enormous 

revolving pillar, approaching them from the midst of the desert; and 

this dust subsided, and behold, the Jinni, with a drawn sword in bis 

hand; his eyes casting forth sparks of fire. He came to them, and 

dragged from them the merchant, and said to him. Rise, that I may 

kill thee, as thou killedst my son, the vital spirit of my heart. And 

f, the merchant wailed and wept; and the three sheykhs also mani- 

K fested their sorrow by weeping and crying aloud and wailing: but 

J the first sheykh, who was the owner of the gazelle, recovering his 

self-possession, kissed the hand of the 'Efrit, and said to hira, O thou 

Jinni, and crown of the kings of the Jann, if I relate to thee the story 

^ of myself and this gazelle, and thou find it to be wonderful, and 

I more so than the adventure of this merchant, wilt thou give up to 

me a third of thy claim to bis blood? He answered. Yes, O sheykh; 

if thou relate to me the story, and I find it to be as thou hast said, I 

will give up to thee a third of my claim to his blood. 

The Stoby of the First Sheykh akd the Gazelle 

THE^J said the sheykh. Know, O 'Efrii, that this gazelle is the 
daughter of my paternal uncle, and she is of my flesh and my blood. 


I look h^r as my wi£e when she w-is yoimgi and Mved with her about 
chiriy years; but 1 was not blessed wiih a child by her; so I took to 
me a concubine slave, :ind by her I was biessed with a male child, 
like [he rising fall moon, wiih beautiful eyes, and delicately-shaped 
eyebrows, and perfecily-formed limbs; and he grew up by hide and 
liule until he attained the age of fifteen, years. At this period, 1 un- 
expectedly had occnision to journey to a certain city, and went 
thither With a great stock of merchandise. 

Now my cousin, this gazelle, had studied enchantment and 
divination from her early years; and during my absence, she trans- 
formed the youth above mentioned into a calf; and his mother, into 
a cow; and committed them to the care of the herdsman: and when 
1 returned, after a long time, from my journey, 1 asked ^fter my sou 
and his mother, and she said. Thy slave is dead, and thy son hath 
flcdj and I know not whither he is gone. After hearing this, I 
remained for the Space of a year with mourning heart and weeping 
eye, until the Festival of the Sacrifice;' when I sent to the herds- 
man, and ordered him to choose for me a fat cow; and he brought 
me one, and it was my concubine, whom this gazelle had enchanted. 
I lucked up my skirts and sleeves, and took the knife in my hand, 
and prepared myself to slaughter her; upon which she moaned and 
cried JO violently that I left her, and ordered the herdsman to kill 
and skin her: and he did so, but found in her neither fat nor Besh, 
nor anything bur skin and bone; and I repented of slaughtering her, 
when repentance was of no avail. I therefore gave her to the herds- 
myn, and said to him, Bring me a fat calf: and he brought me my 
son, who was transformed into a calf. And when the calf saw me, 
he broke his rope, and came to me, and fa:vned upon me, and tvai]ed 
and cried, so tliat I was moved with pity for him; and I said to the 
herdsman, Bring me a cow, and let this — 

Here Sliahra^^ad perceived the light of morning, and discontinued 
the recitation with which she had been allowed thus far to proceed. 
Her sister said to her, How excellent is thy story! and how pretty! 
and how pleasant! and how sweet! — but she answered, What is this 
in comparison with diat which 1 will relate to thee in the ne>:t night, 

' The Gmi festival, cQniim^rjcing on ihi loih o( Dhu-l-Hijiehn whf'n ihu j)il);rim3, 
b3lttii]T OD dieic return iroin ntouni 'Arjbt CO Mckkeh, in itn? villey of Mint, iJCtfwrm 

thnr sacrifice; 


if 1 live, and the King spare me] And the King said, By Allah^ I 
will not kill her until I hear the remaintler o£ her story- Thus they 
plesisantly passed the night until iho morning, when the King went 
forth to his hall of judgment, and the Wezir went thither with the 
grave-clothes under his arm: and the King gave judgment, and 
invested and displaced, until the close of the day, without informing 
the Wezir ot that which had happened i and the ministef was greatly 
astonished. The court was then dissolved; and the King returned 
to the privacy of his palace. 

[On the second and each succeeding night, Shahrazad continued 
so to interest King Shahriyar by her stories as to induce him to defer 
putting her to death, in expectation that her fund of amusing tales 
would soon be exhausted; and as this is expressed in the original 
work in nearly the same words at the dose of every nightj such 
repetitions will in the present translation he omitted.] 

When the sheykh, continued Shahrazad, observed the tears of the 
calf, his heart sympathized with him, and he said to the herdsman. 
Let this calf remain with the cattle. — Meanwhile, the Jinni won- 
dered at this strange storyi and die owner of the gazelle thus pro- 

O lord of the kings of the Jann, while this happened* my cousin, 
this gazelle, looked on, and said, Slaughter this calf; for he is fat: 
but 1 could not do it; so I ordered the herdsman to take him backi 
and he took him and went away. And as I was sitting, on the follow- 
ing day, he came to me, and said, O my master, I have to tell thee 
something that thou wilt be rejoiced to hear; and a reward is due to 
me for bringing good news. I answered. Well: — and he said, O mer- 
chant, I have a daughter who learned enchantment in her youth 
from an old \voman in our family; and yesterday^ when thou gavest 
me the calf, 1 look him to her, and she looked at him, and covered 
her face, and wept, and then laughed, and said, O my father, hath 
my condidon become 50 degraded in thy opinion that thou bringest 
before me strange men?^ — Where, said I, are any strange men? and 
wherefore didst thou weep and laugh? She answered, This calf that 
is with thee is the son of our master, the merchant, and the wife of 
our master hath enchanted both him and his mother; and this was 
the reason of my laughter; but as to the reason of my weeping, ic 


was on account of his mother^ because his father had sltuightered 
her, — And I was excessively astonished at this; and scarcely was I 
certain that the hghc of morning had appeared when 1 hastened to 
inform thcc. 

When i heard, O jinni, the words of the herdsman, 1 went forth 
with him, intoxicated without wine, from the excessive joy and 
happiness thut I received, and arrived at his house, where his 
daughter welcomed me, and kissed my hiind; und the calf came to 
me, and fawned itpon me. And 1 said to the herdsman's daughter, 
Is that true which thou hasf said respeciirjg this calf P She answered, 
YeSj O my master; he is verily thy son, and the vital spirit of thy 
heart. — O maiden, said 1, if thou wilt restore htm, all the cattle and 
other property of mine that thy father hath under his care shall i>e 
thine. Upon this, she smiled, and said, O my master, I have no 
desire for the property unless on two conditions: the first is, that 
thou shalt marry me to him; and the second, that I shall enchant 
her who enchanted him, and so restrain her; otherwise, I shall not 
be secure from her artifice. On hearing, O Jinni, these her words, I 
said. And thou shak have all the property that is under the care of 
thy father besides; and as to my cousin, even her blood shall be 
lawful to thee. So, when she Itcard this, she t^>ok a cup, and tilled 
it with water, and repeated a spell over ir, and sprinkled with it the 
calf, saying to him, If God created thee a calf, remain in this form, 
and be not changed; but if thou be enchanted, return to thy original 
form, by permission of God, whose name be exalted! — upon which 
he shook, and became a man; and I threw myself upon him, and 
said, 1 conjure thee by Allah that thou relate to me all that my cousin 
did to thee and to thy mother. So he related to me all that had hap- 
pened to them both; and I said to him, O my son, God hath given 
thee one to liberate thee, and to avenge thee: — and I married to him, 
O Jinni, the hcrdsman^s daughter; after which, she transformed my 
cousin into this gazelle. And as I happened to pass this way, I saw 
this merchant, and asked him what had happened to him; and when 
he had informed me, I sat down to see the result. — This is my story. 
The Jinni said. This is a wonderful tale; and I give up Co thee a 
third of my claim to bis blood. 

The second sheykh, the owner of the two hounds, then advanced, 



and said to the Jiniti, if 1 relare to thee the story of myself and chese 
hounds, and thou find it to be in hke manner wonderful, wift thou 
remit to me, also, a third o£ thy claim to the blood of chis merchant? 
The Jinni :inswered, Yes. 

The Stdev of the Second Sheykh 


Then R^id the sheykh, Know, O lord of the kings of the Jann, that 
these two hounds are my brothers. My father died^ and left to us 
three thousand pieces of gold;^ and I opened a shop to sell and huy. 
Hut one of my brothers made a journey, with a stock of merchandise, 
and was absent from us for the space of a year with the caravans; 
after which, he returned destitute. I said to him, Did I not advise 
thee to abstain from travelling? But he wept, and said, O my 
brother, God, to whom be ascribed all might and glory, decreed this 
e^'ent; and there is no longer any profit in these words: 1 have noth- 
ing- left. So 1 took him up into the shop, and then went with him 
to the bath, and clad him in a costly suit of my own clothing; after 
which, we sat down togerher to eat; and I said to him, O my 
brother, I will calculate the g:ain of my shop during the year, and 
divide it, exclusive of the principai, between me and thee. Accord- 
ingly, 1 made the calculations, and found my gain to amount to two 
thousand pieces of gold; and I praised God, to wliom be ascribed 
all might and glory, and rejoiced exceedingly, and divided the gain 
in two equal piirts between myself and him.^ — My other brother then 
set forth on a journey; and after a year, returned in the like condi- 
tionj and 1 did unto him ai; I had done to the former- 
After this, when we had lived together for some time, my brothers 
again wished to travel, and were desirous that I should accompany 
them; but 1 would not. What, said I, have ye gained in your travels, 
that I should expect to gain? They importuned me; but I would not 
comply with their request; and we remained selling and buying in 
onr shops a whole year. Scill, however, they persevered in proposing 
that we should travel, and I still refused, until after the lapse of six 
entire years, when at last I consented, and said to them, O my 

^Dijiiir^ about hjJf-a-^incj. 


brothers, Ici us calculate what property we possess. We did so, and 
found it to be six thousand pieces of gold: and 1 then said to them, 
We will bury h^ilf of it in the earth, that it may be of service to us 
if any miifortune befall us> in which case each o£ us shall take a 
thousand pieces, with which to traflic. Excellent is thy advice, said 
they. So I took the money and divided it into two equal portions, 
and buried three thousand pieces of gold; and of the other half, I 
gave to each of them a thousand pieces. We then prepared merchan- 
dise, and hired a ship, and embarked our goods, and proceeded on 
our voyage for the space of a whole month, at the expiration of 
which we arrived at a city, where :ve sold our merchandise; and for 
every piece of gold we gained ten. 

And when we were about to set sail again, we found, on the shore 
of the sea, a maiden clad in tattered garments, who kissed my hand, 
and said to me, O my master, art thou possessed of charity and kind- 
ness? If so, I will requite thee for them. 1 answered, Yes, I have 
chose qualities, though thou requite me not. Then said she, O my 
master, accept me as thy wife, and take me to thy country; for I 
give myself to thee: act kindly towards me; for 1 am one who re- 
quires to be treated with kindness and charity, and who will require 
thee for so doing; and let not my present condition at all deceive 
thee. When 1 heard these words, my heart was moved with tender- 
ness towards her, in order to the accomplishment of a purpose of 
God, to whom be ascribed all might and glory; and 1 took her, and 
clothed her, and furnished for her a place in the ship in a handsome 
manner, and regarded her with kind and respectful attention. 

We then set sail; and 1 became most cordially attached to my wife, 
so that, on her account, I neglected the society of my brothers, who, 
in consequence, became jealous of me, and likewise envied me my 
wealth, and the abundance of my merchandise; casting the eves of 
covetousness upon the whole of the property. They therefore con- 
sulted together to kill me, and take my weakh; saying, Let us kill 
our brother, and all the property shall be ours: — and the devil made 
these actions to seem fair in their eyes; so they came to me while I 
was sleeping by the side of my wife, and took both of us up, and 
threw us into the sea. But as soon as my wife awoke, she shook 
herself, and became transformed into a Jinniyeh. She immediately 


bore me away, and placed me upon an Island, and, for a while, dis- 
appeared. In the morning, however, she returned, and said to me, 
I am thy wife, who carried thee, and rescued thee from death, by 
permission of God, whose name be exalted. Know that 1 am a 
Jinniyeh: I saw thee, and my heart loved thcc for the sake o£ God; 
for 1 am a believer in God antl his Apostle, God bless and save him! 
1 came to ihee in the condition in which thou sawest me, and thou 
didst marry me; and see, I have rescued thee from drowning. But I 
am incensed against thy brothers, and 1 must kill them. — When I 
heard her tale, I was astonished, and thanked her for what she had 
done; — But, said I, as to the destruction 06 my brothers, it is not what 
1 desire, I then related to her all that happened between myself and 
them from first to last; and when she had heard it, she said, I will, 
this next night, fiy to them, and sink their ship, and destroy ihem. 
But 1 said, I conjure iliee by Atiah that thou do it not; for the 
author of the proverb saith, O ihou benefactor of him who hath 
done evil, the action that he hath done is sufficient for him; — be- 
sides, tbey are at all events my brothers. She still, however, said, 
They must be killed; — and I continued to propitiate her towards 
them: and at last she lifted me up, and soared through the air^ and 
placed me on the roof of my house. 

Having opcnetl the doors, I dug up what I had hidden in the 
earth; and after 1 had saluted my neighbours, and bought merchan- 
dise, I opened my shop. And in ihe following night, when I entered 
my house, I found these two dogs tied up in it; and as soon as they 
saw me, they came to me, and wept, and clung to me; bur 1 knew 
not what had happened until immediately my wife appeared before 
me, and said, These are thy brothers. And who, said 1, hath done 
this unto them? She answered, i sent to my sister, and she did it; 
and they shall not be restored until after the lapse of ten years. And 
I was now nn my way to her, that she might restore [hem, as they 
have been in this state ten years, when 1 saw this man, and, being 
informed of what had befallen him, 1 determined not to quit the 
place until I should have seen what would happen between ihce and 
him. — This is my story. — Verily, said the Jinni, it is a wonderful 
tale; and I give up to thee a third of the claim that I liad to his blood 
on account of his olfence. 


Upon this» the third shcykb, the owner of the mule, said to the 
Jiitni, As to me, break not my heart if I relate to thee nothing more 
than this: — 

The Stoky of the Third Shevkh and the Mule 

The mule that thou seest was my wife: she became enamoured o£ 
a black sbvei and when I discovered her with him, she took a mug 
of water, and, having uttered a spell over it, sprinkled me, and 
transformed me into a dog. In this state^ 1 ran to the shop oi a 
butcher, whose daughter saw me, atid being skilled in enchantment, 
restored me to my original form, and instructed me to enchant my 
wife in the manner ihou bcholdest. — And now 1 hope that thou wilt 
remit to me also a third ot the merchant's otience. Divinely was he 
gifted who said, 

Sow good, even on an unworthy soil; for it will not be lost wherever 
i[ is sou'n. 

When the sheykh had thus finished his story, the Jinni shook with 
delight^ and remitted the remaining third of his claim to the mer- 
chant's blood. The merchant then approached the sheykhs, and 
thanked them, and tltey congratulated him on his safety; and each 
went his way. 

But ihisi said Shahrazad, is not more :vDnderful than tlie story of 
the fisherman- The King asked her, And what is the story of the 
fisherman? And she related it as follows."— 

\Nighrs j^] 
The Stoby of the FJSHHK^tAW 

THERE was a certain fisherman, advanced in age» who had 
a wife and three children; and though he was in indigene 
circumsCiinctis, it was his custom to casf his net, every day, 
no more than four times. One day he went forth at the hour of noon 
to the shore of the sea, and put down his basket, and cast his net, 
and waited until it was motionless in the water, when he drew 
together its strings, and found ir to be heavy; he pulled, but could 
not draw it up: so he took the end of the cord, and knocked a stake 
into the shore, and tied the cord to it. He then stripped himself, 
and dived round the net, and continued tn pull until he drew it out: 
whereupon he rejoiced, and put on his clothes; but when he came 
ro examine the net, he found in it the carcass of an ass. At rlie sight 
of this he mourned, and exclaimed. There is no strength nor power 
but in God, the High, the Great! This is a strange piece of fortune! 
— And he repealed the following verso:— 

O thou who occupicsi thyself in the darkness of night, and in peril! 
Spare thy trouble; for the support of Providence is not obtained by toil! 

He then disencumbered his net of the dead ass, and wrung it out; 
after which he spread it, and descended into the sea, and — exclaim- 
ing. In the name of God] — cast it Jg^iin, and waited till it had sunk 
and was still, when lie pulled it, and found it more heavy and more 
difficult to raise than on the former occasion. He therefore concluded 
that it was full of fish: so he lied ir, and stripped, and plunged and 
dived, and pulled until he raised it, and drew it upon the shore; 
when he found in it on!y a large jar, full of sand and mud; on seeing 
which^ he was troubled in his heart, and repeated the following 
words of the ptict: — 

O angry fate, forlwarl or, if thou wilt not forbear, relentT 
Neither favour from fortune do I gain, nor profit from the work of my 



I came forlh to seek my sustenance, but have found it to be cxhimsted. 
How many of the ignorant aro in splendor! and how many of the wise, 
in obscurity! 

So Siiying, he threw aside ihe jar» and wrung out and cleansed his 
net; :tnd, bcggJDg the forgiveness of God for his impatience, returned 
Lo [he sea the third lime, and threw the net, and waited till it had 
sunk and was motionless: he then drew it out> and found in it a 
qimnrity of broken jars and pots. 

Upon this» he raised his head towards heaven, snd ^aid, O God, 
Tliou knowest that I cjjst nor my net more ihan four times; and I 
have now cast it three tiniesl Then— exclaiming, In the name of 
God] — he cast the net again into the sea, and ^vaited till it was still; 
when he attempted to draw it up, but conld not» for it clung to the 
bottom. And he exclaimed^ There is no strength nor power but in 
God! — and he stripped himself again, and dived round the neL, and 
pulled until he raised it upon the shore; when he opened it, and 
found in it a bottle of brass, filled with something, and having its 
mouth closed with a stopper of lead, bearing the impression of the 
seal of our lord Suleyman/ At the sight of this, the fisherman was 
rejoiced, and said, This I will sell in the copper-market; for it is 
worth ten pieces of gold. He then shook it, and found it to be 
heavy, and said, 1 must open it, and see what is in it, and store it 
in my bag; and then I will sell the bottle in the copper-market. So 
he took out a knife, and picked at the lead until he e.^tracted it from 
the botde. He then laid the bottle on the ground, and shook it, that 
its contents might pour out; but there came forth from it noshing 
but smoke, which ascended towards the sky, and spread over the 

' Nci man wqi obiaincJ such absoluJe power over the Tmn Js Sutf^yrnan IliU'rJa'utl 
(Siflomon, ihe Son o£ David), Thi? he did l)y vituc of 3 mii^i wundi^rlul lali&nian, 
whicli is iaid to havf carne down Lo him ifoin heaven. Ji was a scnl-rJQg, upon wiiith 
Wis caj-myvd "ilie moai et^' name" of Cod; and partly conipuscd oi bra«i, and 
parrlv of iron- With ihe brasi he ^lamped hi$ ivriiicn cDi[Hi]a[id& \o cho jiu<n\ |inn; 
with chc iron [which they grcad/ dread], tlif>sc lo the i^vj! (inn, or I^trvili^ Otizr 
bodi orders he had uQJimiiwJ power; as well as ovtr the birds and [he winds, and, a= 
is ^nerally s^id, iht wild bcasls. His Wezir, Asaf ihe a<Jn at Bjrkhi^-a, ii also sjld 
ID have been iicquainced wiih "die mo^i ^reat name," by uiTeiin^ whj^h [he ^teatcM 
mir:icles may he performed; even ihai qf raisin^;: rhe dead- By viriiie fi ihi^ name, 
cngrived on his riofl, Sufeyman ci'm|iclkd the Jinn To ^^isi in building ihc Temple 
of Jerusalem^ and in varinui nTher works. Mjny oi the evil Jinn he i:onvEtled in the 
true faich; and many oiheis oE ihLs iilass, who remamed oh^iinaie in inhdeliiy, he 


face of the earth; at which hp wondered excessively. And after a 
Htde whiJe, the smoke collected together^ and was condensed, iiiid 
then became agitated, and was converted into an 'Efrit, whose head 
was in the clouds, while his feet rested upon the ground: his head 
was like a dome: his hands were hke winnowing forks; and his legs, 
like masts: his mouth resembled a cavern: his teeth were hke srones; 
his nostrils, like trumpets; and his eyes, Ukc lamps; and he had 
dishevelled and dust-coloured hair. 

When the fisherman beheld this 'Efrit, the muscles of his sides 
quivered, his teeth were locked together, his spittle dried up, and 
he ^w not his way. The 'Efrit, as soon as he perceived him, 
exclaimed, There is no deity but God; Suleyman is the Prophet of 
God, O Prophet of God, slay me not; for 1 will never again oppose 
thee in word, or rebel against thee in deed f — O Marid, said the fisher- 
man, dost thou say, Suleyman is the Prophet of God? Suleyman 
hath been dead a thousand and eigh: hundred years; and Wc are now 
in the end of time. What is thy history, and what is thy tale, and 
what was the cause of thy entering this bottle? When the Marid 
heard these words o£ the fisherman, he said, There is no deity but 
God! Receive news, O fisherman!- — Of what, said the fisherman, 
dost thou give me news? He answered, Of thy being instandy put 
to a most cruel death. The fisherman exclaimed, Thou deservest, 
for this news, O master of the *Efrits, the withdrawal of protection 
from thee, O thou remote!^ Wherefore wouldst thou kill me? and 
what requires thy killing me, when T have liberated thee fEom the 
boide, and rescued thee from the bottom of the sea, and brought 
thee up upon the dry land?— The *Efrit answered. Choose what 
kind of death thou wilt die, and in what manner thou shalt be 
killed.— What is my oiTence, said the fisherman, that this should be 
my recompense from thee? The 'Efrit replied, Hear my story, O 
fisherman, — Tell it then, said the fisherman, and be short in thy 
words; for my soul hath sunk down 10 my feet- 
Know then, said he, that I am one of the heretical Jinn : T rebelled 
against Suleyman the son of Da'ud; I and Sakhr the Jinni; and he 
sent to me his Wezir, Asaf the son of Barkhiya, who came upon me 
forcibly, and took me to him in boi^ds, and placed me before liim: 

' [Inip]>'iii5 it [jial^dLciion, but ejLCfjiiJng b^^^Findor^,] 


and when Saleyman saw me, he offered up a prayer for protection 
against me, and exhorted me io embrace the faith, and to submit to 
his authority, but 1 refused; upon which he called for this bottle, 
and confined me in it, and closed it upon me with the leaden stopper, 
which he stamped with the Most Great Name: he then gave orders 
to the Jinn, who carried me away, and threw me into the midst ol 
ihe sea. There I remained a htindred years; and I said in my heart. 
Whosoever shall liberate me, I shall enrich him for ever; — but the 
hundred years passed over me, and no one liberated mc: and I 
entered upon another hundred years; and 1 ^lid^ Whosoever shall 
liberate me, I will open to him the treasures o£ the earth; — but no 
one did so: and four hundred years more passed over me^ and I 
said, Whosoever shall liberate me, I will perform for him three 
wantsi — but siill no one liberated me. I then fell into a violent rage, 
and said within myself. Whosoever shall liberate me now, I will 
kill liim; and only sufc him to choose iu what manner he will die. 
And lo, now thou hast liberated me, and I have given thee thy 
choice of the manner in which thou ^vik die. 

When the fisherman had heard the story of the *Efrit, he ex- 
claimed, O Albh! that 1 should not have liberated thee but in such 
a time as this! Then said he to the 'Efrit, Pardon me, and kill n\e 
not, and so may God pardon thee; and destroy me not, lest God 
give power over thee to one who will destroy thee. The Marid 
answered, I must positively kdl thee; therefore choose by what man- 
ner of death thou wilt die. The fisherman then felt assured of his 
death; but he again implored the 'Efrit, sayings Pardon me by way 
of gratitude for my liberating thee. — Why, answered the 'Efrit, I 
am not going to kill thee but for that very reason, because thou hast 
liberated me.— O Sheykh of the 'Efrits, said the fisherman, do I act 
kindly towards thee, and dost thou recompense me with baseness? 
But the proverb lieth not that saith, — 

We did good to diem, and they returned us the contrary; and such, by 

my hfe, is the conduct of the wicked. 
Thus he who acteth kindly to the undeserving is recompensed in the 

same manner as the aider of Uram-*Amir,^ 

'The hyena. 


The 'Efril, when he heard these words, answered by syying, Covet 
noi hfe, for ihy dendi is unavoid,Lb[e. Then s^id the fisherman within 
himself, This is ii Jinni» and I am a m^in; and Cod hath given me 
sound reason; therefore, I will now plot his destruction with my art 
and reason, like as he hath plotted with his cunning and perfidy. 
So he said to the 'Efrit, Hast tiiou determined to kill me? He 
answeredj Yes. Then Siiid he, By the Most Great Name engraved 
upon the seal of Suleyman^ 1 will ask thee one question- and wilt 
thou answer it to me truly? On hearing the mention of the Most 
Great Name, the 'Efrit was agitated, and trembled, and replied, 
Yes; ask^ and be brief. The fisherman then said, How wast thou in 
this bottle? Ii will not contain thy hand or ihy foot; how then can 
it contain thy whole body? — Dost thou not believe that I was in it? 
said the "EErit- The fisherman answered, 1 will never believe thee 
until I see thee in it. Upon this, the Xi:rit shook, and became con- 
verted into smoke, which rose to [he sky and then became con- 
densed, and entered the bottle by little and httle, until it was all 
enclosed; when the fisherman hastily snatched the sealed leaden 
stopper, and, havmg rephced it in the mouth of the bottle, called out 
to the 'Efril, and said. Choose in what manner of death tliou wilt 
die. 1 will assuredly throw thee here into the sea, and build me a 
house on this spot; and whosoever shall come here, I will prevent 
his fishing in this place, and will say to him, Here is an 'Efrii, who 
to any person that liberates him, will propose various kinds of death, 
and then give him his choice ot one oi ihem. On hearing these 
words of the fisherman, the 'Efrit endeavoured to escape; hut could 
not, finding himself restrained by the impression of the seal of 
Suleyman, and thus imprisoned by the fisherman as the vjlcst jnd 
filthiest and least of 'Efrits. The fisherman then took the botde to 
the brink of the sea. The 'Efrit exclaimed, Nay! nay!— to which the 
fisherman answered, Yea, without faill yea, without fail! The 
Marid then addressing him with a soft voice and humble manner, 
said, What dost thou intend to do with me, O fisherman? He 
answered, I will throw thee into the sea; and if thou ha^t been there 
a thousand and eight hundred years, 1 will make thee to remain 
there until the hour of judgment. Did I not say to thee, Spare me, 


and so may God spare thee; and desiroy me not, lesi God destroy 
ihee? But thou didsn reject my petition^ and wouldst nothing but 
treachery; therefore Gotl hath caused thee to fall into my hai\d, and 
I have betrayed thee.— Open to nie, said the 'Efrir, that 1 may confer 
benefits upon dice. The fisherman replied, Thou liest^thou accursed! 
I and thou are like the We^ir of King Yunnn and the sage Duban. 
—What, said the 'Efrit^ was the case of the We^jr Yunan and the 
sage Duban, and what is their story? The fisherman answered as 
follows: — 


K\ow» O 'Efrit, that there was, in former times, jn. the country 
of the Per&ians, a monarch who was called King Yunan, possessing 
great tre^fsures and numerous force.s, vahant, and having troops of 
every description; but he was afflicted witli leprosy, which the physi- 
cians and sages had failed to remove; neither their potions, nor 
powders, nor ointments were of any benefit to him; and none of the 
physicians was able to cure him. At length there arrived at the city 
of this king a great sage, stricken in years, who was cafled the sage 
Duban: he was acquainted with ancient Greek, Persian, modern 
Greek, Arabic, and Syriac books, and willi medicine and astrology, 
both with respect to their scientific principles and the rules of their 
practical applications for good and evil; as well as the properties of 
plants, dried and fresh; the injurious and the useful: he was versed 
in the wisdom of the philosophers, and embraced a knowledge of all 
the medical and other sciences. 

After this sage had arrived in the city, and remained in it a few 
days, he heard of the case of the King, of the leprosy with which 
God had alHlcted him, and that the physicians and meii of science 
had failed to cure him. In consequence of this information, he 
passed the next night in deep study; and when the morning came, 
and diffused its light, and the sun saluted the Ornament of the 
Good,^ he attired himself in (he richest of his apparel, and presented 
himself before the King, Having kissed the ground before him, and 
offered up a prayer for the continuance of his power and happiness, 
and greeted him in the best manner he was able, he informed him 

* Tho Prophci Mohammacf, who aaid "the wn ncvqr ris«h until ii hiih sLilun^J me." 


who he was, and said, O King, I have heard o£ iJie disease which 
haih attacked ihy person, and that many of the pliyjiidans are im- 
acquainted with the means of removing ii; and 1 will cure thee with- 
oiiL giving ihee to drink any potion, or anointing ihee with ointment. 
When King Yunan heard his words, he wondered, and said to him, 
How wilt thou do thisP By Allah, if thou cure me, I will enrich 
thee and thy children's children, and 1 will heap favours upon thee, 
and whatever thou shalt desire shall be thine, and thou shak be my 
companion and my friend,— He then bestowed upon hJm a robe of 
honour, and other presents, and said to him, Wjlt thou cure me of 
this disease without potion nr ointment-' He answered. Yes; I will 
cure thee witliout any discomfort to thy person. And the King was 
extremely astonished, and said» O Sage, at what lime, and on what 
day, shall that which thou hast proposed to me be done? Hasten it, 
O my Son. — He answered, 1 hear and obey. 

He [hen went out from the presence of the King, and hired a 
house, in which he deposited his books, and medicines, and drugs. 
Having done this, he selected certain of his medicines and drugs, 
and made a gofT-stick» with a hollow handle, into which he intro- 
duced them; after which he made a hall for it, skilfully adapted; 
and on the following day, after he had finished these, he went again 
to the King, and kissed the ground before him, and directed him 
to repair to the horse-course, and to play with the ball and gofl- 
Slick. The King» attended by his Emirs and Chamberlains and 
Wezirs, went thither, and, as soon as he arrived there, the sage 
Duban presented himself before him, and handed to him the goll- 
stick, s;iying, Take this goff-stick, and grasp it ihus, and ride along 
the horse-course, and strike the ball with it with all thy force, until 
the palm of thy hand and thy whole body become moist with per- 
spiration, when the medicine will penetrate into thy hjnd, and per- 
vade thy whole body; and when iliou hasi done this, and the medi- 
cine remains in thee, return lo thy palace, and enter the bath, and 
wash thyself, and sleep; then shalt thou find lliyself cured: and 
peace be on thee. So King Yunan look the golf-stick from the sage, 
and grasped it in his hand, and mounted his horsey and (he ball was 
thrown before him, and he urged his horse after it until he over- 
took it, when he struck it with all his force; and when he had con- 


tiijued this exercise as long as was necessary, and bathed and slept, 
he looked upon his skin, and not a vestige of the leprosy remained: 
ir was dear as white silver. Upon this he rejoieed exceedingly; liis 
heart was dilated, and he was full oi happiness. 

On the following morning he entered the council-chamberj and 
sat upon his throne; and the Chamberlains and great officers of his 
court came before him. The sage Duban also presented hiniiclf; 
and when the Ring saw him> he rose to him in haste^ and sealed him 
by his side. Services of food were then spread before them» and the 
sage ate with the King, and remained as his guest all the day; and 
when the night approached, the King gave him two thousand pieces 
of gold, besides dresses o£ honour and other presents, and mounted 
him on his own horse, and so the sage returned to his house. And 
the King was astonished at his skiil; saying. This man hath cured 
me by an external process, wifhont anointing me with ointment: 
by Allah, this is consummate science; and it is incumbent on me to 
bestow favours and honours upon him, and to make him my com- 
panion and familiar friend as long as I hve. He passed the night 
happy and joyful on account of his recovery, and when he arose, 
he went forth agitin, and sat upon his throne; the officers of his court 
Standing before him, and the Emirs and Wezirs sitting on his right 
hand and on his left; and he called for the sage Duban, who came, 
and kissed the ground before him; and the king rose, and seated 
him by his sidej and ate with him, and greeted him with compli- 
ments: he bestowed upon him again a robe of honour and other 
presents, and after conversing with him till the approach of night, 
gave orders that five other robes of honour should be given to him, 
and a thousand pieccfi of gold; and the sage departed^ and returned 
to his house- 

Again* when the next morning came, the King went as usual to 
his council -chamber, and the Emirs and Wezirs and Chamberlains 
surrounded him. Now there was, among his Wezirs, one of ill 
aspect, and of evil star- sordid, avaricious, and of an envious and 
malicious disposition; and when he saw that the King had made 
the sage Duban his friend, and bestowed u^x^n him these favours, 
he envied him his distinction, and meditated evil against him; 
agreeably with the adage which saith, There is no one void of envy; 


—and another, which saith. Tyranny lurkcth in the soal: power 
manjfesteih it, and weakness concciileth it. So he iipproached the 
King, and kissed the ground before him, and said, O King of the 
age, thou art he whose goodness estendetii to all men, and I have 
an important piete of advice 10 give ihee: if I were to conceal it 
from thee, I should be a b,fse-born wreich: therefore, if ihou order 
me to impart it, I will do so. The King, disturbed by these words of 
the Wezir, said, What is thy adviceP He answered, O glarious 
King, it hath been said, by the ancients. He who lookcth not to 
resuksj fortune will not attend him: — now I have seen the King in 
a way thjt is not riglit; since he hath bestowed favours upon his 
enemy, and upon him who desireth the downfall of his dominion: 
he hath treated him widi kindness^ and honoured him with the 
highesn honours, and admitted him to the closest intimacy: I there- 
fore fear, for the King, the consequence of this conduct, — At this 
the King was troubled and his countenance changed; and he said, 
Who is he whom ihou regardest as mine enemy, and to whom I 
shew kindncssp Ho replied, O King, if thou hast been asleep* 
awaket I allude to the sage Duban. — The King said. He is my 
intimate companion, and the dearest of men in my estimation; for 
he restored me by a thing that I merely held in my hand, and cured 
me of my disease which the physicians were unable to remove, and 
there is not now to be found one like to him in the whole world, 
from west to east. Wherefore, then, dost thou utter these words 
against him? 1 will, from this day, appoint him a regular salary and 
maintenance, and give him every month a thousand pieces of gold; 
and if I give him a share of my kingdom it were but a small thing 
to do unto him. I do not think Lhat thou hast said this from any 
other motive than that of envy. If I didst what thou desirest» I 
should repent after it, as the man repented who killed his parrot. 

Ttte Story or tiie Husband akd the Pahrot 

There was a certain merchant, of an exceedingly jealous disposi- 
tion, having a wife endowed with perfect beauty, who had pre- 
vented him from leaving his home; but an event happened which 
obliged him to make a journey; and when he found his doing so 


to be indispcnsiibleT he went to the market in which birds were 
sold, and boughi a parrot, which he pbced in his house to act as a 
spy, that, on his return, she might inform him of what passed during 
his absence; {or this parrot wjis cunning and intelligcnE, and remem- 
bered whatever she heard. So, when he had made his journey^ and 
accomplished his busjnessj he returned, and caused the parro: to be 
brought to him» and asked her respecting the conduct of his wife. 
She answered, Thy wife has a lover, who visited her every night 
during thy absence, — and when the man heard this» he fell into a 
viiDlent rage, and went to his ^viFe, and gave her a severe healing. 

The woman imagined than one of the female slaves had informed 
him o£ what had passed between her and her paramour during hjs 
abseiice: she therefore called fhem together, and made them swear; 
and they all swore that they had not told their master anything of 
ihe matter; but confessed that they had heard the parrot relate to 
him what had passed. Having thus established, on die testimony of 
the slaves, the fact of the parrot's having informed her husband of 
her intrigue, she ordered one of these slaves to grind with a hand- 
mill under the cage, another to sprinkle water from above, and a 
third to move a mirror from side to side, duriiig the next night on 
which her husband was absent; and on the following morning, 
when ihe man returned from an entertainment at which he had been 
present, and inquired again of ihe parrot what had passed that night 
during his absence, the bird answered, O my master, 1 could neither 
see nor hear anyLhing, on accotint of the excessive darkness, and 
thunder, and lightning, and rain. Now this happened during sum- 
mer: so he said to her. What strange word^ are thesei^ Tt is now 
summer, when nothing of what thou hast described ever happens. — 
The parrot, however, swore by Allah the Great that what she had 
said was true; and that it had so happened: upon which the man, 
not understanding the case, nor kno^ving the plot, became violently 
enraged, and took out the bird from the cage, and threw her down 
upon the ground with such violence that he killed her. 

Bur after some days, one of his female slaves informed him of 
ihe truth; yet he would not believe it, until he saw his wife's para- 
mour going out from his house; when he drew his sword, and slew 
the traitor by a blow on the back of his neck: so also did he to his 


treacherous wife; and chira both of ihem went, laden with the sUi 
which they had commitied, lo [he fire; and the merchaiit discovered 
rhac the parrot had informed hjm truly of what she had seen; and 
he mourned grievously for her loss. 

When the Wczir heard these words of King Yunan, he said, O 
King o£ great dignity, what hath this crafty sage— this man from 
whom nought but mijichief proceedeth — done unto me, that I should 
be hjs enemy, and speak evil of him, and plot with thee to destroy 
him? I have informed thee respecting him in compassion for thee, 
and in fear of his despoiling thee of thy happiness; and i£ my words 
be not true, destroy me, as the Wc^ir of Es-Sindibad was destroyed- 
— The King jskedj How was that? And the Wezir thus answered :— 

The Stobv of the Envious Wezib. and the Prince and the Ghuleh 

The King above mentioned had a son who was ardendy fond of 
the chase; and he had a Wezir whom he charged to be always with 
his son wherever he went. One day the son went forth to hunt, and 
his father's Wezir was with him; and as they rode together, they 
saw a great wild beast; upon which the Wezir exclaimed to the 
Prince, Away after this wild beasti The King's son pursued it until 
he was out of the sight of his attendants, and the beast also escaped 
from before his eyes in the desert; and while the Prince wandered 
in perplexity, not knowing whither to direct his course, he met in 
his way a damsel, who was weeping. He said to her, Who art thou ? 
— and she answered, 1 am a daughter of one of the kings of India; 
I was in the desert, and slumber overtook me, and I fell from my 
horse in a state of insensibility, and being thus separated from my 
attendants, I lost my way. The Prince, on hearing this, pitied her 
forlorn state, and placed her behind him on his horse; and as they 
proceeded, they passed by a tuin, and ihe damsel said to him, O my 
master, i would alight here for a little while. The Prince therefore 
lifted her from his horse at this ruin; but she delayed so long to 
return, that he wondered wherefore she had loitered so, and enter- 
ing after her, without het knowledge, perceived that she was a 
Ghuleh,^ and heard her say. My children, I have brought you to-day 

^A temale GhuL thsc cais men. 


a fat young man: — on which they esdainied^ Bring him in to us, 
O mother? that we may fill our stomachs with his flesh. When the 
Prince heard their words, he felr assured of destruction; the muscles 
of his sides quivered, and fear overcame him, and he retreated. The 
Ghuleh then came forihj and, seeing that he appeared alarmed and 
fearful, and that he was trembling, said 10 him, Wherefore dost thou 
fear? He answered, I have an enemy of whom I am in fear. The 
Ghiileh said, Thou assertcsi thyself to be the son of the King. He 
replied. Yes. — Then, satd she, wherefore dost thou not give some 
money to thine enemy, and so tonciliate him? He answered. He 
wiH not be appeased with money, nor with anything but life; and 
therefore do 1 fear him: I am an injured man. She then said to him^ 
if thou he an injured man, as thou afiirmesi, beg aid of God against 
chine oppressor, and He will avert from thee his mischievous design, 
and that of every other person whom (hou foaresf. Upon this, 
therefore, the Prince raised his head towards heaven, and said, O 
Thou who answerest the distressed when he priiyeih to Thee, and 
dispellest evil, assist me, and cause mine enemy to depart from me; 
for Thou art able to do whatsoever Thou wilt! — and the Ghujeh 
no sooner heard his prayer, than she departed from him- The Prince 
then returned to his father, and informed him of the conduct of 
the We^ir; upon which the King gave orders that the minisrer 
should be put to death.— 

A^d thou, O King, continued the Wezir of King Yunan, if thou 
trust in this ■'^age, he will kill ihee in the foulest manner. If thou 
continue to bestow favours upon him, and to make him cliine inti- 
mate companion, he will plot thy destruction. Dost thou not see 
[hat he hath cured thee of the disease by external means, by a thing 
thai thou heldest in thy hand r Therefore thou art not secure against 
his killing thee by a thing that thou shalt hold in the same manner. — 
King Yunan answered, Thou hast spoken truth: the case is as thou 
hast said, O faithful Wezir: it is probable that this sage came as a 
spy to accomplish my death; and if he cured me by a thing I held 
in my band, he may destroy me by a thing that I may smell: what 
then, O Wezir, shall be done respecting him ? The Wezir answered, 
Send to him immediately, and desire him to come hiEher; and when 



he is comc» strike off his head, nntl so shalE ihou nvert from thee 
his evil design, and be secure from him. Beiray him before he 
betray thee. — The King said» Thou hjsr spken right. 

Immediately, therefore, he atvii for the sage, who came, full of joy, 
not knowing what the Compassionate had decreed against him, and 
addressed the King with these words of the poet— 

If 1 fail any day to render thee due thanks, tell rne for whom I have 

composed my verse and prose. 
Thou liasi loaded mc with favours unsolicited, bestowed without delay 

on thy part, or excuse. 
How then should 1 abstain from praising thee as thou deservest, and 

lauding thee both with my lieati and voice? 
Nay, I will thank thee for thy bcneiits conferred upon me: they are light 

upon my loiigue, though weighty to my back. 

Knowest thou, said the King, wherefore T have summoned thee? 
The sage answered, None knoweth what is secret but God, whose 
name be exalted! Then said the King, I have summoned thee that 
I may take away thy life. The sage, in the utmost astonishment at 
this announcement, s^id, O King, wherefore wouldst thou kill me, 
and what offence hath been committed by me.'' The King answered, 
It hath been told me thst thou art a spy, and that thou hast come 
hither to kill me; bur I will prevent thee by killing thee first: — and 
so saying, he called out to the executioner, Strike off the head of this 
traitor, and relieve me from his wickedness- — Spare me, said the 
sage, and SO may God spare thee; and destroy me not, lest God 
destroy thee. — And he repeated these words several times, like as 1 
did, O'Efrit; but thou wouldst not let me go, desiring to destroy me. 

King Yunan then said to the sage Duban, 1 shall not be secure 
unless I kill ihee; for thou curedst me by a thing that 1 held in my 
hand, and 1 have no security against thy killing me by a thing that 
I may smell, or by some other means-^O King» said the sage, is this 
my recompense from thee? Dost thou return evil for good?— The 
King answered, Thou must be slain without delay. When the sage, 
therefore, was convinced that the King intended to put him to 
death, and that his fate was inevitable, he lamented the benefit that 
he had done to the undeserving. The executioner then advanced, 


and bandaged his eyes, and, having drawn his sword» said, Give 
permission. Upon this the sage wepi, and said again, Spare me, and 
so may God spare thee; and destroy me not, le^t God destroy theel 
Wouldst thon return me the recompense of the crocodile ?— What, 
said the King, is the story of the crocodile? The sage answered, I 
cannot relate it while in this condition; but I conjure thee by Allah 
to spare me, and so m^y He spare thee. And he wept bitterly. Then 
one o£ the chief officers of the King arose, and said, O King, give up 
to me the blood of this sage; for we have not seen him commit any 
ofTence against thee; nor have we seen him do aught but cure thee 
of thy disease, which wearied the oth<fr physicians and sages. The 
King ansivered, Ye know not the reason wherefore I would kill the 
sage: it is this, that if I suiJeredhim to live, I should myself inevitably 
perish; for he who cured me o£ the disease under which 1 suflered 
by a thing that I held in my hand, may kill me by a thing that 1 
may smell; and 1 fear that he would do so, and would receive an 
appointment on account of it; seeing that it is probable he is a spy 
who hath come hither to kill me; I must therefore kill him, and 
then shall I feel myself safe.— The sage then said again. Spare me, 
and so may God spare thee; and destroy me not, lest God destroy 

But he now felt certain, O 'Efrit, that the King would put him 
to death, and that there was no escape for him; so he said, O King, 
if my death is indispensable, grant me some respite, that I may 
return to my house, and acquit myself of my duties, and give 
directions to my family and neighbours to bury me, and dispose of 
my medical books; and among my books is one of the most especial 
value, which I ofTer as a present to thee, that thou mayest treasure it 
inthy library.— And what, said the King, is this book? He answered. 
It contains things not to he enumerated; and the smallest of the 
secret virtues diar it possesses is this; diat, when thou bast cut oil my 
headj if thou open this book, and count three leaves, and then read 
three lines on the page to the left, the head will speak to thee, and 
answer whatever thou shalt ask. At this the King was excessively 
astonished, and shook with delight, and said to him, O Sage, when I 
have cut off thy head will it speak? He answered. Yes, O King; 
and this is a wonderful thing. 


The King then sent him In the custody o£ guards; and the sage 
descended to his house, ynd settled all his affairs on. ihat day; and 
on the following day he went up to the court: and the Emirs and 
Wczirs, and Chamberlains and Deputies, and all the great officers 
of the state, went thither alio: and the court tesembied a flower- 
garden. And when, the sage had entered, he presented himself be- 
fore the King, l>earing an old book» and a small pot coni-fining o. 
powder: and he sat down, and saidj Bring me a tray. So they 
brought him one; and he poured our the powder into it, and spread 
it. He then said, O K\ns, take this bcx>k, and do nothing with it 
until ihou liast cut olT my head; and when thou hast done so, place 
it upon this tray, and order some one to press it down upon the 
powder; and when this is done, the blood will be stanched: then 
open the book. As soon as the sage had said this, the King gave 
orders to strike ofJ his head; and it was done. The King then 
opened the book, and found that its leaves were stuck together; so 
he put his iinger to his mouth, and moistened it with his spittle, and 
opened the first leaf, and the second, and the third; but the leaves 
were not opened without difficulty. He opened six leaves, and looked 
at them; but found upon them no writing. So he said, O Sage, 
there is nothing written in it. The head of the sage answered. Turn 
over more leaves. The King did so; and in a little while, the poison 
penerratcd into his system; for the book was poisoned; and the 
King fell back, and cried out, The poison hath penetrated into mel— 
and upon this, the head o£ the sage Duban repeated these verses:— 

They made use of their power^ and uwd it tyrannically; and soon it 
became as though it never had existed. 

Had tliey acted equitably, they had experienced equity;' but they op- 
pressed; wherefore fortune oppressed them with calamities and 

Then did the case itself announce to ihem. This U the reward of your 
conduct, and fortune is blameless. 

And when the head of the sage Duban had uttered these words, 
the King imraediateiy fell down dead. 

Nowj O 'Efrit, continued the fisherman, know that if King Yunan 
had spared the sage, Duban, God had spared him; but he refused. 


and desired his destruction; therefore God destroyed kim; and thou, 
O 'Efritj if thou hadst spared me^ God had spared thee, and I had 
spared thee; bur thou desiredst my deiiih; therefore wilt I put thee 
to death impri^ned in this bottle, and will throw theo here into the 
sea. The Marid, upon this, cried out, and said, 1 conjure thee by 
Alliih, O fishermaiiT that thou do it not: me in gcncrosiiyT 
and be not angry with me for what I did; bui if I have done evil, 
do thou good, according to the proverb, — O thou benefactor of him 
who hath done evil, the action ihat he hath done is suflicient for 
him: — do not therefore as Umameh did to 'Atikeh. — And what, 
said the fisherman, was their case? The 'Efrir answered. This is not 
a time for telLng stories, when I am in this prison; but when thou 
liberatest me, I will rebce to thee their case. The Tisherman said, 
Tliou must be thrown into the sea, and there shall be no way of 
escape for thee from It; for i endcj^ourcd to propitiate thee, and 
humbled myself before thee, yet thou wouMcst nothing but my 
destruction, though I had committed no oi^ence to deserve it, and 
had done no evil to thee whatever, but only good, delivering thee 
from thy continemeni:; and \vhen thou didst dius unto me, 1 per- 
ceived that thou wast radically corrupt: and I would have thee 
know, that my motive for throwing thee into this sea, is that I may 
acquaint with thy story every one that shall take thee out, and 
caution him against thee, that he may cast thee in again; thus sLalt 
thou remain in this sea to the end of time, and experience varieties 
of torment-^The 'Efrit then said, Liberate me, for this is an oppor- 
tunity for thee to display humanity; and I yow to thee that 1 will 
never do thee harm; but, on the contrary, will do thee a service 
that shall enrich thee for ever. 

Upon this the fisherman accepted his covenant that he would not 
hurt him, but that he would do him good; and when he had bound 
him by oaths and vows, and made him swear by the Most Great 
Name of God, he opened to him; and the smoke ascended tmtil 
it had all come forth, and then collected together, and became, as 
before, an 'Efrit of hideous form. The 'Efrit then kicked the bottle 
into the sea. When the fisherman saw him do this, he made sure of 
destruction, and said. This is no sign of good:— but afterwards he 
fortified his heart, and said, O 'Efrit, God, whose name be exalted, 


h^th siiid. Perform the covenant^ for the covenant shall be inquired 
into;* — and thou hast covenanted with me, and sworn that thou wile 
not set treacherously towards me; therefore, if ihou so act, God will 
recompense thee; for He is jealous; He respiteth, but sulTereth not 
to escape" and remember that I said to thee as said the sage Duban 
to King Yunan, Spare me, and so may God spare thee. 

The 'Efrit laughed, and walking on before him, said, O fisherman, 
follow me. The fisherman did so, not believing in his escape, until 
they had quitted the neighbourhood of die city, and ascended a 
mountain, and descended inia a wide desert tract, irt the midst of 
which was a lake of water. Here the 'Efrit stopped, and ordered 
the fisherman to cast his net and take some fish; and [he fisherman, 
looking into the lake, saw in it tish of different colours, white and 
red and blue and yellow; at which he was astonished; and he cast 
his net, and drew it in, and found in it four fish, each fish of a 
diderent colour from the others, at the sight o£ which he rejoiced. 
The *Efrit then said to him. Take them to the Sultan, and present 
them to him, and he will give thee what will enrich thee; and for 
the sake of God accept my excuse, for, at present, I know no other 
way of rewarding thee, having been in the sea a thousand and 
eight hundred years, and not seen the surface o£ the earth until now; 
but take not fish from the lake more than once each day: and now 
I commend thee to the care of God* — Having thus said, he struck 
Ehe earth with his feet, and it clove asunder, and swallowed him. 

The fisherman then went back to the city, wondering at all that 
had befallen him with the *Efrit, and carried the fish to his house; 
and he look an earthen bowl, and, having filled it with water, put 
the fish into it; and they struggled in the water: and when he had 
done this, he placed the bowl upon his head, and repaired to the 
King's palace, as the 'Efrit had commanded him, and, going up 
unto the King, presented to him the fish; and the King was exces- 
sively astonished at them, for he had never seen any iike them in 
the course of his Ufej and he said, Give these fish to the sla^e cook- 
maid. This maid had been sent as a present to him by the King 
of [he Greeks, three days before; and he had not yet tried her skill. 
The Wezir, therefore, ordered her to fry the fishj and said to her, O 

"Kur'an, Kvii 56. 


maid, the King saith unto thee, I have not reserved my tear but 
for the time o£ my difficulty: — to-day, then, gratify us by a specimen 
of thy excellent cookery, for a person hath brought these fish as a 
present to the Sultan, After having thus charged her, the Wezir 
relumed, and the King ordered him to give the fisherman four 
hundred pieces of gold: so the Wezir gave them to him; and he 
took them in his lap, and returned to his home and his wife, joyful 
and happy, and bought what was needful for his family. 

Such were ihe evsEits that befeil the iisherman: now we must 
relate what happened to the maid.^She lool^ ilie fish, and cleaned 
them, and arranged them in the frying-pan, and left them until 
one side was cooked, when she turned [hem upon the other side; 
and lo, the wall of the kitchen clove asunder, and there came forth 
from it a damsel of tall stature, smooch-cheeked, of perfect form^ 
with eyes adorned ivith kohl, beautiful in countenance, and with 
heavy^ swelUng hips; wearing a kufiyeh interwoven with blue silkj 
widi rings in her ears, and bracelets on her wrists, and rings set 
with precious jewels on her fingers; and in her hand was a rod of 
Indian cane; and she dipped the end of the rod in the frying-pan, 
and said, O fish, are ye remaining faithful to yout covenant? At the 
sight of this, the cook-maid fainted. The damsel then repeated the 
same words a second and a third time; after which the fish raised 
their heads from the frying-pan, and answered. Yes, yes. They then 
repeated the following verse:^ 

If thou return, we return: and if thou come, we come; and if thou for- 
sake, we verily do the same. 

And upon this the damsel overturned the frymg-pan, and departed 
by the way she had entered, and the wall of the kitchen closed up 
again. The cook-maid then arose, and beheld the four fish burnt 
hke charcoal; and she exclaimed, In his first encounter his staff 
broke! — and as she sat reproaching herself, she beheld the Wezir 
standing at her head; and he said to her, Bring the fish to the 
Sultan:— and she wept, and informed him of what had happened. 
The Wezir tvas astonished at her words, and exclaimed, This is 
indeed a wonderful event; — and he sent for die fisherman, and when 
he was brought, he said to him, O tidierman, thou must bring to us 


four fish like ihose which thou broi.ightest before. The fisherman 
accordingly went forth to the lake» and threw his net* snd when he 
had drawn It in he found in it four fish as before; and he took 
them to the Wezir, who went with them to the maid, and said to 
her, Risej and fry them in my presence^ that I may witness this 
occurrence. The maid, therefore, prepared the fish, and put them 
in ihe frying-pan* and they had remained but a little while* when 
the wall clove asunder, and the damsel appeared* clad as before, and 
holding the rod; and she dipped the end o£ the rod in the frying- 
pan* and said* O fish, O fish, are ye remaining faithful to your old 
covenant? Upon which they raised their heads, and answered as 
before; and the damsel overrurned the frying-pan with the rod, and 
returned by ihe way she had entered, and the wall closed up again. 
The Wezir then said» This is an event which cannot be con- 
cealed from the King: — so he went to him, and informed him of 
what had happened in his presence; and the King said, 1 must see 
this with my own eyes. He sent* therefore, to the fisherman, and 
commanded him to bring four fish like the former* granting him 
a delay of three days. And the fisherman repaired to the lake* and 
brought the fish thence to the King, who ordered again that four 
hundred pieces of gold should be given to him; and then, turning 
to the Wezir, said to him, Cook die fish thyself here before me. The 
Wezir answered, I hear and obey. He brought the frying-pan, and 
after he had cleaned the (Jsh, tlirew ihem into it; and as soon as he 
had turned them* the wall clove asunder, and there came forth from 
it a negro* in size like a bull, or hke one of the tribe of *Ad,^ having 
in his hand a branch of a green tree; and he said* with a clear but 
terrifying voice, O fish* O fish, are ye remaining faithful to your old 
covenant? Upon which they raised their heads, and answered as 
before. Yes, yesi 

Tf thou return, we return; and if thou come, we come; and if thou for- 
sake, we verily do the ^ame. 

The black then approached the frying-pan, and overturned it with 
the branch* and the fish became like charcoal^ and he went away 
as he had come. 

^Th« scnallctt ot Ehc ancient Arab tiibc of 'Ad is said co been sixty cubiis 


When he had thus disappeared from btfore their eyes, the King 
said, This is an even: respecting which it is impossible to keep 
silence, and there must, undoubtcdlyi be some sirange circumstance 
connected with these fish. He then ordered that the fisherman 
should be brought before him, and when he had come, he said to 
him, Whence came these fish? The fisherman answered, From a 
lake between four mountains behind this mountain which is without 
thy city. The King said to him, How many dayV journey distant? 
He answered, O our lord the Sultan, a journey of hiilf-an-hnur. 
And the Sultan was astonished, and ordered his troops to go out 
immediately with him and the fisherman, who began to curse the 
'Efrit. They proceeded until they had ascended the mouiirain, and 
descended into a wide desert tract which they had never before 
seen in their whole lives; and the Sultan and all the troops wondered 
at the sight of this desert, which was between four mountains, and 
at the fish, which were of four colors, red and white and yellow and 
blue. The King paused in astonishment, and said to the troops, 
and to the other attendants who were with him, Hath any one of 
you before seen this lake in this place? They all answered, No, 
Then said the King, liy Allah, 1 will not enter my city, nor will I sit 
upon my throne, until T know the true history of this lake, and oi 
its fish. And upon this he ordered his people to encamp around these 
mountains; and they did so. He then called for the Wezir^ who was 
a well-informed, sensible, prudent, and learned man; and when he 
had presented himself before him, he said to him, t desire to do a 
thing with which I will acquaint thee; and it is this: — 1 have 
resolved to depart alone this night, to seek for information respecting 
this lake and its fish; therefore, sit thou at the door of my pnivilion, 
and say to the Emirs and Wezirs and Chaniberfains, The Sultan is 
sick, and hath commanded me not to allow any person to go in 
unto him: — and acquaint no one with my intention. 

The Wezir was unable to oppose his design; so the King dis- 
guised himself, and slung on his sword, and withdrew himself from 
the midst of his troops. He journeyed the whole of the night, until 
the morning, and proceeded until the heat became oppressive to him : 
he then paused to rest; after which he again proceeded the re- 


mainder o£ the day and the second night undl the mommg^ when, 
there appeared before him, in the distance, something bkck, at the 
sight of which he rejoiced, and said. Perhaps I shall tJierc find some 
person who will inform me of the liistory of the lake and its fish. 
And when he approached this black object^ he found it to be a 
pabce bulk of black scones, and overlaid with iron; and one of the 
leaves of its door was open, and the other shut. The King was glad, 
and he stood at the door, and knocked gently, but heard no answer; 
he knocked a second and a third lime, but again heard no answer: 
then he knocked a fourth time, and with violence; but no one 
answered. So he said, It is doubtless empty: — and he took courage, 
and entered from the door into the passage, and cried our, saying, 
O inhabitants of the palace, I am a stranger and a traveller! have 
ye any provision? And he repeated these words a second and a 
third time; but heard no answer. And upon this he fortified his 
heart, and emboldened himself, and proceeded from the passage 
into the midst of the palace; but he found no one there, and only 
saw that it was furnished, and that there was, in the centre of it, a 
fountain with four lions of red gold, which poured forth the water 
from their mouths, like pearls and jewels: around this were birds; 
and over the top of che palace \vas ejitended a net which prevented 
their flying out. At the sight of these objects he was astonished, and 
he ivas grieved [hat he saw no person there whom he could ask for 
information respecting the lake, and the fish, and the mountains, 
and the palace. He then sat down between the doors, reflecting 
upon these things; and as he thus sat, he heard a voice of lamenta- 
tion from a sorrowful heart, chanting these verses: — 

O fortune, thou pitiest me not, nor releasest mc! See my heart is strait- 
ened between affliction and peril! 

Will not you [O my wife] have conipassion on the mighty whom love 
haih abased, and the wealthy who is reduced to indij;ence? 

We were jealous even of the zephyr which passeJ over you: but when 
the divine decree is issued, the eye bccomcth blind! 

What resource hiiih the archer when, in the hour of conflict, he desireth 
to discharge the arrow, but findeth his bo^v-5t^ing broken? 

And when imublci are muliiplied upon the noble-minded, where shal! he 
find refuge from fate and from destinv? 


When ihe Sultan heard this bmeniiicion, he sprang upon his 
feetj And, seeking the direction whence it proceeded, found a curtain 
suspended before the door o£ a chamber; and iie raised it, and 
beheld behind it 3 young man sitting on a couch raised to the 
height of a cubit from the floor. He wjs a handsome youih^ well- 
shaped, :ii:id of eloquent speech, with shining forehead, and rosy 
cheek, marked with a mole resembling ambergris. The King was 
rejoked aE seeing him, and saluted him; and [he young man (who 
remained sitting, and was clad with a vest of silk, embroidered with 
gold, but who exhibited traces of grief) returned his salutation, and 
said to him, O my master, excuse my not rising. — O youth[ said ihe 
King, inform me respecting the lake^ and its fish of various colours, 
and respecting this palace, and the reason of ihy being alone in it, 
and of thy lamentation. When the yotmg man heard these words, 
tears trickled down his cheeks, and he wept bitterly. And the King 
was astonished, and said to him, What causeth thee to weep, O 
youth? fie answered. How can I refrain from weeping, when this is 
my state?— and so saying, he stretched forth his hand, and hfted up 
[he skirts of his clothing; and Lo, half of him, from his waist lo the 
soles of his feet, was stonej and from his waist to the hair of his 
head, he was like other men- He then said. Know, O King, that 
the story of the fish is extraordinary; if it were engraved upon the 
intellect, it would he a lesson to him who would be admonished: — 
and he related as follows: — 


The Story of the Young Kihg of ihe Black Jslan-ws 

My father was king o:f the city which was here situate: his name 
was Mahmud, and he was lord of the Black Islands, and of the four 
mountains. After a reign of seventy years, he died, and I succeeded 
to his ihronei whereupon I took as my wife the daughter of my 
uncle; and she loved me excessively, so that when 1 absented myself 
from her, she would neither eat nor drink till she saw me again. 
She remained under my protection five years. After this, she went 
one day to the bath; and 1 had commanded the cook to prepare 
the supper, and entered this palace, and slept in my usual place. 1 
had ordered two maids to fan me; and one of ihem sat at my head, 
and the other at my feet; but I was resdess, because my wife was 


not with me; and I could noc sleep- My eyes were closed, but my 
spirit was awake; and I heard the maid at my he;id say to her at my 
feet, O Mei'udch, verily our lord is unfortunate in his youth, and 
what a pity is it that it should be passed with our depraved^ wicked 
mistress!— Perdition to unfaithful wives! replied the other: but 
(added she) such a person as our lord» so endowed by nature, is nor 
suited to this profligate woman, who passes every night absent from 
his bed.— Verilyj rejoined she at my head, our lord is careless in not 
making any inquiry respecting her,— Wo to theeT said the other; 
hath our lord any knowledge of her conduct, or doth she leave him 
to his choicei^ Nay, on the contrary, she contriveth to defraud htm 
by means of tlie cup of wine which he drinketh every night before 
he slecpeth, putting ben)^ into h; in consequence of which he sleep- 
eth so soundly that he knoweth not what happeneth, nor whither 
she goeth, nor what she doeth; for, after she hath given him the 
wine to drink, she dresseth herself, and goelb out from him^ and is 
absent until daybreak, when she returneth to him, and burneth a 
perfume under his nose, upon which he awaketh from his sleep. 

When 1 heard this conversation of the maids, the light became 
darkness before my face, and I was hardly conscious of the approach 
of night, when my cousin returned from the bath. The table was 
prepared, and we ate, and sat a while drinking our wine as usual, 
I then called for tlie wine which I was accustomed to drink before 
J lay down to sleep, and she handed to me the cup; but I turned 
away, and, pretending to drink it as I was wont to do, poured it 
into my bosom, and immediately lay down: upon wliich she said. 
Sleep on; I wish that thou woiildst never wake again! By Allah, 
J abhor thee, and abhor thy person, and my soul is weary of thy 
company! — She then arose^ and attired herself in the most magnifi- 
cent of her apparel, and, having perfumed herself, and slung on a 
sword, opened the door of the palace, and went out. I got up im- 
mediately, and followed her until she had quilted the palace, and 
passed through the streets of the city, and arrived at the city-^gates, 
when she pronounced some words that I understood not; where- 
upon the locks fell oti, and the gates opened, and she went out, I 
still following her, without her knowledge. Thence she proceeded 

* Bhan.", hemp. 


to a space among rhe moundsi and arrived ai a strong edifice^ in 
v/hich was a kubbeh^ constructed o£ iTiiidj with a door^ whi<:h she 
enrered. 1 then climbed upon the roof of the kuhbeh^ and, looking 
down upon her through an aperture, saw that she was visiting a 
black slavGj whose large lips, ono oi: which overlapped the other, 
gaihered up the sand from the pobiily floor, while he lay, in a iiithj 
and wet condiiionj upon a fe^v stalks of sLigar-cane. 

She kissed the ground before this slave; :md he raised his head 
towards her, and said, Wo to lliee! Wherefore hasr thou remained 
away until ihjs hour? The other blacks have been here drinking 
wine, and each of them has gone away with his mistress; and I 
refused to drink on thy account.— She answered, O my master, and 
beloved of my heart, knowest thou not that I am married to my 
cousin, and that I abhor every man who resembles him, and hate 
myself while 1 am in his company? if i did nor fear to displease 
thee, I would reduce the city to ruins, so thai the owl and the raven 
should cry in it, and would transport its stones beyond Mount 
Kaf.'" — Thou liesr, thou infamous woman, replied the slave; and I 
swear by the generosity of the blacks (and if 1 speak not truth, may 
our valour be as the valour of the whites), that if thou loiter as thou 
hast now done till this hour, 1 will no longer give thee my company, 
nor approach ihy person, thou faithless one! Dost thou inconven- 
ience me for the sake of thine own pleasure, thou filthy wretch, and 
■vilest of the whites?— When I heard (continued the King) their 
words, and witnessed what passed between them, the world became 
dark before my face, and I knew not where I was.— My cousin still 
stood weeping, and abasing herself before him, and said, O my 
beloved, and treasure of my heart, there remaineth to me none but 
thee for ivhom I care, and if thou cast me off, alas for mel O my 
beloved! O hghi of mine eye! — Thus she continued to weep, and 
to humble herself before him, until he became pacified towards her; 
upon which she rejoiced, and arose, and, having disrobed herself, 
said to him, O my master, hast thou here anything that thy maid 
may eat? He answered, Uncover the dough-pan; it contains some 
cooked rats* bones: eat of ihem, and pick them; and take this 

^ A buifding wiih a (Jomc. 
"J The chiin of inQuniain;. bclkvcJ by Muslims to cncirc!*^ rho c^rth. 


earthen pot: ihou wilt find in il some buzah" [□ drink. So she 
yrose, ajid ace and drank^ antl washed her hands; aitcr which she 
lay down by the side of the slave, upon ihe stalks o£ sugar-cane, 
and covered herself with his tattered clothes and rags. 

When I saw her do this, I became unconscious of my existence, 
and, descending from the roof of (.he kabbeh, entered, and took the 
s\vord from the side of my cousin, with the intention of killing 
ihem both- 1 struck ilie sbve upon his neck, and thought that he 
was killed; but the blow, which I gave with the view of severing 
his head, only cut the gullet and skin and flesh; and when I thought 
that I had killed him, he utEcred a loud snore, upon which my 
cousin started up, and, as soon as 1 h;id gone, Cook the sword, and 
returned it to its scabbiird, and came back Co the ciiy and to the 
paface, and lay down again in my bed, in which she remained uncil 
the morning. 

On the following day, T observed chat my cousin had cut off her 
hair, and puC on the apparel of mourning; and she said to me, O 
my cousin, blame me not for what 1 do; for I have received news 
that my mother is dead, and that my father hath been slain in a 
holy war^ and thai one of my two brothers hach died of a poisonous 
siingj and the other by the fall of a house: it is natural, chercfore, that 
I should weep and mourn. On hearing these words, I abstained 
from upbraiding her, and said» Do what seemeth fit to thee; for I 
will not oppose thee. Accordingly, she continued mourning and 
weeping and wailing a whole yeari after which she said to rae, I 
have a desire to build for myself, in thy palace, a tomb, with a 
kubbeh, that I may repair thither alone to mourn, and I will call it 
the House o£ Lamentations. I replied. Do what thou seest fit. So she 
built for herself a house for mourning, with a kubbeh in the middle 
of it, like the tomb of a saint; after which she removed thither the 
slave, and there she lodged him. He was in a state of e>icessive 
weakness, and unable to render her any service, though he drank 
wine; and from the day on which I had wounded him, he had never 
spoken; yet he remained alive, because the appointed term of his 
life had not e:tpircd. My eouan every day visited him in this tomb 
early and late, to weep and mourn over him, and look to him wine 


to drink, and boiled meals; Jind Lhus she continued to do, morning 
and evening, until tlie expiration of the sctond year, while I pa- 
tiently suffered her, till, one day, 1 entered her apartments unawares, 
and fuuiid her weeping, and slapping her face^ and repeating these 
verses :— 

1 have lost my existence among mankind since your absence^ for my 

hear! loveih none buc you. 
Take my hody^ then, in mercy, to [ho place where you are laid; and there 

bury me by your $ide: 

And i£* yt my grave, you utter my name, ibe moiiiiing o£ my bones shall 
answer to your calL 

As soon as she had finished the recitation o£ these verses, T said 
to her, holding my drawn sword in my hand, This is the language 
of those faithless women who renounce the lies of affinity, and 
regard not lawful feliowihip!— and 1 was about to strike her with 
the sword, and had lifted up my arm to do so, when she rose — for 
she knew that it was 1 who had wounded the sfave — and, standing 
before me, pronounced some words which I understood not, and 
said, May God, by means of my enchantment, make thee to be 
half of stone, and half of the substance of manl — whereupon I be- 
came as thou seest, unable to move, neither dead nor alive; and when 
I had been reduced lo this siaie^ she enchanted the city and its 
markets and Iklds. The inhabitants of our city were of four classes; 
Muslims and Christians, and fews and Magians; and she trans- 
formed them into fish: the white are the Muslims; the red, the 
Magiaiis^ the bfue» the Christians; and the yellow, the Jews. She 
transformei:!, ako, the four islands fnio four mountains, and placed 
them around the lake; and from that time she has continued every 
day to tortnre me, inflicting upon me a hundred lashes with a 
leathern whip, until the blood flows from my wounds; after which 
she puts on my upper half a vest of hair-cloth, beneath these gar- 
ments. — Having said thus, the young man wept, and ejaculated the 
following verses: — 

Give me patience, O Allah, to bear what Thou decreest! T will be 

patient, if so I may obtain thine approval. 
I am straitened, indeed, by the ealamiiy [hat bath befalleJi me: but the 

Family of the tavoured Prophet shall intercede for mel 



Upon [his, ihe King, looking towards the young man, said id 
him, O youth, ihou hast increased my anxiety. And where (he 
added) is this woman? — The young man answered, She is in the 
tomb where the slave is lying, in [he kubbeh; and every dj.y, before 
she visits him, she strips me o£ my clothing, and inflicts upon me a 
hundred lashes with the whip, while I weep and cry out, unable to 
move so as to repulse her. After thus torturing me, she repairs early 
to the slave, with the wine and boiled meat. — Uy Allah, O youth, 
said the King, 1 will do thee an act o£ kindness for which 1 shall be 
remembered, and a favour which historians shall record in a biog- 
raphy after me. 

He then saL and conversed with him until the approach of night, 
upon which he arose, and waited till the first dawn of day, when he 
took off hfs clothes, and slung on bis sword, and went to the place 
where the slave lay. After remarking the candles and lamps, and 
perfumes and ointments, he approached the slave, and with a blow 
of bis sword slew him; he then carried him on hfs hack, and threw 
him into a well which he found in the palace, and returning to the 
kubbeh, clad himself with the slave s clothes, and l^y down with ihe 
drawn sword by his side. Soon after, the vile encb^mtress went to 
her cousin, and, having pulled off his clothes, took the whip and beat 
him, while he cried, Ah! it is enough for me to be in this state! 
Have pity on me then!— Didst thou shew pity to me^ she exclaimed, 
and didst thou spare my lover ?^ — She then put on him the hair- 
cloth vest and bis outer garments, and repaired to the slave with a 
cup of wine, and a bowl of boiled meat. Entering the tomb, she 
wept and wailed, exclaiming, O my master, answer mel O my 
master, speak to mel — and poured forth her lamentation in the 
words of this verse: — 

How long shal] this aversion and harshness continue? Sufficient is the 
evil which my passion hath brought upon mel 

Then, weeping, as before, she exclaimed again, O my master, answer 
me and speak to me! Upon this the King, speaking in a low voice, 
and adapting his tongue to the pronunciation of the blacks ejacu- 
lated, Ah! Ah! there is no strength nor power but in GodI On 
hearing these words, she screamed with joy^ and fell down in a 


swooii; and when she recovered, she e.'^chimed^ Possibly my mctster 
15 restored to hcalthl The King, again luwering his voice, as if from 
iveakness, replied, Thou profligate wretch, [hou deservc&t not that 1 
should address ihce. — Whercfori^? said she. He ^n&^^■eredl BetLiuse 
all [he day long thou Lormentesc thy hushanj, while he callcth out, 
and iraploreth the aid of God, so that thou has: prevented my sleep- 
ing from the commencement of darkness until morning: thy hus- 
band hath not ceased to bumble himself, and to imprecate venge- 
ance upon thccj till he hath distracted me; and liad it not been for 
this, I had recovered my strength; this it is which hath prevented 
my ans\^fering thee. — Then, with thy permission, she replied, I will 
liberate him from his present sufferings. — Liberate him, said the 
King, and give us ease. 

She replied, 1 hear and obey; — and immediately arose, and went 
out from the kuhbeh to the palace, and, taking a cup, filled it with 
water, and pronounced certain words over it, upon which it began 
to boil like a cauldron. She then sprinkled some of it upon her 
cousin, saying, By virtue of what 1 have uttered, be changed from 
thy present state to that in which thou wast at firstf — and instantly 
he shook, and stood upon his feet, rejoicing in his liberation, and 
exclaimed, I testify that there is no deity but God, and that Mo- 
hammad is God's Apostle; God h!ess and save him! She then said 
to him, Depart, and return not hither, or I will kill thee: — and she 
cried out in his face: so he departed from before her, and she re- 
turned to the kuhbeh, and said, O my master, come foith to me 
that 1 may behold thee. He rephcd, with a weak voice, What has: 
thou done,^ Thou hast rcl^n'ed me from the branch, but hast not 
relieved me from the roof. — O my beloved, she said, and what is the 
root? He answered, Tlie people of this city, and of the four islands: 
every night, at the middle hour, the fish raise their heads, and im- 
precate vengeance upon me and upon thee; and this is the cause 
that preventeth the return of vigour to my body; therefore, liberate 
them, and come, and take my hand, and raise me; for vigour hath 
already in part returned to me. 

On hearing these words of the King, whom she Imagined to be 
the slave, she said to him with joy, O my master, on my head and 
my eyel Jn the name of Allah!— and she sprang up, full of happi- 


ness, and hasneoed co the bke, where, taking a Utile of its waier, 
she pronounced over it some uninnclligibte words, whereupon the 
fish became agiured, and raised iheir heads, and iinmi^diately be- 
came converted into men as before- Thus was the enchaniment le- 
moved from the inhabitJiits of the city, and the city became 
repeopied, and the market-streets re-ercctcd, and every one returned 
to his occupaiion: the mountains also became changed into islands 
35 they were at ihe first. The encbancress then rtiturned immediately 
to the King, whom she still imagined to be the slave, and said to 
him, O my beloved, stretch forth thy honoured hand, that I may 
kiss it. — Approach me, said the King in a low voice. So she drew 
near to him; and he, having bis keen-edged sword ready in his hand, 
thrust it into her bosom, and the point protruded from her back; 
he then struck her again, and clove her in twain, and went forth. 

He found the young man who had been enchanted waiting his 
return, and congratulated him on his safety; and the young prince 
kissed his hand, and thanked him. T.he King then said to him, 
Wilt thou remain in thy city» or come ^vith me to my capital? — O 
King of the age, said the young man, dost thou know the distance 
that is between thee and thy city? The King answered, Tivo days 
and a half. — O King, replied the young man, if thou hast been 
asleep, awake: between thee and thy city is a distance of a year's 
journey to him who iravelleth xvith diligence; and thou camest in 
two days and a half only because the city was enchanted: but, O 
King, I will never quit ihee for [lie twinkling of an eye. The King 
rejoiced at his words, and said, Praise be to God, who hath in his 
beneftcence given thee to me: thou art my son; for during my whole 
life, 1 have never been blest with a son: — and they embraced eacli 
other, and rejoiced exceedingly. They then went together into the 
palace, where the King who had been enchanted informed the 
ofiicers of his court that he was about to perform the holy pilgrim- 
age: so they prepared for him everything that he required; and he 
departed with the Sultan; his heart burning with reflections upon 
his city, because he had been deprived of the sight of it for the 
space of a year. 

He set forth, accompanied hy fifty menjuks and provided with 
presents^ and they continued their journey night and day for a. whole 


year» after which they drew n^ztt to the city of ihe Sultan, and the 
We^ir and the troops, who had lost all hopo oE his return, came 
forth lo meei him. The troops, approaching him, kissed the ground 
before him, and congratulated him on his safe return; and he 
entered the city» and sat upon the throne. He then acquainted ihe 
Wezir with all diat had happened to the young King; on hearing 
which, the Wezir congratulated che latter, also, on his safetyj and 
when all things were restored to order, the Sultan beitowed prescrits 
upon a number of his subjecEs, and said to the Wezir, Bring to me 
the fisherman who presented to me the fish. So he sent to this 
fisherman, who had been the cause oi the restoration of the in- 
habitants of the enchanted city^ and brought hiEn; and the King 
invested him with a dress of honour, and inquired of him respecting 
his circumstances, and whether he had any children. The fisherman 
informed him that he had a son and two daughters; and the King, 
on hearing this, rook as his wife one of the daughters, and the young 
prince married the other. The King also conferred upon (he son the 
oflice of treasurer. He then sent the Wezir to the city of the young 
prince, the capital of the Black Islands, and invested him with its 
sovereignty, despatching with him the fifty memluks who had ac- 
companied him thence, with numerous robes of honour to all the 
Emirs; and [he Wezir kissed his hands, and set fordi on his journey; 
while the Sultan and the young prince remained. And as to the 
fisherman, he became the wealthiest of the people of his age; and 
his daughters continued to be the wives of the Kings until they died. 
But this (added Shahrazad) is not more wonderful ilian what 
happened to the porter. 

[Nights criS] 

The Stoey of the PonTEk as'd the Ladies oe Baghdad, axd 
OF THE Three Royal Mendicants^ Etc. 

THERE was a man of the aty of Baghdad, who was un- 
married, and he was a porter; and one day, a? he sat in the 
market^ reclining agajnsr his crate^ there accosted him a 
female wrapped in an i^^ar of the manufacture of El-MosH,' com- 
posed of gold-embroidered silk, with a border of gold lace at each 
end, who raised her face-veil, and displayed beneath it a pair of 
black eyes, with lids bordered by long lashes, exhibiting a tender 
expression, and features of perfect beauty; and she said, with a 
sweet voice, Bring thy crnte, and follow me. 

The porter had scarcely heard her words when he took up his 
crate, and he followed her until she stopped at the door of a house, 
and knocked; whereupon there came down to her a Christian, and 
she gave him a piece of gold, and received for it a quantity of olives, 
and two large vessels of wine, which she placed En the crate, saying 
10 the porter, Take iE up, and follow me. The porter exclaimed. 
This is, indeed, a fortunate day! — and he took up the crate, and 
followed her. She next stopped at (he shop of a fruiterer, and bought 
of him Syrian apples, and ^OEhmani quinces, and peaches of 'Oman, 
and jasmine of Aleppo, and water-^lilies of Damascus, and cucum- 
bers of the Nile, and Egyptian limes, and Sultani citrons, and s^veet- 
scented myrtle, and sprigs of the henna- tree, and chamomile, and 
anemones, and violets, and pomegranate-flowers, and eglantine: all 
these she put into the porter's crate^ and said to him, Take it up. So 
he took it up, and followed her until she stopped at the shop of a 
butcher, to whom she said. Cut olT ten pounds of meat; — and he 
cut it off for her, and she wTapped it in a leaf of a banana-tree, and 
put it in the crate, and said again, Take it up, O porter;— and he 

'"Moiul," a Qiy long famous lot iy fioc ^luflfi, 



did ^o, and followed her. She next stop^icd at the shop of a seller 
of dry fruits, jjid look some of every kind of the^* and desired the 
porter to tjke up his burden. Having obeyed, he followed her until 
she slopped at the shop of a c:unfectioner, where she bought a dish, 
and filled it with sweets of every kind thai he had, which she put 
into [he crate; whereupon the porter ventured to s^y, If thou hadst 
informed me beforehand, 1 had brought wiih me a mule to carry 
all Lheae things. The lady smiled at his remark, and next stopped 
ar ihe shop of a perfumer, of whom she bought ren kinds of seemed 
waters; rose-waLer, and orange-fiower-waier, and ^villow-llower- 
■water^ &c.; together with some sugar, and a sprinkling-bottle of 
rose-water infused with musk, and some frankincense, and aloes- 
wood, and ambergris, and musk, and wa.t candles; and, placing all 
these in ihe craie, she said, Take up thy trate, and follow me. He, 
therefore, look it up^ and followed her until she came lo a hand- 
some house, before which was a spacious court. It was a lofty 
structure, with a door of iwo leaves, composed of ebony, overlaid 
with plates of red gold. 

The young lady stopped at this door, and knocked genrly; where- 
upon both its leaves were opened, and the porter, looking to see who 
opened it, found it to be a damsel of tall stature^ higlvbosomed, fair 
and beautiful, and of elegant form» with a forehead like the bright 
new moon, eyes like those of gazelles, eyebrows like the ne^v moon 
of Ramadan, cheeks resembhng anemones, and a moudi like the seal 
oE Suleyman: her countenance was hke the full moon in its splen- 
dour, and the forms of her bosom resembled t^vo pomegranates of 
equal size. When the porter beheld her, she captivated his reason, 
the crate nearly fell from his head, and he exclaimed, Never in my 
life have 1 seen a more fortunate day than this! The lady-portress, 
standing within the door, said to the cateress and the porter, Ye are 
welcome: — and they entered^ and proceeded to a spacious saloon, 
decorated with various colours, and beaudfully constructed, with 
carved wood-work, and fountains, and benches of different kinds, 
and closets with curtains hanging before [hem; there was also in it, 
at ihe upper end, a couch of alabaster inlaid with large pearls and 
jewels, with mosquiio-cnrtain of red satin suspended over it, and 
within this was a young lady with eyes possessing the enchantment 


of Babili" and a figure like ilie letter Alif, wiih a hce ihm put to 
shinne the shining sun: she ^vas like one of the brilliant planets, 
or raibcFj one of the most high-born of the maidens of Arabia- This 
third lady, rising from the couch» advanced with a slow and elegant 
gait to the middle of the saloon, where her sisters were standing, and 
said to them, Why stand ye still? Lift down the burden from the 
head of this poor poricr; — whereupon the caieress placed herself 
before him^ and the portress behind him* and, ihe third bdy assist- 
ing ihcm, ihcy lifted it down from his head- Tiicy then took out 
the contents of the crate* and* having put everything in its place, 
gave to the porter two pieces of gold, saying to him Depart, O porter. 
The porter, however, stood looking at the ladies, and admiring 
their beauty and their ngrecable disposiiionsi for he hiid never seen 
any more handsome; and when he observed that they had not a 
man among them, and gazed upon the wine, and fruits, and iweet- 
scented flowers, which were there, he was full of astonishment, and 
hesitated to go out; upon which one of the ladies said to him, Why 
dost thou not go? dost thou deem thy hire too Uttle? Then turning 
to one of her sisters, she said to her, Give him another piece o£ 
gold,— By Allah* O my mistress* exclaimed the porter, my hire is 
but two half-dirhems* and I thought not what ye have given me too 
iiide; but my heart and mind were occupied with reflections upon 
you and your state* ye being alone, with no man among you, not one 
to amuse you with his company; for ye know that the menareh^ 
standeth not firmly but on four w^lls: now ye have not a fourth, 
and the pleasure of women is not complete without men; ye are 
three only, and have need of a fourth, who should be a man, a 
person of ^cnse, discreet, acute* and a concealer of secrets.^We are 
maidens* they replied; and fear lo impart our secret to him who 
will not keep it; for we have read, in a certain history, this verse:— 

Guard thy secret frtim anoihet: intrust it noi: for he who inirustcth a 
secret hath lost it. 

— By your existence* said the porter, T am a man of sense* and trust- 

^Babll, oi BabtL is rtganltaS by ih<- Mii^lln^!i :i^ ilit founiijlri-licij of the ^cicntc 
of in^vuk, which was., and. as mc&t ihink. Mill \s, Mu^ju ch^rc in mankind h^' iwit 
iaMen anj^cls, n^inocE UziruE and Manit (Kiir'^n, lI. tj6}y whi) are [h[;rc su^pL^nJcd 
hy ihc ftcT in a grcji p'li do^wl by j mass ttt rjck- ^ MIiuece- 


worthy: 1 have read various books, and perused histories: I make 
known what is hir, and conceal what is foul, and ace in accordance 
with the saying o£ the poet: — 

None kcepeth a secret but a faiLhful person: with the best of mankind 

it remaineth concealed. 
A seciel is with ni<? as in a house with a lock, whose key is lose, and 

whose door is scaled. 

When ilie ladies heard rlie verses which be quoted, and the words 
wich which he addre,'3sed ihem, they said to him, Thou knowest that 
we have expended here a considerable sum of money; hast thou then 
wherewith to rt^quite us? We will not suffer thee to remain with us 
unless thou contribute a sum of money; for thou desirest 10 sit wirh 
us, and to be our cup-cotnpaninnj and to guze upon our beautiful 
faces. — if friendship is without money, said the mistress of the house, 
it is not equivalent to the weight of a grain:— and the portress 
added, If thou hast nothing, depart with nothing:— but the cateress 
saidj O sister, let us suffer him; for, verily, he hath not been deficient 
in his services for us this day: another had not been so patient with 
us: whatever, therefore, falls to his share of the expense, I will de- 
fray for him. — At this the porter rejoiced, and e>:c]aimed. By Allah, 
I obtained my first and only pay this day from none but thee:— and 
the other ladies said to him. Sit down: thou uri welcome. 

The catcress then arose^ and, having tightened her girdle, arranged 
the bottles, and strained the wine, and prepared the table by the pool 
of. the fountain. She made ready all that they required, brought the 
wine, and sat down with her sisters; the porter also sitting with 
them, thinking he was in a dream. And when they had seated 
themselves, the cateress took a jar of wine, and filled the first cup, 
and drank it: she then filled another, and handed it to one of her 
sisters; and in like manner she did to her other sister; after which 
she filled again, and handed die cap to [he porrer, who, having 
taken it from her band, repeated this verse:^ 

I will drink the wine, and enjoy health" for, verily, this beverage is a 
remedy for disease. 

The wine continued to circulate among them, and the porter, taking 
bis part in the revels, dancing and singing with them, and enjoying 


the fragrant odours* began to hug and kiss them, while one slapped 
him, and another pulled him, and the third beat him with sweet- 
scented flowers, till, at length, the wine made sport with their 
reason; and they threw off all restraint, indulging their merriment 
with as much freedom as if no man had been present. 

Thus ihey continued until the approach of night, when they said 
to the porter, Depart, and shew us the breadth o£ thy shoulders; — 
but he rephed, Verily the departure of my soul from my body were 
more easy to me than my departure from your company; therefore 
suffer us to join the night to the day, and then eaeh of us shall 
return to his own, or her own, affairs. The cateress, also, again 
interceded for him, saying, By my life I conjure you that ye suffer 
him to pass the night with us, that we may laugh at his drolleries, 
for he is a witty rogue. So ihey snid to him. Thou shak pass the 
night with us on this condition, that thou submit to our authority, 
and ask not an cNplanation of anything chat thou shah see. He re- 
pliedj Good.— Rise then, said they, and read what is inscribed upon 
the door. Accordingly, he went to the door, and found the following 
inscription upon it in letters of gold, Speak not of that which doth 
not concern thee, lest thou hear that which will not please thee: — 
and he said, iJear witness to my promise that I will not speak of that 
which doth not concern me. 

The catercss then arose, and prepared for them a repast; and, 
after they had eaten a little, they lighted the candles and burned 
some aloes-wood. This done, they sat down again to the table; and, 
while they were eating and drinking, they heard a knocking at the 
door; whereupon, without causing any interruption to their meal, 
one of them went Co the door, and, on her return, said. Our plenisure 
this night is now complete, for I liave found, at the door, three 
foreigners* with shaven chins, and each of them is blind of the left 
eye: it is an extraordinary coincidence. They are strangers newly 
arrived, and each of them has a ridiculous appearance: if they come 
in, therefore, we shall be amused with laughing at them. — The lady 
ceased not with these words, but continued to persuade her sisters 
until they consented, and said. Let them enter; but make it a con- 
dition with them that they speak not of that whicli doth not concern 


them, lesi they he^rr tliai which will not please rhem. Upon this she 
rcfOJcedj and having gone again to the dnor^ brought in the three 
men blind of one eye and widi sbav<^n chinjr, and they had thin and 
Twisted mustaches. Being mendicants, ihcy saluted and drew back; 
bat the ladies rose to themj and seated them; and \^fhen these three 
men looked at the porier, they saw tliat he was intoxicated; and, 
observing him narrowly, they thought that he w^s one of their own 
classj and said^ He is a mendicant like ourselves, and will amuse us 
by his conversation; — but the porter, hearing what they said, arose, 
and rolled his eyes, and esclaimed to them, Sit quiet, and abstain 
from impertinent remarks. Have ye not read the inscription upon 
llie door? — The ladies, laughing, said to each other^ Between the 
mendicants and the porter we shall find matter for amusement. 
They then placed before the former some food, and they ate, and 
then sat to drink. The portress handed lo them the wine, and, as 
the cup was circulating among them, the porter said to them, 
ISrothers, have ye any tale or strange anecdote wherewith to amuse 
us? The mendicants, heated by the wine, asked for musical instru- 
ments; and the portress brought them a tambourine of the manu- 
facture of El-Mosil, with a lute of El-lrak, and a Persian harpj 
whereupon they all arose; and one took the tambourine; another, 
the lute; and the third, the harp: and they played upon these instru- 
ments, the ladies accompanying them with loud songs; and while 
they were thus diverting themselves, a person knocked at the door. 
The portress, therefore, went to see who was tliere; and the cause of 
the knocking was this. 

The Khalifeh Harun Et-Rashid had gone forth this night to see 
and hear what news he could collect, accompanied by Ja^far his 
Wezir, and Mesrur his executioner. It was his custom to disguise 
himself in the attire of a merchant; and this night, as he went 
through the city, he happened to pass, with his attendants, by the 
house of these Ladies, and hearing the sounds of the musical instru- 
ments, he said to Ja'far, 1 have a desire to enter this house, and to 
see who is giving this concert. — They are a parly who have become 
intoxicated, replied Ja'far, and I fear that we may experience some 
ill usage from them;— but the Khalifeh said. We must enter, and I 
would that you devise some stiatagem by which we may obtain 


admission to the inmaics. Ja'far therefore answered, I hear and obey : 
—and he advaneed^ and knocked at the door; and when ilie portress 
came and opened the door^ he said lo her, My mistress, we are mer- 
chants from Tabariyeh^* and have been in Baghdad ten days; we 
have brought with us merchandise, and taken lodgings in a Khan; 
and a merchant invited us to an entertainment this night: accord- 
ingly, we went to his house, and he placed food before us, and we 
ate^ and sat a while drini^ing together^ after which he gave us leave 
to deparL; and going out in the dark, and being sirangersj we missed 
OEir way to the Khan : we Ernst, therefore in your generosity that you 
will admit us to pass the night in your house; by doing which you 
will obtain a reward in heaven. — The portress, looking at them, and 
observing that they were En the garb of merchants, and that they 
bore an appearance of respectability^ returned, and consulted her two 
companions; and they said to her. Admit them; — so she returned, 
and opened to them the door. They said to her, Shall we enter with 
thy permission? She answered. Come in. The Khalifch, therefore, 
entered, with Ja'far and Mesrur; and when the ladies saw them, 
they rose to them, and served them, saying, Welcome are our guests; 
but we have a condition to impose upon you, that ye speak not of 
that which doth not concern you, lest ye hear that whkh will not 
please you. They answered, Good: — and when they had sat down 
to drink, the Khalifeh looked at the three mendicants, and was sur- 
prised at observing that each of them was blind of the left eye; and 
he gazed upon the ladies, and was perplexed and ama^.ed at their 
fairness and beauty. And when the others proceeded to drink and 
converse, the ladies brought wine to the Khalifeh; hut he said, I am 
a pilgrim; — and drew back from them. Whereupon the portress 
spread before him an embroidered cloth, and placed upon it a China 
bottle, into which she poured some willow-do wer-^va^er» adding to 
It a lump of ice, and sweetening it with sugar, while the Khalifeh 
thanked her, and said within himself, To-morrow 1 must reward 
her for this kind action. 

The party continued their carousal, and, when the wine took effect 
upon them, the mistress oE the house arose, and waited upon them; 
and afterwards, taking the hand of [he caterers, sard^ Arise, O my 

* Tiberias. 


sister, thai we may fulfil our debt. She replied, Good. The portrc^ 
then rose, and, after she had cleared the middle of the saloon, placed 
the mendicants at the fumhcr end^ beyond the doors; after which, 
the kdics called to the porcer, sayings How slight is thy friendship! 
thou art not a stranger, bur one of the family. So the porter arose, 
and gircicd himself, and said, What would ye? — to which one of the 
ladies answered, Stand where thou art; — and presently the caieress 
said to him, Assist me:— and he saw two black bitches, with chains 
attached to their necks, and drew ihem lo the middle oi the saloon; 
whereupon the mistress of the house arose from her place, and 
tucked up her sleeve above her wrist, and, taking a whip, said to the 
porter. Bring to me one of them. Accordingly, he dragged one for- 
ward by the chain. The hitch whined, and shook her head at the 
lady; but the latter fell to beating her upon the head, notwithstand- 
ing her howhng, until her arms were tired, when she threw the vvhip 
from her hand, and pressed the bitch to her bosom, and wiped away 
her tears, and kissed het head; after which she said to the porter. 
Take her back and bring the other; — and he brought her^ and she 
did to her as she had done to the first. At the sight of this, the mind 
of the Klialifeh was troubled, and hi.s heart was contracted, and he 
winked to Ja'far that he should ask her the reason; hut he replied 
by a sign. Speak not. 

The mistress of the house then looked towards the portress and 
said to her, Arise to perform what thou has: to do. She replied. 
Good: — and the mistress of the house seated herself upon a couch of 
alabaster, overlaid with gold and silver, and said to the portress and 
the cateress, Now perform your parts. The portress then seated her- 
self upon a couch by her; and the cateress, having entered a closet, 
brought out from it a bag of satin with green fringes, and, placing 
herself before the lady of the house, shook it, and took ou: from it 
a lute; and she tuned its strings, and sang to it these verses: — 

Restore to my eyelid? the sleep which haih been ravished; and infoim 
me ot my reason, whither it haih fled. 

I discovered, when I Cook np my abode wiih love, that slumber had 
bticome an enemy to my eyes. 

They said^ We saw thee to he one of the upright; what, then, haih se- 
duced theef I anijwered, Seek the cause irom his glance. 


Veriiy I CKCuae him for the shedding of my blood, admiiting that I uigcd 

him Co the deed by vexation. 
He casr hh sun-like image upon ibe mirror of my mind, and its reflection 

kindled a 3ame in my vital?. 

When the portress had heard this song, she c>:cltiimedT AlLih 
approve thee]— and she rent her clothes, and feli upon the lloor in a 
swoon; and when her bosom was thus uncovered, the Khalifeh siiw 
upon her the marks of beating, as if from mikra'alis" and whips; at 
which he was greatly surprised. The cateress immediately arose, 
sprinkled water upon her face, and brought her another dress, which 
she put on. The Khalifeii then said to Ja'far> Sees: thou not this 
womitn, and the marks of beating upon her? I cannot keep silence 
respecting this affair, nor be at rest, until I know the truth of the 
history of this damsel, and that of these two bitches. But Ja'£ar 
replied) O our lord, chey have made a covenant with us that we shall 
not speak excepting of that which concerneth us, lest we hear that 
which will not please us. — The cateress then took the luce again, 
and, placing it against her bosom, touched the chords with the ends 
of her fingers, and thus sang to it:— 

Jf of love we complain, what shall wc say? Or consuming through de- 
sire, how can wc escape? 

Or if we send a messenger to interpret for us, he cannot convey the 
lover's complaint. 

Or if we would be iMtlent, short were our existence after the loss of 
tho5e we love. 

Nought rem^ineth to us but grief and mourning, and tears streaming 
down our cheeks. 

O you who are absent from my sight, but constantly dwelling wilhin my 

Have you kept your faiih to an impassioned lover, who, while time cn- 

durcfh wjlj never change? 
Or, in absE^nce have you fotgotlen that lover who, on your account, is 
. „ wasling away? . . 

When the day of judgment shall bring us together, 1 will beg of ouc 
Lord a protractive trial. 

On hearing these verses of the cateress, the portress again rent her 
clothes, and cried out, and fell upon the floor in a swoon; and the 

^ P^lni sEJcks. 


cjteress, as before, put on her another dressj after she had sprinkled 
some water upon her face. 

The mendjciints, when they ivitncssed this scene^ said, Would 
thai we had never entered this house^ but rather had passed the night 
upon the [rubbish-] nioiinds; for our night hiuh heeu rendered foul 
by an event that brcakcth the back! Tlie Khalifeh^ looking towards 
them^ then said, Wherefore is it so with you? They answered, Our 
hearts arc troubled by this occur rence,-^Are ye not, he asked, of this 
house?^^o, they answered; nor did we imagine that this house 
belonged to any but the man who is sitting with you^ — upon which 
the porter said, Verily, 1 have never seen this place before this night; 
and I would that I had passed the night upon the mounds rather 
than here. They then observed, one to another, We are seven men, 
and they are but three women; we will, therefore, ask them of their 
history; and if diey answer us not willingly they shah do it in spite of 
themselves: — and they all agreed to this, excepting Ja*far, who said, 
This is not a right deierini nation; leave them to themselves, for we 
are their guests, and they made a covenant with us which we shoifid 
fulfil: there remaineth but little of the night, and each o£ us shall 
soon go his way. Then, winking to the Khalifeh, he said, There 
remaineth but an hour; and ro-morrow we will bring them before 
thee, and thou shalt ask them their story. Bnf the Khalifeh refused 
to do so, and said, I have not patience to wait so long for their history. 
— Words followed words, and at last they said, Who shaH put the 
question to them? — and one answered. The porter. 

The ladies then said to them, G people, of what are ye talking: — 
whereiipon the porter approached the mistress of the house, and said 
to her, O my mistress, 1 ask thee, and nonjure thee by Allah, to tell 
us the story of the two bitches, and for what reason thou didst beat 
them, and then didst weep, and kiss them, and that thou acquaint 
us with the cause of thy sister's having been beaten widi mikra'ahs: 
that is our question, and peace be on yon. — Is this true that he saith 
of you? inquired the lady, of the other men; and they all answered, 
Yes,— excepting Ja'far, who was silent. When the lady heard their 
answer, she said, Verily, O our guesrs, ye have wronged us exces- 
sively; for we made a covenant with you beforehand, that he who 
should speak of ihat which concerned him noc should hear that 


which would rtot please him. Is it not enough that we have admitted 
you into our house, and fed you with our proviiions? But it is not 
SO much your fjult as the fault o£ her who introduced yoir to us-— 
She then lucked up her sleeve above her wrist, and struck the floor 
three times, siiying, Come ye quickly!— and immediately the door of 
a closet opened^ and there came forth from it seven black slaves^ 
each having in his hand a drawn sword. The lady said to them, Tie 
bciiind them the hand? of [hese men of many words, and bind each 
of them CO another:— and they did so^ and said, O virtuous lady, dost 
thou permit: us to strike ofl their heads? She answered, Give them 
a short respite, until I shall have inquired of them their histories, 
before ye behead them-— By Allah, O my mistress, exclaimed the 
porter, kill me not for the oiTence of others: for they have all trans- 
gressed and committed an olTence, excepting me- Verily our night 
had been pleasant if we had been preserved from these mendicants, 
whose presence is enough to convert a ivell-peoplcd city into a heap 
of ruinsf— He then repeated this couplet: — 

How good is it to pardon one able to resist! and how much more so, 
one who is helpless! 

For the sake ot the friendship that subsisted ijetwecn us, destroy not one 
for the crime of another! 

On hearing these words of the porter, the lady laughed after her 
anger- Then approaching thp men, she said. Acquaint me with your 
histories, for there remaineih of your lives no more than an hour. 
Were ye not persons of honourable and high condition, or governors, 
I would hasten your T-eeompense.- The Khalifeh said to Ja'far, Woe 
to thee, O Ja'far! make known to her who we are; otherwise she 
will kill US- — It were what we deserve, replied he.— Jesting, said the 
Khalifeh, is not befitting in a time for seriousness: each has its proper 
occasion. — The lady then approached the mendicants, and said to 
them. Are ye brothers? They answered, No, indeed^ we are only 
poor foreigners- She said then to one of them. Wast thou born blind 
of one eye? — No, verily, he answered; but a. :vonderfiil event hap- 
pened to me when my eye was destroyed, and the story of it. if 
engraved on [he understanding, would serve as a lesson to him who 
would be admonished. She asked the second and the third also; 


and rhey answered her as the firsts adding, Eadi of us Is from a 
dilTerent country^ and our history is wondertul and extraordinary. 
The lady then looked towards ihcm and said, Each of you lihall 
relate his story^ and the cause of his coming to our ahode, and then 
stroke his head, and go his way. 

The first who advjnced was ihe porter, who said» O my mistress^ 
1 am a porter; and this cateress loaded me, and brought me liither, 
and what hath happened to me here in your company ye know. 
This is my story- and peace be on you.^-Stroke thy head, then, said 
she, and go:"but he replied, 13y Albh, 1 will not go until 1 shall 
have heard the story of my companiojis. — The first mendicant then 
advanced, and related as follows:^ 

The Storv or the FirtsT Roval MENDiCA>jT 

Kf^ow, O my mistress, that the cause of my having shaved my 
beard, and of the loss of my eye, was this: — My father ivas a King, 
and Ik had a brother wlio was also a King, and who resided in 
another capital. It hiippcned that my mother gave birth lo me on the 
same day on which the son of my uncle was born; and years and 
days passed away until we attained to manhood. Now, it was my 
custom, some years, to Visit my uncle, and to remain with him sev- 
eral months; and on one of these occasions my cousin paid me great 
honour; he slauglilercd sheep for me, and strained the wine for 
me, and we sat down to drink; and when the wine had aifecied ms^ 
he said to me, O son of my uncle, I have need of thine assistance in 
an affair of interest to me, and I beg that thou wilt not oppose me in 
that which I desire lo do. 1 replied, 1 am altogether at thy service t — 
and he made me swear to him by great oaths, and, rising imme- 
diately, absented himself for a httle while, and then, returned, fol- 
lowed by a ^voman decked with ornaments, and perfumed, and 
wearing a dress of eMtraordinary vahie. He looked towards me, 
while the woman stood behind him, and said. Take this woman, 
and go before me to the burial-ground which is in such a place: — 
and he described it to me, and 1 knew it. He dion added, Enter the 
burial-ground, and there wait for me- 

1 could not oppose him, nor refuse to comply with his request. 


on account of the oaths which I had sworn to him; so 1 took the 
woman^ and wen: with her ro the burial-ground; and when we had 
sat there a short time, my cousin came, bearing a basin of water, 
and a bag containing some plaster, and a small adze. Going to u 
tomb in the midst of the burial-ground, he Look tlie adze, and dis- 
united the stones, which he placed on one side; he [hen dug up the 
earth with the adze, and uncovered a flat stone, of the si?,e o£ a 
small door, under which there appeared a vaulted staircase. Having 
done this, he made a sign to the woman, and said to her, Do accord- 
ing to thy choice: — whereupon she descended the stairs. He then 
looked towards me, and siid, O son of my uncle, complete thy kind- 
ness when I have descended into this place, by replacing the trap- 
door and the earth above ic as they were before: then, this plaster 
which is in the bag, and this water which is in the basin, do thou 
knead together, and plaster the stones of the tomb as they were, so 
that no man may know it, and say. This hath been lately opened, 
but its interior is old:— for, during the space of a whole year I have 
been preparing this, and no one knew it but God; this is what 1 
would have thee do. He then said to me, May God never deprive thy 
friends of thy presence, O son of my unclel — and, having uttered 
these words, he descended the stairs. 

When he had disappeared from before my eyes, I replaced the 
trap-door, and busied myself with doing as he had ordered me, until 
the tomb was restored to the state in which it was at first; after which 
1 returned to the palace of ray uncle, who was tlien absent on a 
hunting excursion. 1 slept that night, and when the morning came, 
1 reflected upon what had occurred between me and my cousin, and 
repented of what I had done for him, when repentance \vas of no 
avail. I then went out to the burial-ground, and searched for the 
tomb; but could not discover it. I ceased not in my search until the 
approach of nighty and, not finding the way to it, returned again to 
the palace; and I neither ate nor drank; my heart was troubled 
respecting my cousin, since I knew not what had become of him; 
and 1 fell into excessive grief. I passed the night sorrowful until the 
morning, and went again to the burial-ground, rejecting upon the 
action of my cousin, and repenting of my compliance with his re- 
quest; and I searched among all the tombs^ but discovered not that 


for which I looked. Thus I persevered in my se-irch seven days 
without suctess. 

My trouble continued and incroiised until i was almost mild; and 
I found no relief but in departing, and returning to my father; but 
on my arrival at his capital, a p^rty at the city-gate sprang upon me 
and bound me. 1 was struck with the utmost astonishment, con- 
sidering that J was the son of the Sultan ot the city, and that these 
were the servants of my father and of myself: excessive fear of them 
overcame me^ and I said within myself. What hath happened to my 
father? I asked, of (hose who had bound me, the cause of this con- 
duct; but they returned me no answer, till after a while^ when one 
of them, who had been my servant, said to me, Fortune hath 
betrayed thy father, the troops have been false to him, and the Wczir 
hath killed him; and we were lying in wait to lake thee. — They took 
me, and I was as one dead, by reason of this news which I had heard 
respecting my father; and 1 stood before the Wezir who had killed 
my father. 

Now, there was an old enmity subsisting between me and him; 
and the cause of it was this: — I ^vas fond of shooting with the cross- 
bow; and it happened, one day, rhat as I was standing on the roof 
of my p;i]ace, a bird alighted on die roof of the palace of the We^ir, 
who was standing there at the time, and I aimed at the bird; but 
the bullet missed it, and struck the eye of the Wezir, and knocked 
it out, in accordance with the appointment of fate and destiny, as 
the poet hath said: — 

We irod the ^tcps appoinced far us: and the man whose steps are ap- 

poinied must tread them- 
He whose dca^h is decreed to lake place in one land will not die in any 

land but thac 

When I had thus put out ihe eye of the Wezir, he could say nothing, 
because my father was King of the city. This was the cujsc of ihe 
enmity between him and me: and when I stood before him, with 
my hands bound behind me, he gave the order to strike off my head. 
! said to him, Wouldsf thou kill me for no offence? — What offence, 
he exclaimed, could be greater than this? — and he pointed to the 
place of the eye which was put out, 1 did that, said 1, unintentionally. 


He replied, If ihou didst it unimen lion ally, T will do the same lo 
thee purpoiely: — and immcdiaiely he said, Bring him forward lo 
me: — ^rtd, when ihey had done so, he thrust his finger into my lefi 
eye, and pulled it oui. Thus I became deprived of one eye, as ye see 
me. He then hound me firmly, and placed me in a. chesi, and said 
to ihe esecuiionerj Take this fellow, and draw [hy sword, and con- 
vey him without ihe city; then pui him to death, and let ibe wild 
beasts devour him. 

Accordingly, he went forth with mc from the city, and, having 
taken me out from the chesi, bound hand and fool, was about to 
bandage my eye, and kill me; whereupon I wepr^ and exclaimed, — 

How many brothers have I laken as armour! and such they ucre^ but to 

guard my enemies, 
I thought they would be as piercing arrows: and such ihcy were; but to 

enter my heart! 

The executioner, wlio had sorted my father in the same capacity, 
and to whom 1 had shewn kindnesses, said, on hearing these verses, 

my master, what can I do, being a skive under command?— but 
presently he added, Depart with thy lite, and return not lo this 
country, lest thou peri&hj and cause me to perish with thee. The 
poet saiih, — 

Flee with thy life if thou fearest oppression, and leave the house to tell 

its builder's fate. 
Thou will find, for the land that thou quittesi:, another: but no soul wilt 

thou find to replace thine own. 

As soon as he had thus said, i kissed his hands, and heheved not 
in my safely until 1 had fled from his presence- The loss of my eye 
appea^red light to me when I considered my escape frnm death; and 

1 journeyed to my uncle's capital, and, presenting myself before him, 
informed him of what had befallen my father^ and of the manner 
in which I had lost my eye: upon which he wept biucrly, and said, 
Thou hast added tcj my trouble and my grief; for thy cousin hath 
been lost for some days, and I know not what hath happened to him, 
nor can any one give me information respeciing him. Then he wept 
again, until he became insensible; and when he recovered, he said, 
O my son, the loss of ihinc eye is belter ilian the loss of thy life. 


Upon this I could no longer keep silence respecdng his son^ my 
couiin; iO 1 informed him of all that happened to him; and on 
hearing this news he rejoiced exceedingly, and Siiid, Shew me ihe 
tomb- — By AUiili, O njy uncle, 1 replied, I know nor where it is; for 
I went afterwards scvcml times to search for it, and could not recog- 
nize its place. We, however, went togeiher to the burial-ground, 
and, looking to the right and left, I discovered it; and both 1 and 
my uncle rejoiced. I then entered the tomb with him, and when we 
had removed the earth, and lifted up the trap-door, we descended 
fifty steps, andj arriving at the bottom of the stairs, there issued 
forth upon us a smoke which blinded our eyes; whereupon my uncle 
pronounced those words which relieve from fear him who uEtereth 
them, — There is no strength nor power but in God, the High, the 
Great! — After this, we proceeded, and found ourselves in a saloon, 
filled with flour and grain, and various eatables; and we saw there 
a curtain suspended over a couch, upon ivhich my uncle looked, 
and fotmd there his son and the woman who h;id descended with 
him, lying side by side, and converted into black charcoal, as if (hey 
had been thrown into a pit of fire. And when he beheld this spec- 
taclcj he spat in his son's face, and CKclaimed, This is what thou 
deservest, O thou wretch] This is the punishment of the present 
world, a[id there remaineth the punishment of the other world, 
which will be more severe and lasting! — and he struck him with his 
shoes. Astonished at this action, :ind grieved for my cousin, seeing 
him and the damsel thus converted into charcoal, I said, By Allah, 
O my uncle, moderate the trouble of thy heart, for my mind is per- 
plexed by that which hath happened to thy son^ and by thinking how 
it hath come to pass that he and the damsel are converted into black 
charcoal. Dost thou not deem it enough for him to be in this state, 
that thou beatest him with thy shoes? 

O son of my brother, he replied, this my son was, from his early 
years, inflamed wiih love for his [foster-] sister, and I used to forbid 
him from entertaining this passion for her, and to say within myself, 
They are now children, but when they grow older a base act will 
be committed by them: — and, indeed, 1 heard that such had been 
the case, but I believed it not. 1, however, reprimanded him severely) 
and said lo hiroj Beware of so foul an action, xvhich none before ihee 



hath commiited, nor wfil any corrunit after thee: oiherwise we shall 
suffer disgrace and disparagement among the Kings until we die, 
and our history will spread abroad with the caravans: have a care for 
thyself that such an action proceed not from ihee^ for I should be 
incensed against thee* and kill thee. I then separated him from her^ 
and het from liim: bat the vile womjn loved him excessively; the 
Devil got possession of tliem both; and when my son saw chat 1 had 
separated him, he secretly made this place beneath the earthj and, 
having conveyed iiisher the provisions which thou sccsc, took advan- 
tage of my inadvertence when 1 had gone out to hunt, and came 
hither; but the Truth (whose perfection be extolled, and whose name 
be exalted!) was jealously vigilant over them, and consumed them 
by fire; and the punishment ot the world to come will be more 
severe and lasting. — He then wept, and I wept with him; and he 
said to me, Thou art my son in his stead. — I remained a while 
reflecting upon the world and its vicissitudes, upon the murder of 
my father by the Wezir, and his usurpijig his throne, and the loss of 
my eye, and the strange events which had happened to my cousin, 
and 1 wept again. 

We then ascended, and, having replaced the trap-door and the 
earth above it, and restored the tomb to its former state, returned 
to our abode; but scarcely had we seated ourselves when we heard 
the sounds of drums and trumpets, warriors galloped about, and the 
air was filled with dust raised by the horses" hoofs. Our minds were 
perplexed, not knowing what had happened, and the King, asking 
the news, was answered, The We^ir of thy brother hath slain him 
arid hfs soldiers and guards, and come with his army to assault the 
city unawares; and the inhabitants, being unable to withstand, have 
submitted to him;— whereupon 1 said within myself, ]f I fall into 
his hand, he will slay me. — Griefs overwhelmed me, and I thought 
of the calamities which had befallen my father and my mother, and 
Itnew not what to do; for if 1 appeared, the people of the city would 
know me, and the troops of my father would hasten to kill and de- 
stroy me. I knew no way of escape but to shave off my beard; so I 
shaved it, and, having changed my clodies, departed from the city, 
and came hither, to this abode of peace, in the hope that some person 
would introduce me to the Prince of the Faithful, the Khjiifeh of 


ihe Lord of all creatures^ tliat I might relate to liim rny story, and 
all that hztd befallen me. I arrived in [his city this night; and as 1 
stood pcrp[i^xed» not knowing whiiher to direct my seeps, 1 saw this 
mendrcam, and saluted him, and said* I am a stranger. He replied, 
And 1, too, :im n stranger:— and while we wcm thus addressing each 
other, our companion, this third person^ came up to us, and, saluting 
us, said, I am a stranger. We replied. And we, also, are strangers. 
So we walked on together, and darkness overtook us, and destiny 
directed us unto your abode:— This was the cause of the shaving of 
my beardi and of the loss of my eye. 

The lady [hen said to hini, Stroke thy head, and depart; — but he 
replied, J will not depart undl I have heard the storic? oE the others. 
And they wondered at his tale; and the Khahfeh said to J^'far, 
Verily I have never kno\:'n the like of that which hath happened 
to this Tnendicant. 

The second mendicant then advanced, and, having kissed thic 
ground, said, — 

Tke Stot*V of the Secoxd Royal Men'dicant 

MY mistress, T ^vas not born ivith only one eye; but my story 
is wonderful, and, if written, would serve as a lesion lo him who 
would be admonished. I am a King, and son of a King; I read the 
Kur'an according Co the seven readings, and perused various works 
under the tuition of different learned professors of their subjects: I 
studied the science of the starsj and the writings of the poets, and 
made myself a proficient in all the sciences^ so that I surpassed the 
people of my age. My hand-writing was extolled among all the 
scribes, my fame spread among all countries, and my history among 
all Kings; and the King of Lidia, hearing of me, requested my father 
to allow me to visit him, sending him various gifts and curious pres- 
ents, such as were suitable to Kings. My father, thereforCi prepared 
for me sis ships, and we proceeded by sea for the space of a whole 
month, after which we came to land; and, having disembarked some 
horses which we had with us in the ship, we loifded ten camels with 
presents, and commenced our fourncy; but soon there appeared a 
cloud of dust, which rose and spread until it filled the air before us. 


jindi after a while, cleared a liirle^ and discovered w us, in the midst 
of it, sixty horsemen like fierce lions, whom we perceived to be Arab 
highwaymen^ and when they saw us, that we were a small company 
with ren loads of presents for the King of India, they galloped 
towards us, pointing their spears at us. We made signs to them with 
otir lingers, and said, We arc ambassadors lo ihe honoured King of 
India, therefore do us no injury: — buc ihey replied^ We are not in 
his territorieSj nor under his government. They slew certain of the 
young men, and [he resL fled- I also Hed, after 1 had received a severe 
wound; the Arabs being employed, without further regard to ns, in 
faking possession of the treasure and presents which we had with us. 
I proceeded without knowing whither to direct my course, reduced 
from a mighty to an abject state, and journeyed tilt 1 arrived at the 
summit of a mountain, where I look shelter in a cavern until the 
nexc morning. J then resumed my journey, and arrived at a flrjurish- 
ing city: the winter, with its cold, had passed away, and the spring 
had come, with its flowers; and I rejoiced at my arrival there, being 
wearied with my journey, anxioas and pallid. My condition being 
thus changed, I knew not whither to bend my steps; and, turning 
to a tailor sitting in his shop, 1 saluted him, and he returned my 
salutation, and welcomed me, and wished me joy, asking me the 
reason of my having come thither. I acquainted him, therefore, 
with what had befallen me from first to last, and he was grieved for 
me, and said, O young man, reveal not thy case, for I fear what the 
King of this city might do to thee, since he is the greatest of thy 
father's enemies, and hath a debt of blood against him. He then 
placed some food and drink before me, and wo ate together, and I 
conversed with him till night, when he lodged me in a place by his 
shop, and brought me a bed and covcriet; and, after I had remained 
with him three days, he said to me, Dost thou not know any trade by 
which to make gain? I answered, T am acquainted with the law, a 
student of scieiices, a writer, and an arithmetician. — Thy occupation, 
he said, is profitless in our country: there is no one in our city 
acquainted with science or writing, but only with getting money. 
Verily, I replied, I know nothing but ivhat 1 have told thee. — Gird 
thyself, then, said he, and take an axe and a rope, and cut firewood 
in the desert, and sc obtain thy subsistence until God dispel thy 


afffiction; but acquaint no one wiih ihy history^ else they will kill 
thee. He ihefi bought for me an axe and a mpc, and seim me with 
a pariy o£ wood-cutLcrs, giving them a thargc respt^cting me. Accord- 
ingly, I went forth with them» and cut iome wood» and brought 
back a load upon my head, ynd sold it for half a piece ot gold, part 
o£ which I expended in food, kiyjng by the remainder. 

Thus I continued for the space of a ycar^ after which I went one 
day into the desert^ according to my custom, to cut firewood; and, 
finding there a tract with abundance of wood, 1 entered it, and came 
to a tree, around which I dug; and as 1 was removing the earth from 
its roofs» the axe struck jgainst a ring of bra,ss; and I cleared away 
the earth from it, and found that it was affiled to a trap-door of 
wood, which I immediately removed. Beneath it appeared a stair- 
case, which I descended; and at the bottom of this I entered a door, 
and beheld a palace, strongly constructed, where 1 found a lady, like 
a pearl of high price, whose aspect banished from the heart all 
anxiety and grief and alHiciion- At the sight of her I prostrated my- 
self in adoration of her Creator for [he fairness and beauty which 
He had displayed in her person; and she, looking towards me, said, 
Art thou a man or a Jinni? I answered her, I am a man.— And who, 
she asked) hath brought thee to this place, in which I have lived five 
and twenty years without ever seeing a human being? — Her words 
sounded sweetly to me, and I answered her, O my mistress, God 
bath brought me to thy abode, and J hope will put an end to my 
anxiety and grief; — and I refated to her my story from beginning 
to end. She was grieved at my case, and wept, and said, I also will 
acquaint thee with my story. Know that 1 am the daughter of the 
King of the further parts of India, the lord of the Ebony Island. My 
father had married me to the son of my uncle] but on the night of 
my bridal festivities, an 'Efrit named Jarjaris, the son of Rejmus, the 
son of Iblis, carrred me oil, and, soaring with me through the air, 
alighted in this place, to which he conveyed all things necessary for 
me, such as ornaments, and garments, and linen, and furniture, and 
food, and drink; and once in every ten days he cometh to me, and 
spendeih a night here; and he hath appointed wiLh me, char, in case 
of my wanting any thing by night or day, I should touch with my 
hand these two lines whach are inscribed upon die kubbeh, and as 


soon as I remove my hiind I see liim before me. Four days have no^v 
pasied since he was last with me, and there remain, therefore, six 
days before he will come again^ wilt thou then remain with me five 
days, and depart one day before his visit? — I answered, Yes; — rejoic- 
ing -Jt the proposal; and she arose, and, taking me by the hand, con- 
ducted me through an arched door to a small and elegant bath, where 
I took off my clothes, while she seated herself upon a mattress. 
After this, she seated me by her side, and brought me some sherbet 
of sugar infused with musk, and handed it to me to drink; she then 
placed some food before me, and after we had eaten and conversed 
together, she said to me. Sleep, and rest thyself; for thoti are fatigued. 

I slept, O my mistress, and forgot all that had befallen me; and 
when 1 awoke, 1 foiind her rubbing my feet; upon which 1 called 
to her, and we sat down again and conversed awhile; and she said 
to me, By Allah, I was straitened in my heart, living here alone, with- 
out any person to talk with me, five and twenty years. Praise be 
to God who hath sent thee fo me, — I thanked her for her kind expres- 
sions; and love of her took possession of my heart, and my anxiety 
and grief fled away. We then sat down to drink together; and J 
remained by her side all the night, delighted with her company, for 
I had never seen her like in my whole life; and in the morning, 
when we were both full of joy, I said to her. Shall 1 take rhee up from 
this subterranean place, and release thee from the ]inni? But she 
laughed, and replied, I3e content, and hold thy peace; for, of every 
ten days, one day shall be for the 'Efrit, and nine for rhee, 1 per- 
si::ted, however, being overcome with passion^ and said, I will this 
instant demolish this kubbeh upon which the inscription is engraved, 
and let the 'Efrit come, that I may sLiy him: for 1 am predestined 
to kill 'Efrits. She entrcaEed me to refrain; but, paying no attention 
to her words, I kicked the kubbeh with violence; upon which she 
exclaimed, The 'Efrii hath arrived! Did 1 not caution thee against 
this? Verily thou hast brought 3 calamity upon me; but save thy- 
self, and ascend by the way that thou earnest. 

In the e>:cess of my fear I forgot my sandals and my axe, and 
when I had ascended two steps, turning round to look for ihem, I 
saw that the ground had opened, and there rose from it an Efrit 
of hideous aspect, who said, Wherefore is this disturbance with 


which thou hast alarmed me, and what misfortune hath befjlleii 
thee? She answer&d, No misEoriune haih happened to me» excepting 
chat my hcarE was contracted, and T desired to drtnk &ome wine lo 
diLtte it, and, rising to perform my purpose, I fell against the kubbeh. 
— Thou liestj vile woman^ he exclaimed; — and, looking about the 
palace to the right and left, he saw the sandals and axe; and said 
to her, These are the property of none but a man. Who hath visited 
thee? — 1 have not seen them, ^he answered, until this instant: prob- 
ably they caught to thee. — This language, said he, is absurd, and will 
have no ciTeci upon me, thou shameless woman!— and, so saying, 
he stripped her of her clothing, antl tied her down, with her arms 
and legs extended, to four stakes, and began to beat her, urging her 
to confess what had happened. 

For myself, being un.ible to endure her cries, I ascended the stairs, 
overpowered by fear, and, arriving at the top, replaced the trap-door 
as it was at first, and covered k over with earth- 1 repented bitterly 
of what 1 had done, and rcllecting upon the lady and her beauty, 
and how this wreti:h was torturing her after she had lived with him 
frve and twenty years, and that ho tortured her only on my account, 
and reflecting also upon my father and his kingdom, and how I had 
been reduced to the condition of a wood-cutter, I repeated this 
verse :— 

When fortune hringcth thee aElliciion, console thyself by remembering 
tliat one iJay lliou must see prosperity, and anodier day, diriicuky. 

Returning to my companion, the tailor, 1 found him awaiting my 
return as if he ■w'ere placed in a pan upon burning toals. I passed last 
night, said he, with anxious heart on thy account, fearing for ihee 
from some wild beast or other cabmity. Praise be to God for thy 
safe return. — I thanked him for his tender concern for me, and 
entered my apartment; and as I sat meditating upon that which had 
befallen me, and blaming myself for having kicked the kubbeh, my 
friend the tailor came in to me, and said, In the shop is a foreigner, 
who asks for thee, and he has thy axe and sandals; he came with 
them to the wood-cutters, and said to them, I went out at the time 
of the call of the Mu'eddin to morning-prayer, and stumbled upon 
these, and know not to whom they belong: can ye guide me to their 


owner? — The wood-c utters, therefore, directed him to thee: he is 
sitting in my shopj so go out to him and thank him, and take thy 
axe snd thy sandals- — On hearing these words, my countenance 
turned palp^ and my whole state became changed; and while I was 
in this condition, the floor of my chamhcr clove asunder, and there 
rose from it the stranger, and lo, he was the 'Etrit; he had tortured 
che lady with the utmost cruelly^ bur she would confess nothing: 
so he took the axe and the sandals, and said to her, H I am Jarjaris, 
of the descendants of Ibhs, I will bring the owner of this axe and 
these sandals. Accordingly, he came, with the pretence before men- 
tioned, to the ^woodcutters, and, having entered my chamber with- 
out granting me any delay, seized me, and soared with me through 
the air: he then descended, and dived into the earth, and brought me 
up into the place where I was before. 

Here I beheld the lady stripped of her clothing, and with blood 
flowing from her sides; and tears trickled from my eyes. The 'Efrit 
then took hold of her, and said, Vjle woman, this is thy lover: — 
whereupon she looked at me, and replied, I ktiow him not, nor have 
I ever seen him until this instant. The 'Efrit said to her. With all 
this torture wilt thou not confess? She answered. Never in my life 
have I seen him before, and it is not huvfu! in the sight of God that 
1 should speak falsely against him, — Then, said he, if thou know 
him not, take this sword and strike off his head. She took the 
sword, and came to mc, and stood over my head : but 1 made a sign 
to her with my eyebrow, while tears ran down my cheeks. She 
replied in a similar manner. Thou art he who hath done ,all this to 
me: — I made a sign to her, however, that this was a time for pardon, 
conveying my me^ining in the manner thus described by the poet: — 

Our signal in love is the glance of our eyesj and every intelligent person 
understandeth ihe sign^ 

Our eyebrows carry on an intercourse between us: we are silent" but love 

And when she understood me, she threw the sword from her hand, 
O my mistress, and the 'Efrit handed it to me, saying. Strike ofT her 
head, and I will liberate thee, and do thee no harm. I replied, Good: 
—and, quickly approaching her, r,aised my hand; but she made a 


sign as though she would say, l did no injury to tKee: — whereupon 
my eyes poured with tears, and, throwing down the sword, I said, 

mi^hiy 'Efrit, and vahaiit hero, if a woman, deficient in sense and 
religion, secth it not lawful to strike off my head, how is it lawful 
for me to do so to her, and especially when 1 have never seen her 
before in my life? I will never do i[» though 1 should drink the cup 
d£ death and destruction. — There is aftecdon between you, s:t\d the 
'Efrit, and, taking the sword, he struck oB one of the hands of the 
lady; then, the other; after this, her right foot; and then, her left 
foot: thus with four blows he cur off her four extremities, while I 
looked on, expecting my own death. She then made a sign to me 
with her eye; and the 'Efrit, observing her, exclaimed. Now thou 
hast been guilty of incontinence with thine eye! — and, with a blow 
of his sword, struck off her head; after whichj he turned towards me, 
and iaid, O man, it is allowed us by our law, if a wife be guilty of 
incontinence, to put her to death. This woman 1 carried off on her 
wedding-night, when she was twelve years of age, and she was 
acquainted with no man but me; and I used to pass one night with 
her in the course □£ every ten days in. the garb of a foreigner; and 
when I discovered of a certainty diat she had been unfaithful to me, 

1 killed her: but as for thee, i am not convinced that thou hast 
wronged me with respect to her; yet I must not leave thee unpun- 
ished ; choose, therefore, what inj ury I shall do to ihee. 

Upon this, O my mistress, I rejoiced exceedingly, and, eager to 
obtain his pardon, I said to liim, What shall 1 choose from thy 
hands? — Choose he answered, into what form I shall change thee; 
cither the form of a dog, or that of an ass, or that of an ape. I replied, 
in my desire of forgiveness. Verily, if thou wilt pardon me, God will 
pardon ihee in recompense for thy shewing mercy to a Muslim who 
hath done thee no injury:— and 1 humbled myself in the most abject 
manner, and said to him, Pardon me as the envied man did the 
envier. — And how was that? said he. I answered as follows: — 

The Story of the Envjer and the Envied 

Know, O my master, that there was a certain man who had a 
neighbour that envied him; and the more this person envied him. 


so much the more did God increase the prosperity of the former. 
Thus it continued a long timcj but when rhe envied man found thai 
his neighbour persisted in troubling him, he removed to a place 
where there was a deserted well^ and there he built for himself an 
oratory, and occupied himself in the worship of God, Numerous 
Pakirs*' assembled around him, and he acquired great esteem, people 
repairing to him from every quarter, placing firm reliance upon his 
sanctity; and his fjime reached the ears of his envious neighbour, 
whu mounted his horse, and went to visit him; and when the envied 
man saw him, he saluted him^ and payed him the utmost civihcy. 
The envier then said, to him, I have come hither to inform thee of 
a matter in which thou wilt find advantage, and for which I shall 
obtain a recompense in heaven. The envied man replied, May God 
requite thee for me with every blessing. Then, said the envier, order 
the Fakirs to retire to their cells, for the information chat I am about 
to give thee I would have no one overhear. So he ordered them to 
enter their cells; and the envier said to him, Arise^ and let us walk 
together, and converse; and they walked on undl they came to the 
deserted well before mentioned, when the envier pushed the envied 
man info this well, without the knowledge of any one, and went 
his way, imagining that he had killed him. 

But this well was inhabited by Jinn, who received him unhurt, 
and seated him upon a large stone; and when they had done this, 
one of them said to the otherSi Do ye know this man? They an- 
swered, We know him not.— This, said he, is the envied man who 
fled from him who envied him, and took up his abode in this 
quarter, in the neighbouring oratory, and who enteriaineih us by his 
zikr' and his readings; and when his envier heard of him, he came 
hither to him, and, devising a stratagem against him, threw him 
down here. His fame hath this night reached the Sultan of this 
city, who hath purposed to visit him to-morrow, on account of the 
afHiction which hath befallen bis daughter. — And what, said they, 
hath happened to his daughter? He answered. Madness; for Mey- 
mun, the son of Demdem^ hath become inflamed with love for her; 
and her cure is the easiest of things. They asked him, What is it? — 

^Pnor persons whn c^poriallv pccupy ihemscJvcii in rcllfirjiis ci^ercises. 
'Zikri consist in ruiicaijng ihe name nt God, ft ihc profcsaion oi hia unity, eic, in 
thftnis, accompany iiii,'rhc words bvft'nqin motions of ihc head, hantl:.. i>r wholr? body. 


and he answered. The black cat thar is with h'ltn in the oratory haih 
ac the end of her tail a while spot, of che size of a piece of silver; and 
from this white spot should be taken seven hairs, and with these 
the dimscl .should be fumigaied, and the M-irid would depart from 
over her head, and not returji to her; so she would be instantly cured. 
And now it is our duty to take him oiiz. 

When the morning came, the Faliirs saw the sheykh rising out of 
the well; and he became uiagnified En their eyes- And when he 
entered the oratoiy, he took from the white spot at the end of the 
cat*s tail seven hairs, and placed them in a portfolio by him; and at 
sunrise the King came to him, and when the sheykh saw liim^ he 
said to him, O King, thou hsist come to visit me in order that I may 
cure ihy daughter. The King rephed. Yes, O virtuous Sheykh. — 
Then, said the sheykh, send some person to bring her hither^ and 
I trust in God, whose name be exalted, that she may be instantly 
cured. And when the King had brought his daughier, the sheykh 
beheld her bound, and, seating her, suspended a curtain over hcr^ 
and took out the hairs, and fumigated her with them; whereupon 
die Marid cried otit from over her head, and left her; and the damsel 
immediately recovered her reason, and, veiling her face, said to her 
father, What is this, and wherefore didst thou bring me to this 
place? He answered her, Thou hast nothing to fear; — and rejoiced 
greatly. He kissed the iiand of the envied sheykh, and said to the 
great men of his court who were with hinii What shall be the recom- 
pense of this sheykh for that which he hath doner They answered, 
His recompense should be that ihou marry him to her. — Ye 
have spokeji truly, said the King: — and he gave Eier in marriage 
to him, and thus the sheykh became a connection of the King; 
and after some days the King diedj and he wjs made King in 
his place. 

And it happened one day that tliis envied King was riding with his 
troops, and he saw his envier approaching; and when this man came 
before him he seated him upon a horse with high distinction and 
honour, and, taking him to his palace, g3VG him a thousand pieces 
of gold, and a costly dress; after which he sent him bnick from the 
city, with attendants to escort him to his house, and reproached him 
for nothing.— Consider, then, O 'Efrit, the pardon d£ the envied to 


the envier, and his kindness to him, notwtihsi;inding the injuries 
he had done him. — 

The *Efrit, when he had hejrd this srory, replied, Lengthen not thy 
words (o me: as to my killing thee, fear it not; and as to my pardon- 
ing thee, covet ic not; but as to my enchimting thee, there is no escape 
from it; — and, so saying, he dove the earth usunder, and soared with 
me through the sky to such a lieight that I beheld the world beneath 
me as though it \vere a bowl of watery llien, alighting upon a moun- 
tain, he took up a hctle dusr, and, having muttered and pronounced 
certain words over it, sprinkled me with ic, saying. Quit this form, 
and rake the form of an ape I^ whereupon 1 became like an ape of a 
hundred years of age. 

When I sa^v myself changed into this ugly form, 1 wept for myself, 
but determined to be patient under the tyranny of fortune, know- 
ing it to be constant to no one- I descended from the summit o£ the 
mountain, and, afier having journeyed for the sp^cc of a month, 
arrived at the sea-shore; and, when 1 had stood there a short time, I 
saw a vessel in the midst of the sea, with a favourable wind approach- 
ing the land; 1 therefore hid myself behind a rock on the beach, and 
when the ship came close up, I sprang into the midst of it. But as 
soon as the persons on board saw me, one of them cried. Turn out 
[his unlucky bruie from the ship: — anoiher said, Lee us kill him: — 
and a third exclaimed, 1 wWi kill him wiih this sword. 1, however, 
caught hold of the end of the sword, and tears flowed from my eyes; 
at [he sight of which the captain took compassion on me, and said 
to the passengers, O merchants, this ape hath sought my aid, and I 
give it him; he is under my proteciion; let no one, therefore, oppose 
or trouble him. He then treated me widi kindness, and whatever he 
said to me 1 understood, and all that he required to be done I per- 
formed as his servant. 

We continvied our voyage for fifty days 'ivith a fair wind, and cast 
anchor under a large city containing a population which no one but 
God, whose name be exalted) could reckon- and when we had 

i moored our vessel, there came to us some inemluks from the King 
of the city, who came on board the ship, and complimented the mer- 
' i chants on their safe arrival, sayings Our King greeted] you, rejoicing 



in your safety^ and ha:h scnr to yon this roll of paper^ desiiing that 
each of you ih^ill write a line upon it; for the King h^d a Wczir who 
was an eminent CitUigraphlst, and he is dead, and the King hath 
sworn chjc he will not appoint any person to liia office who cannot 
write equally well. Though in the form oi: an npc, 1 arose and 
snatched the paper from their hands; upon which, fearing that I 
would tear it and throw it into the sea, they cried our against me, 
and would have killed me; but 1 made signs to them that I :vould 
^ATitCj and the captain said to them, Suffer liim lo write, and if he 
scribble we will turn him away; but if he write well I will adopt 
him as my son; for 1 have never seen a more intelligent ape. So I 
took the pen, and demanded the ink, and wrote in an epistolary 
hand this couplet:^ 

Fame hath recorded the virtues of the noble; but no one hath been able 

to reckon thine. 
May God not deprive mankind of such a father; for thou art the par^^ni 

of every exceHence. 

Then, in a more formal, large hand, 1 wrote the following verses:— 

There is no writer that shall not perisii; but wKar hi^ hand hnih written 

endureth ever. 
Write, therefore, nothing but whaF will please thee wben thou shalt see 

it on the day of resurrection. 

Two other specimens I wrote, in two different and smaller hands, 
and returned [he paper to the memluks, who took it back to the 
King; and when he saw what was written upon it, the liand of no 
one pleased him e?rcepting mine; and he said to his attendants. Go 
to the author of this hand-writing, put upon him this dres5j and 
mount him upon a mule, and conduct him, with the band of music 
before him, to my presence. On hearing this order, they smiled; 
and the King was angry with them, and said, How is it that I give 
you an order, and ye laugh at me? They answered, O King, we 
laugh not at thy words, but because he who wrote this is an ape, and 
not a son of Adam: he is with the captain of the ship newly arrived. 
The King was astonished at their words; he shook with delighCi 
and said, 1 would purchase this ape. He then sent some messengers 
to the ship, with the mule and the dress of honour, saying to them. 


Ye muse cloihe him with ihis dtess, and mouni him upon the mule, 
and bring him hiiher. So ihey came eo the ship» and» taking me from 
the captain^ dad me with the dress; and the people were astonished^ 
and flocked to amuse Ehemselves with the sight of me. And when 
they brought me to the King, and 1 beheld him, I kissed the ground 
before him three times, and he ordered me to sit down: so T sat 
down upon my knees; and the persons present were surprised at 
my polite manners, and especially the King, who presently ordered 
his people to retire. They, therefofe, did so; none remaining but the 
King, and a eunuch, and a young memluk, and myself. The King 
then commanded [hat a repast should be brought; and they placed 
before him a service of viands, such as gratified the appetite and 
delighted the eye; and the King made a sign to me that I should 
eat; whereupon 1 arose, and, having kissed the ground before him 
seven limes, sat down to eat with him; and when the table was 
removed, 1 washed my hands, and, taking the ink-case, and pen and 
paper, 1 wrote these two verses:— 

Great is my appetite for thee, O Kunafeh!* 1 cannot be happy not en- 
dure widiout thee- 

Be thou every day and night my food; and may drops of honey not be 
wanting to moisten thee* 

Having done this, T arose, and seated myself at a distance; and the 
King, looking at what 1 had written, read it with astonishment, and 
CKclaimed, Can an ape possess such fluency and such skill in cal- 
ligraphy? This is, indeed, a wonder of wonders!— Afterwards, a. 
chess-table was brought to the King, and he said to me, Wilt thou 
playi* By a motion of my head I answered, Yes: — and I advancedj 
and arranged the pieces. 1 played with him twice, and beat him; 
and the King was perplexed^ and said. Were this a man, he would 
surpass all Ehe people of his age. 
- He then said to his eunuch, Go to thy mistress, and say to her, 
} Answer the summons of the King;— that she may come and gratify 
( her curiosity by the sight of this wonderful ape. The eunuch, there- 
I fore, went, and returned with his mistress, the King's daughter, who, 

*A kind tit partly resembling vcrmicfilli, madp of whcai-flmir- Ii is moistened 
wiih darilicci butler— thea bulked, and iweeicned wiih hoQty or sugar. 


as AOon as she saw mcj veiled her fate^ ^ind said, O my father, how 
is iE that thou art pleased to send for me and suiler strange men to 
see me?— O my daughter, answered the King, [here is no one here 
but the young memlukj and the eunuch who broiighr thee up> and 
this apsj with myself, thy father: from whom, then, dost thou veil 
thy faee?— This ape, said she, is the son of a King^, and the name 
oi his father is Eymar: he is enchanted, and it was the 'Efrit Jarjaris, 
a descendant of Ihhs, who transformed him, after having slain his 
own wife, the daughter of King Aknamus. This, whom thoa sup- 
posedst to be an apej is a learned and wise man. — The King was 
amazed at his daughter's words, and, looking towards me, said, Is 
it true that she saith ol: thee? 1 answered, by a motion of my head. 
Yes: — and wept. The King then said to his daughter^ By what 
means didst thou discover that he was enchanted?— O my father, 
she answeredj I had with me, in my younger years, an old woman 
who was a cunning enchantressj and she taught me the art o£ 
enchantment: 1 have committed its rules to memory, and know it 
thoroughly, being acquainted with a hundred and seventy modes of 
performing it, by the least of which I could transport the stones of 
thy city beyond Mount Kaf, and make its site to be an abyss of the 
sea, and convert its inhabitants into fish in the midst of it. — I conjure 
thee, then, by the name o£ Allah, said her father, to resrore this 
young man, that I may make him my Wezir. Is it poSssible that 
thou possessedst this excellence, and I knew it not? Restore him, that 
i may make him my Wezir, for he is a polite and intelligent 

Shereplied, With pleasure:—and, taking a knife upon which were 
engraved some Hebrew names, marked with it a circle in the midst 
of the palace. Within this she wrote certain names and talismans, 
and then she pronounced invocations, and uttered unintelligible 
words; and soon the palace around us became immersed in gloom 
to such a degree, that we thought the ivholc world was overspread; 
and lo, the 'Efrit appeared before us in a most hideous shape, with 
hands like win no wing-forks, and legs like masts, and eyes like burn- 
ing torches; so that we were terrified at him. The King's daughter 
exclaimed. No welcome to thee! — to which the *Efrit, assuming the 
form o£ a lion, replied. Thou traitress, how is it that thou hast broken 


thine oath? Did we not swear chat we \vouli3 not oppose one an- 
other? — Thou wreichj said she, when didat thou receive an oath?^ 
The 'Efric» still in che form of a lion, ihen exclaimed, Take what 
awaitcth ihccf— and, opening his mouth, rtishcd upon the lady; buC 
she instandy plucked a hair from her head and muttered with her 
lips, whereupon the hair became converted into a piercing s^vord^ 
with which she struck the lion, and he was cleft in twain by the 
blow; but his head Ijecame changed into a scorpion. The lady imme- 
diately transformed herself into an enormous serpent, and crept after 
the execrable wretch in the shape of a scorpion, and a sharp contest 
ensued between them; after which, the scorpion became an eagle, 
and the serpent, changing to a vultiire, pursued [he eagle for a length 
of time. The latter then transformed himsell: into a black cat, and 
the King's daughter became a wolf, and they fought together long 
and fiercely, till the cat, seeing himself overcome, changed himself 
into a large red pomegranate, which fell into a pool; butj the wolf 
pursuing itj it ascended into the air, and then fell upon the pavement 
of the palace, and broke in pieces, its grains becoming scatteredj each 
apart from the others, and all spread about the whole space of 
ground enclosed by the palace. The wolf, upon this, transfornied 
itself into a cock, in order to pick up the grains, and not leave one of 
rhem;but,accordingto the decree of fate, one grain remained hidden 
by the side of the pool of the fountain. The cock began to cry, and 
flapped its wings, and made a sign to us with its beak; but we under- 
stood not what it would say. It then uttered at us such a cry, that 
we thought the palace had fallen down upon us; and it ran about the 
whole of the ground, until it saw the grain that had lain hid by the 
side of tlie pool, when it pounced upon it, to pick it up; hut it fell 
into the midst of die water, and became transformed into a fish, and 
sank into the water; upon which the cock became a iish of a larger 
size, and plunged in after the other. For a while it was absent from 
our sight; but, at length, we heard a lotid cry, and trembled at the 
sound; after which, the *Efrit rose as a flame of fire, casting fire from 
his moutb, and fire and smoke from his eyes and nostrils: the King's 
daughter also became as a vast body of fire; and we would have 
plunged inio the water from fear of our being burnt and destroyed; 
but suddenly the 'Efrit cried out from within the iire, and came 


towards us upQii the Uwan*'' blowing fire at our faces. The lady» 
however, overtook him, and blew fire in like manner in his face; 
and some sparks struck ua both from her and from liim: her sparks 
did us no harm; but one fiom him struck me in my eye, and de- 
stroyed it, I being still in [he form of an ape; and a spark from him 
reached rhe fyce of the King, and burned the lower half, with his 
beard and mouch, and struck out his lower teeth: another spark also 
fell upon the breast of the eunnch; who was burnt, and died imme- 
diately. We expected destruction, and gave up ali hope of preserv- 
ing our lives; but while ive were in this state, a voice exclaimed, God 
is most great! God is most great! He hath conquered and aided, and 
abandoned the denier of the faith of Mohammad, the chief of man- 
kind.'" — The pcr,^on from whom this voice proceeded v-'-,\^ the King's 
daughter: she had burnt the 'Efrit; and when we looked towards 
him, we perceived that he had become a heap of ashes. 

The lady then came to us, and said. Bring me a cup of water: — 
and when it ^-as brought to her, she pronounced over it some words 
which we understood not, and, sprinkling me with it, said. Be 
restored, by virtue of the name of the Truth, and by virtue of the 
moit great namcof God, to thy original form! — whereupon I became 
a man as I was at first, excepting that my eye was destroyed. After 
this, she cried out, The fire! the fire! O my father, I shall no longer 
live, for 1 am predestined to be killed- Had he been a human being, 
1 had killed him at the first of the encounter. I experienced no dilli- 
culty till ihe scattering of the grains of the pomegranate, when I 
picked them up excepting the one in which was the life of the Jinni: 
had I picked up that, he had instantly died; but I saw it not, as fate 
and destiny had appointed; and suddenly ho came upon mc, and a 
fierce contest ensued between us under the eardi, and in the air, and 
in the water; and every time th;tt he tried against me a new mode, 1 
employed against him one more potent, until he tried against me the 
mode of fire; and rarely does one escape against whom the mode of 
fire is employed. Destiny, however, aided me, so that I burned him 
first; but 1 exhorted him previously to embrace the faith of EMslam. 
Now 1 die" and may God supply my place to you. — Having thus 

'Daii. f^TSis wa$. and I believe slill is, a fommDn bJTllu-cf>' uf [hi: Arabs, and 

more tommonly used on iht onca^ioD of a vicioiy. 


said, sKe ceased noi to pr:iy for relief tram the fire; and lo, a spark 
ascended [o her breast, and thence lo her face; and when it reached 
her face, she ^vept, jnd excljimed, I testify that there is no deity but 
God, and 1 testify that Mohammad is God's Aposde! — We then 
looked tcnvards her, and saw that she had become a heap of ashes 
by the side of the ashes of the 'Efrit. 

We were plunged into grief on her account, and I wished that 
I h:(d been in het place rather than have seen thaE sweet-faced crea- 
ture who had done me this kindness reduced to 3 heap of ashes: but 
the decree of God cannot be averted. The King, on beholding his 
daughter in this state* plucked out what remained of his beard, and 
slapped his face, and rent his cloches; and I also did the same, while 
we both wept for her. Then came the chamberlains and other great 
officers of the court, who, finding the King in a stale of insensibility, 
with two heaps of ashes before him, were astonished, and remained 
encompassing him until he recovered from his fit, when he informed 
them of what had befallen his daughter with die 'Efrit^ and great 
was their affliction- The women shrieked, with the female slaves, 
and continued their mourning seven days. After this, the King gave 
orders to build, over the ashes of his daughter, a great tomb ivith 
a dome, and illuminaced it with candles and lamps: but the ashes of 
the 'Efrit they scattered in the wintl, exposing tltem to the curse of 
God. The King then fell sick, and was near unto death: his illness 
lasted a month; but after this he recovered his health, and, summon- 
ing me to his presence, said to me, O young man, we passed our days 
in the enjoyment of the utmost happiness, secure from the vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, undl thou camcst to usj when troubles overcame us. 
Would that we had never seen thee, nor thy ugly form, on account 
of which we have been reduced to this state of privation; for, in the 
first place, 1 have lost my daughter, who was worth a hundred men; 
and, secondly, 1 have suffered this burning, and lost my teeth: my 
eunuch also is dead: but it was not in thy power to prevent these 
af[liciions: the decree of God hath been fulfilled on us and on thee; 
and praise be to God that my daughter restored thee, though she 
destroyed herself. Now, however^ depart, O my son, from my city, 
Jt is enough that hath happened on thy account; but as it was decreed 
against us and thee, depart in peace. 


So I deparLed, O my mistress, from his presence; bur before I 
qui[t(?d the city, I entered a public barh, and shaved jny beard. I 
traversed various regions, and passed through great cities^ and hem 
my course to the Abode of Peace, Baghdad, in the hope of obcjiiiing 
an interview with the Prince of the Faichful, that I might relate to 
him all thai had befallen me. 

The third mendicant then advanced^ and thus related his story: — 

The Story of the Third Royal Me\dica? 


ILLUSTRIOUS latly, my story is not like those of my two com- 
panions^ but more wonderful : the course of fate and destiny brought 
upon them events against which they could not guard; but as to 
myselfj the shaving of my beard and the loss of my eye were occa- 
sioned by my provoking fate and misfortune; and the cause was 

1 was a King, and the son of a King; and when my father died, 
T sticceeded to his thrf>ne, and governed my subjects with justice and 
beneficence. I took pleasure in sea-voyages; and my capital was on 
the shore of an extensive sea, interspersed with fortified and garri- 
soned islandsj which I desired, for my amusement, to visit; I there- 
fore embarked with a fleet of ten ships, and took with me provisions 
suflideEit for a whole month. 1 proceeded t^veniy days, after which 
there arose against us a contrary wind; but at daybreak it ceased, and 
the sea became calm, and we arrived at an island, where we landed, 
and cooked some provisions and ate; after which we remained there 
two days. We then continued our voyage; and when twenty days 
more had passed, we found ourselves in strange waters, unknown 
to the captain, and desired the watch to look out from the mast-head; 
so he went aloft, and when he had come down he said to the cap- 
tain, I saw, on my right hand, ftsK floating upon the surface of the 
water; and looking towards the midst of the sea, I perceived some- 
thing looming; in the distance, sometimes black and sometimes 

When the captain heard this report of the watch, he threw his 
turban on the deck, and plucked his beard, and said to those who 
were with him, Receive warning of our destruction, which will befall 


all of U5: not one will escape! So saying, he began to weep; and all 
of us in like m:Lnner bewailed our lot. I desired him to inform us 
of that which the watch had seen. O my lord, he replied, know that 
we have wandered from our course since the commencement of the 
contrary wind that was followed in the morning by a calm» in con- 
sequence of which we remained stationary two days; from thai 
period we have deviated from our course for twenty-one days, and 
we have no wind to carry us back from the fate which awaits us 
after this day: to-morrow we shall arrive at a mountain of black 
stone, called loadstone: the current is now bearing tis violently 
towards it» and the ships will fall in pieces, and every nail in them 
will fiy to the mountain* and adhere to it; for God harh given to the 
loadstone a secret property by virtue of which everything o£ iron 
is attracted toward it. On that mountain is such a quantity of iron 
as no one kno^^c^h but God^ whose name be exaltedj for £rom times 
of old great numbers of ships have becrj destroyed by the influence 
of that mountain. There is, upon the summit of the mountain, a 
cupola o£ brass supported by ten columns, and upon the fop of this 
cupola is a horseman upon a horse of brass, having in his hand a 
brazen spear, and upon his breast suspended a tablet of lead, upon 
which are engraved mysterious names and talismans; and as long, 
O King, as this horseman remains upon the horse* so long will every 
ship that approaches be destroyed, with every person on board, and 
all the iron contained in it will cksive to the mountain: no one wi!l 
be safe until the horseman shall have fallen from the horse. — The 
captain then wept bitterly; and we felt assured thac our destruction 
was inevitable, and every one of us bade adieu to his friend. 

On the following morning ^ve drew near to the mountain; the 
current carried us toward it ^viih violence^ and when the ships were 
almost dose to it, they fell asunder, and all the nails, and everything 
else that was of iron, flew from them towards the loadstone. It was 
near the close of day when the ships fell in pieces. Some of us were 
drowned, and some escaped; but the greater number were drowned, 
and of those who saved their lives none knew^ what became of the 
others, so stupefied were they by the waves and the boisterous wind. 
As for myself, O my mistress, God, whose name be exalted, spared 
me on account of the trouble and torment and affliction that He lud 


predestined Eo befjU me- I pJaced myself upon a plank, and the wind 
and waves cast it upon the mountain; and when 1 had landed, I 
found a practicable way to the summit, resemhljag steps cut in the 
rock: so I c>^ciaimcd, In the n^me of God! — and olTcred up a prayer, 
and attempted the ascent, holding fast by the notches; and presently 
God stilled the wind and assisted me in my endeavours, so that I 
arrived in safety at the summit. Rejoicing greatly in my escape, I 
immediately entered the cupola, and performed the prayers of two 
rek'ahs" in gratitude to God for my preservation; after which 1 
slept beneath the cupola, and heard a voice saying to me, O son of 
Khasib, when thou awakest £rom thy sleep, dig beneath thy feet, and 
thou wilt End a bow of brass, and three arrows of lead, whereon are 
engraved talismans: then take the bow and arrows and shoot at the 
horseman that is upon the top of the cupola, and relieve mankind 
from this great afiliction; for when thou hast shot at the horseman 
be will fall into tlie sea; the bow will also fallj and do thou bury it 
in its places and as soon as thou hast done this, the sea will swell and 
rise until it attains the summii: of the mountain; and there will 
appear upon it a boat bearing a man, dilTerent from him whom thou 
shalt have cast down, and he will come to thee, having an oar in his 
hand: then do thou embark with htm; but Utter not the name of 
God; and he will convey thee in ten days to a safe sea, where, on 
diy arrival, diou wilt find one who will take ihec to thy city. All 
this sliall be done if thou utter not the name of God, 

Awaking from my sleep, I sprang up, and did as the voice had 
directed. I shot at the hotsemaoj and he fell into the sea; and the 
bow having fallen from my hand, I buried it: the sea then became 
troubled, and rose to the summit of the mountain, and when i had 
stood waiting there a little while, 1 beheld a boat in the midst of the 
sea, approaching me. I praised God, whose name be exalted, and 
when the boat came to me I found in it a man o£ brass, with a tablet 
of lead upon his breast, engr;iven with names and talismans. With- 
out uttering a word^ I embarked in tlje boat, and d\G man rowed me 

" fBowingi]: ihp repetition of a wf form oE word^, chiefly- from ihe Kur'an^ and 
piaculznion^ oE "Gnd is mopiT gTc^ii!'' cic. auniLipaEiinJ by parricul^r posiures; parC 
of i]ii." ivord^ bcinfl rcpeal&l m ^n creel puslui't; p^rl, fitting; and pnil, in o^hct 
pa^iurc^: nn inciin^dun of ihc hi::LEE and body, followed by iivo pru&cradoir&H ^'t-- 
dD^uL^hing cadi rck'at. 


ten successive days, after which I beheld the islands o£ security, 
whereupon, in the excess o£ my joy, I exclaimedj In the name of 
God! There is no deity but God! God is most greatl-^and as soon 
as 1 had done this, he casr me out of the boat, and sank in the sea. 

Being able to swim, i swam until night, when my arms and 
shoulders were tired, and, in this perilous situation, 1 repeated the 
profession of the faith, and gjve myself up as lost; but the sea rose 
with the violence of the wind, and a wave like a vast castle threw 
me upon the land, in order Co the accomplishment of the purpose 
of God. I ascended the shore, and after I had wrung out my cloches, 
and spread them upon the ground to dry, I slept; and in the morning 
I put on my clothes again, and, looking about to see which way I 
should go, I found a tract co^ercd with trees, to which I advanced; 
and when I had walked round if, 1 found that I was upon a small 
island in the midst of the sea; upon which 1 said within myself. 
Every time that I escape from one calamity 1 fall into another that 
is worse: — but while 3 was reflecting upon my unfortunate case, and 
wishing for death, 1 beheld a vessel bearing a number of men. I 
arose immediately, and climbed into a tree; and lo, the vessel came 
to the shore, and there landed from it ten black slaves bearing axes- 
They proceeded to the middle of the island, and, digging up the 
earth, uncovered and lifted up a trap-door, after which they returned 
to the vessel, and brought from ic bread and fiour and clarified butter 
and boney and sheep and everything that the wants of an inhabitant 
would require, continuing to pass backwards and forwards between 
the vessel and the trap-door, bringing loads from the former, and 
entering the latter, until they had removed all the stores from the 
ship. They then came out of the vessel with various clothes o£ the 
most beautiful description, and in the midst of them was an old 
sheykh, enfeebled and wasted by extreme age, leading by the hand 
a young man cast in the mould of graceful symmetry, and invested 
with such perfect beauty as deserved to be a subject for proverbs. 
He was like a fresh and slender twig, enchanting and captivating 
every heart by his elegant form. The party proceeded to the trap- 
door, and, entering it, became concealed from my eyes. 

They remained beneath about two hours, or more; after which, 
the sheykh and the slaves came out^ but the youth came not with 


them; and they replaced ihe earih, and embarked and set sail. Soon 
after» I descended from the tree^ and went to the excavation. 1 
removed the eiirt]i, and, entering the npermre, sew a Jlighi of wooden 
steps, which I descended; and, at the bottom, I beheld a handsome 
d^\'el]ing-pl:ice, furnished with a variety of sill^en carpet&i and there 
was the youth, sitting upon a high mattress, with s\ve^i:-smclling 
flo^vcrs and fruits placed betorc him. On seeing me, his countenance 
became pale; but I saluted him, and said, Let thy mind be composed, 
O my Master: thou hast itothing to fear, O delight of my eye; for 
J am a man, and the son of a King, like thyself; fate hath inipcllcd. 
me CO chee> that I may cheer thee in ihy soHtude. The youth, when 
he heard me thns address him, and was convinced that I was one 
of his own species, rejoiced exceedingly at my arrival, his colour 
returned, and, desiring me to approach him, he said, O my brother, 
my story is ^vondcrful: my father is a jeweller: he had slaves who 
made voyages by his orders, for the purposes of commerce, and he 
had dealings with Kings; but he had never been blest with a son; 
and he dreamt that he was soon to have a son, but one whose life 
would be short; andhea.woke sorrowful. Shortly after, in accordance 
with the decrees of God, my Tnother conceived me, and when her 
lime was complete, she gave birth to me; and my father was greatly 
rejoiced: the astrologers, however, came to him, and said. Thy son 
^viil live fifteen years: his fate is intimated by the fact that there is, 
in the sea, a mountain called the Mounnain of Loadstone, whereon 
is a horseman on a horse of brass, on the former of which is a tablet 
of lead suspended to his neck; and when the horseman shall be 
thrown down from his horse, ihy son will be slain: the person who 
is to slay him is he who will throw down the horseman, and his 
name is King 'Ajih, the son of King Khasib. My father was greatly 
afflicted at this announcement; and when he had reared me until I 
had nearly attained the age of fifteen years, the astrologers came 
again, and informed him that the horseman had fallen into the sea, 
and that ft had been thrown down by King *Ajib, the son of King 
Khasib; on hearing which, he prepared for me this dwelling, and 
here left me to remain until the completion of the term, of which 
there now remain ten days= All this he did from fear lest King 'Ajib 
should kill me. 


When I heard ihis» I was Riled with wonder^ :ind said within 
myself, I am King ^Ajib^ the son of King Kha^ih, and it was 1 who 
ihrew down the horseman; but, by Allah, 1 will neither kill him nor 
do him any injury. Then said 1 to tlie youth, Fjir from ihee be both 
destruction and harm, if it be the will of God, wiiote name be 
esalted: thou hast nothing to fear: I will remain with thee to serve 
ihee, and will go forth ^vith ihee ro thy facher^ and beg of him to 
send me back to my country^ for the which he will obtain a reward. 
The youth rejoiced at my ^^ords^ and I sat and conversed with him 
until night, when I spread his bed £or him, and covered him, and 
slept near to his side. And in the morning I brought him water^ 
and he washed his face, and said to me. May God require thee for 
me with every blessing. If I escape from King 'Ajib, I will make 
my father reward rhee with abundant favours. Never^ I replied, 
may the day arrive that would bring ihee misforrune. 1 then placed 
before him some refreshments, and after we had eaten together, we 
passed the day conversing with the utmost cheerfulness. 

I continued to serve him for nine days; and on the tenth day the 
youth rejoiced at finding himself in safety, and said to mc» O my 
brother, 1 wish that thou woulJsE in thy kindness warm for me some 
water, that 1 may wash myself and change my cloihes; for 1 have 
smelt the odour of escape from death, in consequence of thy assist- 
ance. — With pleasure, I replied^ — and i arose, and \varmed the 
water; after which, he entered a place concealed from my view, and, 
having washed himself and changed his clothes, laid himself upon 
the mattress to rest after his bath. He iJien said to me. Cut up for 
me, O my brother, a water-melon, and mi\ its juice with some sugar: 
— so 1 arose, and taking a melon, brought it upon a p!ate» and said 
to him, Knowcsc thou, O my master, where is the knife ? — See, here 
it is, he answered, upon the shelf over my head, I sprang up hastily, 
and took it from its sheath, and as 1 was drawing back, my foot 
slipped, as God had decreed, and I fell upon the youth, grasping in 
my hand tlie knife, which entered his body, and he died instandy. 
When I perceived that he was dead, and ihat 1 had killed him, I 
uttered a loud shriek, and beat my face and rent my clothes, saying, 
This is, indeed, a calamity! O what a calamity! O my Lord. I im- 
plore thy pardon, and declare to Thee my innocence of his death! 



Would ihat I liyd died before hini[ How long shall I devour trouble 
after trouble J 

With these retlecilons I ascended ihe steps* and, having replaced 
ihe trap-door, returned to my lirit siiition, ynd looked over [he sej* 
where I saw the vessel that had come before, approaching, and cleav- 
ing the waves in its rapid course. Upon this I said within myself. 
Now will the men come forth from the vessel, and find the youth 
slain, and ihey will slay me nlso; — so 1 chmbed into a tree, and 
concealed myself among its leaves, and sat there till the vessel 
arrived and casr anchor, when the slaves landed with the old sheykh, 
the father of the youth, and went to the place, and removed the 
earth. They were surprised at finding it moist, and when they had 
descended the steps, they discovered the youth lying on his back, 
exhibiting a face beaming with beauty, though dead, and clad in 
white and clean clothing, with the knife remaining in his body- 
They all wept at the sight, and the father fell down in a swoon, 
which lasied so long that the slaves thought he was dead. At length, 
however, he recovered, and came out with the slaves, who had 
wrapped the body of the youth in his clothes. They then took back 
all that \s'a5 in the subterranean dwelling to the vessel, and departed. 

I remained, O my mistress, by day hiding myself in a treej and 
at night walking about the open part of the island. Thus 1 continued 
for the space of two months; and 1 perceived that, on the western 
side of the island, the water of the sea every day retired, until, after 
[hrec months, the land that had been beneath it became dry. Rejoic- 
ing ai this, and feeling confident now in my escape, 1 traversed this 
dry tract, and arrived at an expanse of sand; whereupon I embold- 
ened myself, and crossed it- I then saw in the distance an appear- 
ance of fire, and, advancing towards it, found it to be a palace, over- 
laid with plates of copper, which, reflecting the rays of the sun, 
seemed from a distance to be fire: and when I drew near to it, reflect- 
ing upon this sight, there approached me an old sheykh, accotn- 
panied by ten young men who were all blind of one eye, at which 
1 was extremely surprised. As soon as they saw me, they saluted me, 
and asked me my story, which 1 related to them from first to last; 
and they were filled with wonder. They then conducted me into the 
palace, where 1 saw ten benches, upon each oE which ^\'as a mattress 


covered with a l^lue stuff;'^ and each of the young men seated him- 
self upon one of these benches, while the sheykh look his place upon 
a smaller one; after which ihcy said lo me, Sir down, O young man, 
and ask no question respecting oiir condiEion^ nor respecting our 
being blind of one eye. Then the iheykh aro&e, and brought to each 
of them some food, and the same to me also; and next he brought 
to each of us some wine: and after we had eaten, we sac drinking 
together until the lime for sleep, when the young men said to the 
sheykh, Bring to us our accustomed supply: — upon which the sheykh 
aroie, and entered a closet, from which he brought upon his head, 
ten covered trays. Placing these upon the floor, he lighted ten 
candles, and stuck one of diem upon each fray; and, having done 
this he removed the covers, and there appeared beneath them ashes 
mixed with pounded charcoal. The young men then tucked up their 
sleeves above the elbow, and blackened their faces, and slapped their 
cheeks, e>fciaiming, We were reposing at our ease, and our irn- 
perdnent curiosity aulTered us not to remain sol Thus they did until 
the morning, when the sheykh brought them some hot water, and 
they washed their faces, and put on other clothes. 

On witnessing this conduct, my reason was confounded, my heart 
was so troubled that 1 forgot my own misfortunes, and I asked them 
the cause of their strange behaviour; upon which they looked 
towards me, and said, O young man, ask not respecting that which 
doth not concern ihee^ but be silent; for in iilence is security from 
error.— 1 remained with them a whole month, during which every 
night they did the same; and at length 1 said to them, 1 conjure you 
by Allah lo remove this disquiet from my mind, and to inform me 
of the cause of your acting in this manner, and of your exclaiming, 
We were reposing at our case, and our impertinent curiosity suilered 
us not to remain so! — If ye inform me not, I will leave you, and go 
my way; for the proverb saiih, When the eye seelh noi, the heart 
doth not grieve, — On hearing these words, they replied. We have 
not concealed this affair from thee but in our concern for thy wel- 
fare, lest thou shonldst become like us, and the same aftliction that 
hath befallen us happen also to thee. I satd, liowever. Ye must posi- 
tively inform me of this matter. — We give thee good advice, said 

I'Tie colour of nwuroine. 


they, and do ihou receive it, and ,isk us not respecting our case; 
otherwise thou wilt become blind of one eye, like us: — but T still 
persisted in my request; whereupon they ,s,iid, O young man, iE this 
befall thee, know chat thou wilt be banished from our company. 
They then all arose, and, taking a r^im, sbughiered and skinned it, 
and said to me, Take this knife with thee, and introduce thyself 
into the skin of the ram, and we will sew thee up in it, and go away; 
whereupon a bird cdlcd the lukh will come to thee, and, taking thee 
up by its talonsj will fly away with thee, and set ihee down upon a 
mountain: then cur open the skin with this knife, and get out, and 
the bird will fly away. Thou must arise, as s(x>n as it ha^h gone, and 
journey for half a day, and thou ^viEt see before thee a lofty palace, 
encased with red gold, sec with various precious stones, such as 
emeralds and rubicsj &c.; and if thou enter ic thy case will be as 
ours; for our entrance into that palace was ilie cause of our being 
blind of one eye; and if one o£ us would relate Co thee all that hath 
befallen him, his story would be too long for chee Co hear. 

They then sewed me up in the skin, and entered their palace; and 
soon after, there came an. enormous white bird, which seized me, 
and flew away with nie, and sec me down upon the mountain; 
whereupon I cut open the skin, and got out; and the bird, as soon 
as it saw nie, flew away, I rose up quickly, and proceeded towards 
the palace, which I found to be as they had desciibed it to me; and 
when I had entered it, I beheld, at the upper end of a saloon, forty 
young damsels, beautiful as so many moons, and magnificently at- 
tired, who, as soon as they saw me, eKcIaimed, Welcome! Welcome! 
O our master and our lordl We have been for a month espeeting^ 
thee. Praise be to God who hath blessed us with one who is worthy 
of us, and one of whom we are worthy!— After having thus greeted 
me, they seated me upon a mattress, and said. Thou art from this 
day our master and prince, and we are thy handmaids, and entirely 
under thy authority. They then brought to me some refrei^hments, 
and when T had eaten and drunk, they sat and coi^versed with me, 
full of foy and happiness. So lovely were these ladies, that even a 
devotee, if he saw them, would gladly consent Co he their servant, 
and to comply with ^11 that they would desire- At the approach of 
night they all assembled around me, and placed before me a table 


of fresh and dried fruits, with other dehcacies that the tongue c-innot 
describe, and wine; and one began to sing, while finother played 
upon the lute. The wine-caps circulated among us> and joy over- 
came me to such a degree as to obhierate from my mind every 
earthly care, and make me exclaim, This is indeed a delightful life! 
I passed a night of such enjoyment as I had never before experienced^ 
and on the morrow I entered the bath; and, after I had washed my- 
self, they brought me a sujt of the richest clothing, and we again 
sar down to a repast. 

In this mauncr 1 Hved with them a whole year; but on the first 
day of the new year, they seated themselves around me, and begaa 
to weep, and bade me farewell, clinging to my skirts. — What calam- 
ity hath befallen you? said I. Ye have broken my heart. — -They 
answercdj Would that we had never known thee; for we have asso- 
ciated with many men, but have seen none like thee. May God, 
therefore, nor deprive us of thy company.— And they wept afresh. 
1 said to them, I wish that you would acquaint me with the cause of 
this weeping.^-Thou, they replied, art tlie cause; yet now, if thou 
wilt attend to what we tell thee, we shall never be parted; but if 
ihou act contrary to itj we are separated from this time; and our 
hearts whisper to us that tlioii wilt not regard our warning.^Inform 
me, said I, and I will attend to your directions: — and they replied, 
If then thou wouldst inquire respecting our hcstory, know that we 
are the daughters of Kings; for many years if hath been Our custom 
to assemble here, and every year we absent ourselves during a period 
of forty days; then returning, we indulge ourselves for a year in 
feasting and drinking. This is our usual practice; and now we fear 
that thou wilt disregard our directions when we are absent from 
thee. We deliver to thee the keys of the palace, which are a hundred 
in number, belonging to a hundred closet?^. Open each of these, and 
amuse thyself, and eat and dcink, and refresh thyself, excepting the 
closet that hath a door of red gold; for if thou open this, the con- 
sequence will be a separation between us and thee. We conjure theej 
therefore, to observe our direction, and to be patient during this 
period.— Upon bearing this, I swore to them that I would never open 
the closet to which they alluded; and they departed, urging me to 
be faithful to my promise. 


I remained alone in the palace, and at the ripproach of evening 1 
opened ihe fifs: closet, and, enteriivg it, found a raanajon like para- 
dise, with a garden containing green trees loadet! with ripe fruits, 
aboundii^g with singing birds, and watered by copious streams. My 
heart was soothed by the -'^ighi, and I wandered among the trees, 
scenting the fragrance of the flowers, and liitcjiing to the warbling 
of the birds as they sang the praises of the One, the Almighty, After 
admiring the mingled colours of the apple resembling llie hue upon 
ihe cheek of a beloved mistress and ihe sallow countenance of the 
perplexed and timid lover, the sweet-smelling quince djflusing an 
odour like musk and ambergris, and the plum shining as the ruby, 
I retired from this place^ and, having locked the door, opened that 
of the next closet, within which I beheld a spacious tract planted 
with numerous palm-trees, and ivaLered by a river flowing among 
rose-trees, and jasmine, and marjoram, and eglantine, and narcissus, 
and gilliflower, the odours of which dlfTuscd in every direction by 
the wind, inspired me with the inmost delight. I locked again the 
tloor of the second closet, and opened that of the third. Within this 
I found a large saloon, paved with marbles of various colours, and 
with costly minerals and precious gems, and containing cages con- 
structed of sandal and aloes-wood with singing birds within them, 
and others upon the branches of trees which were planted there. My 
heart was charmed, my trouble was dissipated, and- 1 slept there 
until the morning. I then opened the door of the fourth closet, and 
within this door 1 found a great building in wliich were forty closets 
with open doors; and, entering these, I beheld [>earls, and rubies, 
and chrysolites, and emeralds, and other precious jewels such as the 
tongue cannot describe. I was astonished ac the sight and said. Such 
things as these, I imagine, are not found in the treastiry <if any King. 
I am now the King of my age, and all these treasures, through the 
goodness of God, are mine, together with forty damsels under my 
authority who have no man to share tliem with me. 

Thus I continued to amuse myself, passing from one place to 
another, until thirty-nine days had elapsed, and I had opened the 
doors of all the closets excepting that which they had forbidden me 
to open. My heart was then disturbed by curiosity respecting this 
hundredth closet, and the Devil, in order to plunge me into misery. 


ioduj:ed me to open lu I had not pittience to iibstain, though there 
remained of the appointed period only one diiy : So I approached the 
closet^ :ind opened che door; and when I had entered* I perceived a 
fragranc odour, such a^ 1 had never before sinclt, which intoxicated 
me so that I fell down insensible, and remained some time in this 
state: buC at lengdi recovering* 1 fortified my heart, and proceeded. 
1 found the fioor overspread with saffron, and the place illuminated 
by golden lamps and by candles* which diffused the odours of musk 
and ambergris; and two large perfuming- vessels filled with aloes- 
wood and ambergris, and a perfume compounded wirh honey* spread 
fragrance through the whole place. I saw also a black horse* o£ the 
hue of the darkest night* before which was a manger of white 
crystal filled with cleansed sesame* and another* similar to it, con- 
taining rose-wacer infused with musk: he was saddled and bridled, 
and his saddle was of red gold. Wondering at the sight of him* I 
said within myself, This must be an animal of extraordinary quali- 
ties; — and, seduced by the Devil, I led him out* and mounted him; 
but he moved nor from his place; I kicked him with my heel; but 
still he moved noE: so I look a mikra'ah and struck him with it; and 
as soon as he felt the blow he uttered a sound like thunder* and, 
expanding a pair of wings* soared with me to an immense height 
through the air, and then alighted upon the roof of another palace* 
where he threw me from his back, and, by a violent blow with his 
tail upon my face, as 1 sat on the roofj struck out my eye, and left me. 

In this state I descended from the roof* and below I found the 
one-eyed young men before mentioned, who, as soon as they beheld 
me, exclaimed. No welcome to thee! — Receive me, said I* into your 
company: — bnt they replied, By Allah* ihoit shalt not remain with 
us^— so I departed from them* with mournful heart and weeping 
eye* and* God having decreed me a safe journey hither* I arrived at 
Baghdad, after I had shaved my beard, and become a mendicant. 

The mistress of the house then looked towards ihc Khalifeh and 
Ja*far and Mesrur* and said to theni. Acquaint me with your his- 
tories: — upon which Ja'far advanced towards her* and related lo her 
the same story that he had told to the portress before they entered; 
and when she had heard it* she liberated them all. They accordingly 
departed* and when they had gone out into the street, the Khalifeh 


inquired of rhe [-ncntTic^nts whUhtr they were going- Thpy answered 
ihai they knew noE whiihcr to go; whereupon lie desired ihcm to 
accompany hia pjriy; and then syid to Ja^far, Take them !ioine ivith 
ihecj and bring them before me lo-morrow, and we will see the 
result. Ja'far, therefore, did as he was commanded, and the Khalifeh 
returned to his palace; but he was unable to sleep durhig the remain- 
der oi the night. 

On the following morning he sat upon his throne, ttnd when his 
courtiers had presented themselves before him* and departed, except- 
ing J,i'far, he snid to him, Bring before me the three ladies and the 
two bitches and the mendicants- So Ja'far arose, and brought them, 
and* pbcing the ladies behind the curtains* said to them, We have 
forgi\en yoii on iiceount of your previous kindness to us, and because 
ye knew us not; and now I acquaint you that ye are in the presence 
of the fifth of the sons of El-'Abbas, Harun Er-Rashid; therefore 
relate to him nothing bur the truih. And when the ladies heard die 
words whicli Ja'far addressed to them on the part of the KhaUfeh, 
the eldest of them advanced, and thus related her story: — 

The Story of the First of the Theee Lahies of Baghdad 

O Prince of the Faithfvi., my sCory is wonderful; for these two 
bitches are my sisters, born to my father, btit of anoLher mother; and 
I am the youngest of the Lhree. After the death of our fatlier, who 
left us five thousand pieces o£ gold^ these my two sisters married, 
and when they had resided some time with iheir husbands, each of 
the latter prepared a stock o£ mercharjdise, and received from his 
wife a thousand pieces of gold, and they all set forth on a journey 
together, leaving me here; bur after they had been absent four years, 
my sisfers' husbands lost all their property, and abandoned thom in 
a strange bnd, and they returned to me In the garb of beggars. 
When I first saw them in this state, 1 knew them not; and, as soon 
as 1 recognised theni^ I exclaimed. How is it that ye are in this con- 
dition? — O our sister, they answered, ihy inqniry now is of no use: 
the Pen hath written what God hath decreed,— I sent them, there- 
fore, to the bath, and, having clad them in new apparel, said to 
ihem, O niy sisters, ye are my elders, and I am young; so ye shall be 


to me in the places of my father and motlier. The inheritance which 
I shared with you God hath blessed; partake then o£ its increase^ for 
my affairs are prosperous; and I and ye shall fare alike. — I treated 
them with the utmost kindness^ and during a whole year they 
remained with mc, and enriched themselves by the money that I 
had given them; but after this period they said to me, it will be 
more agreeable to us to marry again» for we can no longer abstain 
from doing so. — O my sisters, I replied* ye have seen no happiness in 
marriage: a good husband in this age is rarely found* and ye have 
already had experience of tlie marriage-state. They, however, heeded 
not my words; but married against my consent: yet I gave them 
dowries from my own property* and condnued to them my protec- 
tion. They went to their husbands* and the latter* after they had 
resided wiih them a short time, defrauded them of all thai they 
possessed* and, setting forth on a journey, left them destitute: so 
again they returned to me, and, in a state of nudity, implored my 
forgiveness, saying, Be not angry with us^ for though thou art 
younger than we* thou hast more mature sense; and we promise 
thee that we witl never again meniion the subject of marriage. 1 
replied, Ye are welcome, O my sisters; for I Iiavc no one dearer to 
me than yourselves :^and I received them, and treated them with 
every kindnessj and we remained happily together for the space of 
a year. 

After this I resolved to fit out a vessel for a mercantile voyage: 
accordingly, I stocked a large ship with various goods and necessary 
provisions, and said to my sisters, Will ye rather stay at home during 
my voyage, or will ye go with me? — to which they answered. We 
will accompany thee during the voyage* for we cannot endure to be 
separated from thee. I therefore took, them with me, and ^ve set sail; 
but first I divided my property into two equal portions; one o£ which 
I took with me, and the other I concealed, saying within myself* 
Perhaps some evil accident may happen to the ship, and our lives may 
be prolonged; in which case, when we return we shall find that 
which will be of service to us. — We continued our voyage by day 
and night* till at length the vessel pursued a wrong course, and the 
captain knew not whither to steer. The ship had entered a different 
sea from that which we wished to cross, and for some time we knew 


ii not; but for ten dzys we had a pleasant wind, and after this, a city 
loomed before us in the distance. We asked the captain what was 
the name of ihis city; and he answered^ I know it not; I have never 
seen it till this d^y, nor have I ever before in the course of my hfe 
navigated this sea: bur ss we have come hither in safety, ye have 
nothing to do but to enter this city and land your goods, and, if ye 
find opportunity, sell or exchange there: if not, ;ve will rest there 
two days, and take in fresh provisions. So we entered the port of 
the city, and the captain landed, and after a while returned to us, 
saying, Arise, and go up into the city, and wonder at that which 
God hath done unto his creatures, and pray to be preserved from 
his anger. And when we had entered the city, we found all its 
inhabitants converted into black stones. We were amazed at the 
sight, and as we walked through the market-streets, finding the 
merchandise and the gold and silver remaining in their original 
statej we rejoiced, and said. This must have been occasioned by some 
wonderful circumstance. We then separated in the streets, each of 
us attracted from his companions by the wealth and stuffs in die 

As for myself, I ascended to the citadel, which 1 found to be a 
building of admirable construction; and, entering the King's palace, 
1 found all the vessels of gold and silver remaining in their places, 
and the King himself seated in the midst of his Chamberlains and 
Viceroys and Wesirs, and clad in apparel of astonishing richness. 
Drawing nearer to him, I perceived that he was sitting upon a 
throne adorned with pearls and jewels, every one of the pearls 
shining like a star: his dress was embroidered with gold, and around 
him stood fifty memluks, attired in silks of various descriptions, and 
having in their hands drawn swords. Stupefied at this spectacle, J 
proceeded, and entered the saloon of the Harim, upon the walls of 
which were hung silken curtains; and here 1 beheld the Queen, 
attired in a dress embroidered with fresh pearls, and having upon 
her head a diadem adorned with various jewels, and necklaces of 
different kinds on her neck. All her clothing and ornaments re- 
mained as they were at first, though she herself was converted into 
black stone. Here also I found an open door, and, entering it, I 
saw a flight of seven steps, by which I ascended to an apartment 


paved with mirblc, furnished wilh gold-embroidered carpets, and 
containing a couch oE alabaster, ornamenied with pearls and je^^'ets; 
but my eyes were first attracted by a gleam of hght, and when I ap- 
proached the spot whence it proceeded, I found a brilliant jewel, of 
the size of an ostrich's egg, placed upon a small siool, diffusing a 
light like that of a candle. The coverings of the couch above men- 
tioned were of various kinds of silk, the richness of which would 
surprisse every beholder; and I looked at them with wonder. In this 
apartment I likewise observed some lighted candies, and reflected 
that there must then have been some person there to light them. I 
passed thence to another part o£ the palace, and continued to explore 
the diiferent apartments, forgetting myself in the amazement of 
my mind at all these strange circumstances, and immersed in 
thoughts respecting what i beheidj until die commencement of night, 
when I would have departed; but could not find the door; so I re- 
turned to the place in which were the lighted candles* and there 
i laid myself upon the couch, and, covering myself with a quilt, 
repeated some words of the Kur'an and endeavoured to compose 
myself to sleep; but I could not, I continued resdess: and at midnight 
I heard a recitation of the Kur'an, performed by a melodious and 
soft voice; upon which 1 arose, and, looking about, saw a closet xvith 
an open door, and I entered it, and found that it was aa oratory: 
lighted lamps were suspended in it, and upon a prayer carpet 
spread on the floor sat a young man of handsome aspect. Wonder- 
ing that he had escaped the fate of the other inhabitants o£ the city, 
I saluted him- and he raised his eyes, and returned my salutation: 
and 1 then said to him, T conjure thee by the tiuih of that which 
thou art reading in the Book of God, that thou answer tlie question 
which 1 am about to ask thee:— whereupon he smiled, and replied, 
Do thou first acquaint me with the cause of thine entrance into this 
place, and then 1 will answer thy question; so I told him my story, 
and inquired of him the history of this city. Wait a little, said he; — 
and he closed the Kur'an, and, having put it in a bag of satin, seated 
me by his side. As 1 noxv beheld him, his countenance appeared like 
the full moon, and his whole person exhibited such perfect elegance 
and loveliness, that a single glance at liim drew from me a thousand 
sighs, and kindled a fire in my heart. I repeated my request that he 


would give me an account o£ the ciiy; and» replying, I hear and 
obey> he thus addressed me: — 

Know that this city belonged to my faiiier and his family and 
subjects; and he is the King whom, thou hast seen converted into 
sione; and ihe Queen whom ihou hast seen is my mother. They 
were all Magians^ worshipping fire in the place of the Almighty 
King; and they swore by the fire and the li^ht^ and ihe shade and 
ihe heat, and the revolving orb. My father had no son» till, in his 
declining years, he was blest with me, whom he reared until I 
attained to manhood. But, hiippily for me, there was, in our family, 
an old woman, far advanced in age, who was a Muslimeh, believing 
in God and his Apo&tle in her hearty though slie conformed with 
my family in outward observancesj and my father confided in her, 
on account of the faithfulness and modesty that be had observed in 
her character, and shewed her great favour, firmly believing that she 
held the same faiih as himself; therefore, ^vhen I had passed my 
infancy, he commitLed me to her care» S'lyiiig, Take him, and rear 
him, and instruct him in the ordinances of our faith, and educate 
him and serve him in the best manner. The old woman accordingly 
received me, but took care to instruct me in the faith o£ El-Islam, 
teaching me ihe laws of purification, and the divine ordinances of 
ablution, together widi the forms of prayer; after which she made 
me commit to memory the whole of the Kurgan. She then charged 
me to keep my faith a secret from my father, lest he should krll me; 
and I did so; and a few days after, the old woman died. The in- 
habitants of the city had now increased in dieir impiety and 
arrogance^ and in their dereliction oi the truth; and while they were 
in this state, they heard a criet proclaim with a voice like thunder, 
so as to be audible to both the near and the distant, O inhabitants 
of this city, abstain from the worship of fire, and worship the Al- 
mighty King! — The people were struck with consternation, and, 
flocking to my father, die King of the city, said to him, What is this 
alarming voice which hath astounded us by its terrible sound ?-^ 
but he answered them, Let not the voice terrify you, nor let ic turn 
you from your faith: — and their hearts inchned to his words; so they 
persevered in the worship of fire, and remained obstinate in their 
impiety during another year, until the return of the period at which 


they had heard ihc voice ihe first lime. Jt was then heard a second 
time; and again, in the next year, they heard it a third time; but 
siill they persisted in their evil ways, until, drawing down upon 
themselves the abhorrence and indignation of Heaven, one morn- 
ing, shortly after daybreak, they were con\eried into black stones, 
together with their beasts and all their cattle. Not one of the in- 
habitants of the city escaped, excepting me; and from the day on 
whidi this catastrophe happened, I have continaed occupied as thou 
seesij in prayer, and fasting, and reading the Kur'an: but 1 have be- 
come weary of this solitary slate, having no one 10 cheer me with 
his company. 

On hearing tliese words, I said to him, Wilt thoir go with me to 
the city of Baghdad, and visit its learned men and lawyers, and 
increase thy knowledge? If so, I will be thy handmaid, though 1 
am the mistress of my family, and have authority over a household 
of men. 1 have here a ship laden with merchandise, and destiny 
hath driven u^ to tliis city, in order that we might become acquaintetl 
with these events: otir meeting was predestined. — In this manner 1 
continued to persaade him until he gave his consent. I slept that 
night at his feet, unconscious of my state tlirough excessive joy; and 
in the morning we rose, and, entering the treasuries, took away a 
quantity of the lighter and most valuable of the articles that they 
contained, and descended from the citadel into the city, where we 
met the slaves and the captain, who :vere searching for mc. They 
were rejoiced at seeing me, and. to their questions respecting my 
absence, I replied by informing them of all that I had seen, and 
related to them the history of the young man, and the cause of the 
transmutation of the people of the city, and of all that had befallen 
them, which filled them with wonder. But when my two sisters 
saw me with the young man, they envied me on his accouat, and 
malevolently plotted against me. 

We embarked again, and I experienced the utmost happiness, 
chiefly owing to the company of the young man; and after we had 
waited a while till the wind was favourable, we spread our sails, and 
departed. My sisters sat witli me and the young man; and, in their 
conversation with me, said, O our sister, :vhat dost thou purprose to 
do with this handsome youth? 1 answered, I desire to take him as 


my husband: — jjid, lurnijig ro him, and ypproaching him, I said, 
O, my master, I wish to make a proposal Lo thec^ and do not thou 
oppose ic. He repiied, I hear and obey: — and 1 then looked towards 
my sisters, Lind slid to them, This young man is all that 1 desire, 
and nil the wealth that is here is yours.— Escehent, they replied, is 
ihy determinaiian: — yet still they designed evil against me.-^We 
continued our voyage with a favourable wind, and, quitting the sea 
of peril, entered the sea of setujity, across which wa proceeded for 
some days, until we drew near the city of El-B^tarah, the buildings 
of which loonied before us at the approach of evening; but as soon 
:ls we had fallen asleep, my sisters took us up in our bed, both myself 
and the young man, and threw us into the sea. The youth, being 
unable to swim, was drowned; God recorded him among the com- 
pany of the martyrs; while I was registered among those whose life 
was yet to be preserved: and, accordingly, as soon as I awoke and 
found myselE in the sea, the providence of God supplied me with a 
piece of timber, upon \^'hich i placed myself, and the waves cast me 
upon the shore of an islandn 

During the remainder of the night I walked along this island, 
and in the morning I saw a neck of land, bearing the marks of a 
man's feet, and uniting with the main land. The sun having now 
risen, I dried my clothes in its rays, and proceeded along the path 
that I had discovered until 1 drew near to the shore upon which 
stands the city, when I beheld a snake approaching mc, and followed 
by a serpent which was endeavouring to destroy it: the tongue of 
the snake was hanging from its mouth in consequence of excessive 
fatigue, and it excited my compassion; so 1 took up a stone, and 
ihrew it at tlie head of the serpent, which instantly died: the snake 
then extended a p^ir of wing^, and soared aloft into the sky, leaving 
me in wonder at the sight. At the time of this occurrence I had 
become so fatigued, that 1 now laid myself down and slept; but I 
awoke after a little while, and found a damsel seated at my feet, 
and gently rubbing them with her hands; upon which I imme- 
diately sat up, feehng ashamed that she should perform this service 
for me, and said [o her, Who art thou, and what dost thou want? — 
How soon hast thou forgotten mef she exclaimed: I am she to whom 
ihou hast just done a kindness, by killing my enemy; I am the 


snake whom ihou savedst from the serpent; for I am a Jinniyeh, 
and ihe serpent was a Jinni at enmity with me; and none but thou 
delivered nue from him: therefore, as soon as thou didsE ihis> 1 flew 
to the ship from which thy sisters cast thee> and transported all 
that it contained to thy house; I then sunk it; but as to thy sisEers^ 
1 transformed them by enchantment into two black biiches- for 1 
knew all that they had done to thee: the young man, however, is 
drowned. — Having thus said, she took me up, and placed me with 
the two black bitches on ihc roof of my house: and 1 found all the 
treasures that the ship had contained collected in the midst of my 
house: nothing was lost. She then said to me, I swear by that which 
was engraved upon the seal of Suleyman, that, if thou do not inllkt 
three hundred tashes upon each of these bitches every day, I will 
come and transform ihee in the like manner; — so I replied, 1 hear 
and obey: — and have continued ever since to inflict upon them these 
stripcsj though pitying them while I do so. 

The Kbahfeh heard this story with astonishment, and then said 
to the second lady, And what occasioned the stripes of which thou 
bearest the marks? She answered as follows: — 

The Story o? the Second of teie Three Ladies of Baghdad 

Prince of the FAirHFUi,j my father, at his death, left considerable 
property; and soon after that event I married to one of the ;vealthiesc 
men of the age, who, when I had Uved with htm a year, diedj and 
1 inherited from him eighty thousand pieces of gold, the portion that 
fell to me according to the law; with part of \vhich I made for myself 
ten suits of clothings each of the value of a thousand pieces of gold. 
And as 1 was silting one day, there entered my apartment an old 
woman, disgustingly ugly, who saluted me, and said, I, have an 
orphan daughter marriage I am to celebrate this night, and I 
would have thee obtain a reward and recompense in heaven by thy 
being present at her nuptial festivity; for she is broken-hearted, 
having none to befriend her bur God, whose name be exalted. She 
then wept, and kissed my feet; and, being moved with pity and com- 
passion, I assented, upon which she desired me to prepare myself, 
telling me that she would come at the hour of nightfall and take 
me; and so saying, she kissed my hand, and departed. 


I arose immediately* and attired myself, and when 1 had completed 
my prcixirations, the oid womiin returned, saying, O my mistress, 
the ladies of the city have arrived, and I have informed them of thy 
coming, and they are waiting with joy to receive thee: — so I put on 
my outer gurmeiitSj and, taking my female slaves wilh me, proceeded 
until we arrived at a street in which a stjft wind was delightfully 
playingj where we saw a gateway over-arched with a marble vault, 
admirably constructed, forming the entrance to a palace which rose 
from the ejrth to the clouds. On our arrival there, the old woman 
knocked at the door, and, when it was opened, we entered a carpeted 
passage, illuminated by lamps and candles, and decorated with 
jewels and precious metals. Through this passage we passed into a 
saloon of unequnlled magnificence, furnished with mattresses cov- 
ered with silk, lighted by hanging lamps and by candles, and having, 
at its upper end, a couch of alabaster decorated with pearls and 
jewels, and canopied by curtains of satin, from which there came 
forth a lady heairtiful as the inooii, who exclaimed to me, Most wel- 
come art thou, O my sister; thou delightcst me by thy company, and 
rcfrcshesL my heart. She then sat down again, and s:iJd to me, O my 
sister, I have a brother who haih seen thee at a festivity: he is a 
young man, more handsome than myself, and, his heart being vio- 
lently inJlamed with love of thee, he hath bribed this old woman to 
go to thee, and to employ this artifice in order to obtain for me an 
interview with ihee. He desireth to marry thee according to the 
ordinance of God and his Apostle, and in that which is lawful there 
is no disgrace, — When I heard these words, and sa^v myself thus 
confined in the hi:>use io that I couid not esca^>e, I replied, I hear, 
and obey ; — and the lady, rejoicing at my consent, clapped her bands, 
and opened , a door, upon which there came out from it a young 
man so surpassingly handsome, that Jiiy heart immediately inclined 
to him. No sooner had he sat down than the Kadi and four wit- 
nesses entered, and saluted us, and proceeded to perform the cere- 
mony of the marriage-contract between me and the young man; 
which having done, they departed; and when they bad retired, the 
young man looked towards me, and said. May our night be blessed. 
He then informed me that he desired to impose a covenant upon 
me, and, bringing a copy of the Kur'an, said. Swear that thou wilt 


not indulge a preference, nor at all incline^ to any nun but me:— and 
when I had sworn to this effect he rejoiced exceedingly, and 
embrjced me- ynd the love of him look entire posie^sioii of my 

We lived together in the utmost happiness for the space of a 
month, after which I begged that lie would allow me to go to the 
bazar, in order to purchase some stuffs for dress, and, having ob- 
t^iincd bis permission, went thither in company with the old woman, 
and seated myself at the shop of a young merchant with whom she 
was acquainted, and whose fatherj as she informed me, had died, 
and left him great wealth. She desired him to shew me his most 
cosdy stuifs; and while he was occupied in doing so, ihe began to 
utter various flattering expressions in praise of him; but I said to 
her, We have no concern with the praises that thou bestowest upon 
him; we desire only to make our purchase, and to return home. 
Meanwhile he produced to us what we wanted, and we handed him 
the money: he refused, however, to take k, saying, It is an offer of 
hospitality to yoQ for your visit this day:— whereupon I said to the 
old woman, If he will not take the money, return to him his stuff. 
But he would not receive it again, and exclaimed, By Allah, I will 
take nothing from you: all this is a present from me for a single kiss, 
which I shall value more than the entire contents of my shop. — 
What will a kiss profit thee? asked ihe old woman. Then, turning 
to me, she said, O my daughter, thou hast he;ird what the youth 
hath said; no harm will befall thee if he give thee a hiss, and thou 
shalt take what thou waniest.— Dost thou not know, said I, that I 
have taken an oath? She answered. Let him kiss thee then without 
thy speaking, and so it will be of no consequence to thee, and thou 
shalt take back thy money. Thus she continued to palliate the 
matter until 1 put my head (as it were) into the bag, and consented: 
so I covered my eyes, and held the edge of ity veil in such a manner 
as to prevent the passengers from seeing me, whereupon he put his 
mouth to my cheek beneath the veil, hut instead of merely kissing 
me, he lacerated my cheek by a violent bite. I fell into a swoon from 
the pain, and the old woman laid me on her lap till I recovered, 
when I found the shop closed, and the old woman uttering expres- 
sions of grief, and saying. What God hath averted would have been 


a greater cal.imiiy: let us return home, and do thou feign ro be ill, 
and I w\[\ come to thee and apply a remedy [h:iL shull cure the 
wound, jnd thou wilt quickly be restored. 

After remjjnJng there some time longer, I rose, jud, In a state 
of ^reat uneasiness and fear, returned to the house, and professed 
myiclf iN: upon which my husbaud came in to me, and said. What 
haih befallen thee, O my mistress, during this excursion? I an- 
swered, 1 am not weil. — ^And what is this wound, said he, that is 
upon thy cheek, and in the soft part? I aus\^'eredj When I asked thy 
permission, and went out to-day to purchase some stufi for dressj a 
camel loaded with firewood drove against me in the crowd, and 
tore my veil, and wounded my cheek as thou secst, for the streets 
of this city are narrow. — To-morroiv^ then, he e-xi^laimed, I wdl go 
to the governor, and make a compbint to him, and ho shall hang 
every seller oi firewood in the city. — By Allah, said I, burden not 
thyself by an injury to any one; for the truth is, that 1 was riding 
upon an ass, which took fright with me, and I fell upon the groundj 
and a stick lacerated my cheek,— If it be so, then, he replied, I will 
go ^o-morrow to Ja'far El-Barmeki, and relate the matter to him, and 
he sliall kill every ass-driver in this city. — Wilt thou, said I, kill all 
those men on my account when this which befell me was decreed by 
God? — Undoubtedly, he answered; and, so saying, he seized me 
violently, and then sprang up, and uttered a loud cry, upon which 
the door opened, and there came forth from if seven black :^IaveS| 
who dragged me from my bed, and threw me down in the middle 
of the apartment; whereupon he ordered one of them to hold me by 
my shoulders, and to sit upon my head; and another to sit upon my 
knees and to hold my feet. A thjtd then came, with a sword in his 
hand, and said, O my lord, sbail I strike her with the sword, and 
cleave her in twain, that each of these may fake a half and throw it 
into the Tigris for the hsh to devour? For such is the punishment 
of her \vho is unEaiibful to her oath and to the laws oi Jove. — My 
husband answered, Strike her O Sa'ad; — And the slave, with the 
drawn sword in his hand, said. Repeat the profession of die faith, 
and reflect what thou wouldst have to be done, that thou mayesl 
give thy testamentary directiotis, for this is the end of thy life. — 


Good slave^ 1 replied, release me for a while that 1 may do so:— and 
1 raised my head, and weeping as I spoke, addressed my husband 
witli these verses; — 

You render me lovelorn, and remain at case. You jiiyke my wounded 

eyelids to be resdcs?, and you sleep. 
Your abode i^ beUveen my heart and my eyes; and my heart will not 

relinquish you, nor my tears eonceiil my passion. 
You made a covenant wiih me ihaL you \iDuld remain fait[iful; but wlien 

you had gained possession of my heart you deceived me. 
Will you not pity my love £or you and my moanin^^? Have you yourself 

been secure from miatortunesP 
r conjure you, by Allah, i£ I die, that you write upon my lombsione, 

This was a slave of love. 
That, perch,Tnce, 5ome mourner who hath felt the same flame may pass 

by the lover's grave, and piiy her. 

But on hciiring these verses, and witnessing my weeping, he became 
more ii^censedj and replied in the words of ihis couplet: — 

I reject not the beloved oi my heart from weariness: her own guilty 

conduct is the cause of her punishment. 
She desired that anodier should share with me licr love; but the faith of 

my heart inclineih not to partnership. 

1 continued to weep, and to endeavour to excite his compassion, 
saying Within myself, I will humble me before him, and address 
him \vith soft words, that he may ai least refrain from kilhng me, 
though he take all that I possess i— but he cried out to the slave, 
Cleave her in twain; for she is no longer of any value to us. — So the 
slave approached mc* and I now felt assured of my dead\, and com- 
mitted myself lo God; Emt suddenly the old woman came and threw 
herself at my husband's feet, and, kissing them, exclaimed, O my 
son, by the care with which I nursed thee, 1 conjure thee to pardon 
this damsel, for she hath committed no offence that deserveth stich a 
panishment: thou art young, and I fear the effect of the imprecadons 
fhat she may utter against thee: — and after she had thus addressed 
him, she wept, and continued to importune him, until, at length, 
he said, I pardon her, but must cause her to bear upon her person 


such mjrks of her oJfence as shall last for the remjindcr ot her iife. 
So saying he commanded ihe slaves to strip oil my vest> and, taking 
J stick cut from a quince-tree, he beat me upon my back and my 
sides until I became insensibJe from the ^'iolcnce of the blows^ and 
despaired of my life. He Lhen ordered ihe skives to take me away 
as sooii as it :vas night, accompanied by the old woman, and throw 
me into my house in which 1 formerly re&rdcd. They accordingly 
executed their lord's commiinds, and when they had deposited me 
in my housej I apphed myself to the healing of my wounds; but, 
after I had cured mysclt, niy sides siiU bore the appearance of having 
been beaten with mikra'ahs. I continued to apply remedies for four 
months before I was restored^ and then repaired to view the house 
in which this event had happened; but I found it reduced to ruin, 
and the whole street pulled down; the site o£ the house 1 found 
occupied by mounds of rubbish, and I knew not the cause. 

Under these circumstances^ I went to reside ^vith this my sister, 
who is of the same father as myself, and I found with her these two 
bitches. Having saluted her, I informed her of all that had befallen 
me; to which she repiiedi Who is secure from the aiHictions of for- 
tuneP Praise be to God who terminated the affair with safety to 
thy life!— She then related to me her own story, and that of her two 
sisters, and ] remained with her, and neither of us ever mentioned 
the subject of marriage. Afterwards we were joined by this our 
otiier sister, the cateress, who every day goes out to purchase for us 
whatever we happen to want. 


The Khalifeh was astonished at this s^tory, and ordered it to be 
recorded in a book, as an authentic history, and deposited the book 
in his library. And he said to the first lady, KniDwest thou where 
the Jinniyeh who enchanted thy sister is to be found ? She answered, 
O Prince of the Faithful, she gave me a lock of her hair, and said, 
When thou desirest my presence^ burn a few of these hairsj and I 
will be with thee quickly, though I should be beyond Mount Kaf.— 
Bring then the hair, said the Khalifeh. The lady, dierefore, pro- 
duced it; and the Khalifeh, taking it, burned a portion of it, and 
when the odour had diffused itself, the palace shook, and they heard 
a sound of thunder, and loi the Jinniyeh appeared before them. She 


was a Muslimeh, and therefore greeted the Khalifeh by saying, Peace 
be 00 ihee, O Khalifeh of God!— to which he rephed, On you be 
peyce, and the mercy of God, and his blcssi ngs I ^^ She then said. 
Know that this hdy hath conferred on mc a benefit for which I am 
unable to requite her; for she rescued me from dcath^ by killing 
my enemy; and l» having seen what her sisters had done to her, 
determined to take vengeance upon them; cherefore 1 transformed 
ihem by enchantment into two bitches; and, indeed, 1 had wished 
rather to kill ihem, fearing lest ihey should trouble her; but now^ if 
ihou desire their restoration^ O Prince of the Faithful^ 1 will restore 
ihem^ as a favour to rhee and to her; for 1 am one of the true believ- 
ers,^ — Do so, said the Khalifeh; and then we will enter upon [he 
consideration of the affair of the Jady who haih been beaten, and 
examine her ease, and if her veracity be established, I will take 
vengeance for laer upon him who hath oppressed her. The Jinniyeh 
replied, O Prince of the Faithful, I will guide thee Lo the discovery 
of him who acted thus to this lady^ and oppressed her, and look her 
property: he is thy nearest relation. She then took a cup of water^ 
and, having pronoti need a spell over it, sprinkled the faces of the two 
bitches, saying, Be restored to your original human forms! — where- 
upon they became again two young ladies.— Extolled be the per- 
fection of cheir Creator! Having dotie this, the Jinniyeh said, O 
Prince of the Faithful, he who beat the lady is thy son El-Emin, who 
had heard of her beauty and loveliness: — and she proceeded 10 relate 
what had happened. The Khalifeh was astonished, and exclaimed. 
Praise be to God for the restoration of tliese t^vo bitches which hath 
been effected through my means! — and immediately he summoned 
before him his son El-Emin, and inquired of him the history of the 
lady; and he related to him the truth. He then sent for Kadis and 
witnesses, and the first lady and her two sisters who had been trans- 
formed into bitches he married to the three mendicants who had 
related that they were the sons of Kings; and these he made cham- 
berlains of his court, appointing them all that they required, and 
allotting them apartments in the palace of Baghdad. The lady who 
had been beaten he restoretl to his son El-Emin, giving her a large 
property, and ordering that the house should be rebuilt in a more 
'^ This saTuTaiion and its ii^Iy aiE^ to be given only to and by IiJuslims. 


handsome style. Lastly, the lady caieress he took as his own wife; 
he admitted her at onte to his own apartment, and, on the following 
d^y, he appointed her a separate lodging for herselt, with female 
slaves to wait upon her: he also allotted to her a regular income; 
ynd afterwards bulk for her a palace. 

[Nighis 24-sz] 
The Stoay ov the Humpback 

THERE was, m ancient times* in the dry o£ El-Basrah, a 
tailor who enjoyed ;in ample income, and was fond o£ sport 
and merrimenc. He was in [he habil of going out occasion- 
ally with his wife, thai they might amuse themselves with strange 
and diverting scenes; and one day they went forth in the afternoon, 
^nd^ returning home in the evening, met a humpbacked man* whose 
aspect was such as to CNcite laughter in [he angry, and to dispel 
anxiety and grief: so they approathed him to enjoy tlie pleasure of 
gating at him, and invited him to return with them to their house, 
and to juin with [hem in a carousal ihat night. 

He aisenced lo their proposal; and after he had gone with them to 
the house, the tailor went out to the market; night having then ap- 
proached. He hought some fried fish, and bread axid limes and 
sweetmeat, and, returning with them, placed the fish before the 
humpback, and they sat down to eat; and rhe tailor's wife took a 
large piece of fish, and crammed the humpback with it, and, closing 
his mouth wi[h her hand, said, By Allah, thou shalt not swallow it 
but by gulping it at once, and I will not give thee time to chew it. 
He therefore swallowed it; but it contained a large and sharp bone, 
which stuck across in his throat, his destiny having so determined, 
and he expired. The tailor exclaimed, There is no strength nor 
power bui in God, the Highj the Great! Alas, that this poor creature 
should not have died but in this manner by our hands! — Where- 
fore this idling? exclaimed the woman,— And what can I do? asked 
her husband. — Arise, she answered, and take him in thy bosom, and 
cover him with a silk napkin: I will go out first, and do thou follow 
me, this very night, and say, This is my son, and this is his mother; 
and we are going to convey him to the physician, that he may give 
him some medicine. 
No sooner had the [ailor heard these words than he arose, and took 



the liumpbact in his bosom. His wife, accompanying him, es- 

daimed* O my child! may Allah preserve ihecl Where is the pare 

in which thou feelest pain; and where hath this smail-pox aiucked 

ihec? — So every one who saw them said, They are conveying 3 child 

smiLten wish the smuU-pox. Thus they proceeded, iQquirin^, as they 

went, for the abode oi the physician; and the people directed them 

to the house of a physician who was a Jew- and they knocked at the 

door, and there came down to them a black slave-girl, who opened 

the door, and beheld a man carrying (as she imagined) a child^ and 

attended by its mother; and she said. What is your business? — We 

have a child here, answered the tailor's wife^ and we wanE the 

physician to see him : take, ihen, this quarter of a piece of gold, and 

give it to thy masEcr^ and let him come down and sec my son; for 

he is ill. The ^irl, ihereforc, went up, and the tailor's wife, entering 

the vestibule, said to her husband, Leave the humpback here, and 

let us take ourselves away. And the tailor, accordingly, set hint up 

against the wall, and went out with his wife. 

The slave-girl, meanwhile^ went in to the Jew, and said to hlmj 

BeloWj jn the house, is a sick person, with a woman and a man: and 

they have given me a quarter of a piece of gold for thee, that thou 

mayest prescribe for them what may suit }iis case, Antl when the 

Jew saw the quarter of a piece of gold, he rejoiced, and, rising in 

haste, went down in the dark: and in doing so, his foot struck against 

the lifeless humpback. O Ezra! he exclaimed — O Heavens and the 

Ten Commandments 1 O Aaron^ and Joshua son of Nun! h seemeth 

that I have stumbled ag-ainst this sick person, and he hath fallen 

down the stairs and died! And how shall 1 go forth with one killed 

from my house? O Ezra's ass!'^ — He then raised him, and took him 

up from the court of the house to his wife, and acquainted her with 

the accident.— And why siltest thou here idleP said she; for if ihou 

remain thus uniil daybreak our lives wil[ be lost: let me and ihcfij 
^ 'Oaeyr, or Ezra, '^ridin^^ an aa s^^ by the ritin-i at Jcru^jf^iii, afctr it hmJ been 
de5[ron-cJ b>' tlic Chiildcm^h d'mbicii in his inin<l by wliai nipans did could raii^c 
the cic>' usid in ]nEi[ibi[]nu Ji^-ain; wlicrcupon Gud cuuicid him tn diti, atid ht^ 
remained in lh:iT condliioj^ a liuntjrcd ycsis; JT iht end nf which God restored hinx 
to life, and he found a b^ike! of flii^ :ind ^ cruse of wine he hjd with him, not in 
the lea^c fimiled nr cnrrupfL-d, bin hi^ usi w^s dEad, ilic hftnt^ pnl/ rcinjinini,'; and 
ihcic. ivhile [hi: Prophm looked nn. u'ort- rjiitd and tloalhcd with fleinll. l>Ci^oniin),' an 
a*.& a^ain, whichi beinij in^pirwl wish HEo, bcyan immediaiely to bray.^' — ^jle's Koiiinj 
ch. iirt nnii;: [p, 31, ed. i73'j]- 


then, t^ke him up to the terrace^ and throw him inio the house of our 
neighbour ihe Muslim; for he Is the sti?ward of the Sulun s krtchcn, 
and often do the cats come to his house, and cat of the £ood which 
ihcy find there; as do ihe mice too; .ind if he remain [here for a 
night, the dogs will come down 10 him from the terraces and eac 
him up entirely. So the Jew and his wife went up, carrying 
the huTupbackj and let him down by his hands and feet to the 
pavement; pladng him against the wall; which having done, they 

Not long had the humpback been thus deposited when the steward 
returned to his house, und opened the door, and, going up with a 
hghted candle in his hand, found a son of Adam standing in the 
corner next the kitchen; upon which he exclaimed, What is this? 
liy Allah, the ihref that hath stolen our goods is none other than a 
son of Adam, who taketh what he findeth of flesh or grease, even 
though I keep it concealed from the cats and the dogs; and if I 
killed all the cats and dogs of the quarter it would be oi no use; for 
he Cometh down from the terracesl — And so saying, he took up a 
great mallet, and si ruck him with it, and then, drawing close to him, 
gave him a. second blow with it upon the chest, when the humpback 
fell down, and he found that he was dead; whereupon he grieved, 
and said. There is no strength nor power but in God! And he 
feared for himself^ and exclaimed, Curse upon the grease and the 
flesh, and upon this night, in which the destiny of this man hath 
been accomphshed by my handl Then, looking upon him, and per- 
ceiving that he wjs a humpback, he said, Is it not enough that thou 
art humpbacked, but must thou also be a robber, and steal the flesh 
and the grease? O Protector, cover me with thy gracious shelterl — 
And he lifted him upon his shoulders, and descended, and went 
forth from the house, towards the close of the night, and stopped nor 
until he had conveyed him to [he commencement of the market- 
street, where he placed him upon his fec( by (he side of a shop at the 
entrance of a lane, and there left him and retired. 

Soon after there came a Christian, the Sultan's bmker, who, in 
a state of inioxication, had come forth to visit the bath; and he 
advanced staggering, until he drew near to the humpback, when he 
turned his eyes, and bchdd one standing by him. Now, some persons 


had sjiJiched off hjs rurban early in ihe night, and when he saw [he 
humpback standing there, he conduced that he imendcd to do the 
same; so he clenched his fist, and struck him on the neck. Down 
fell the humpback upon the ground, and the Christian called out 
to the waichman o£ the market^ while, still in the excess of his in- 
toxication, he continued beating the humpback, and attempting to 
throttle him. As he was thus employed, the watchman came, and, 
finding the Christian kneeling upon the Muslim and beating him, 
said, Arise, and quit him! He arose, therefore, and the watchman, 
approaching the humpback, saw that he was dead, and excbimed, 
How is that the Christian dareth to kill the Muslim? Then seizing 
the Christian^ he bound his hands behind hitn, and took him to the 
house of d\e WaU;^ the Christian saying within himijcif, O Heavens! 
O Virgin! how have I killed this man? and how quickly did he 
die from a blow of the hand! — Intoxication had departed, and re- 
flection had come. 

The humpback and the Christian passed the remainder of the night 
in the house of the Wali, and the Wali ordered the c>[ecutioner to 
proclaim the Christian's, and hp set up a gallows, and sta- 
tioned him beneath it. The executioner then came, and threw the 
rope round his neck, and was about to hang himi when the Sulcan's 
steward pushed through the crcjwd, seeing the ChrisStian standing 
beneath the gallows, and the people made way for him, and he said 
to the executioner, Do it not, for it was 1 wlio killed him. — Where- 
fore didst thou kill him? said the Wali. He answered, I went into 
my house last night, and saw that he had descended from the terrace 
and stolen my goods; so 1 struck him with a mallet upon his chest, 
and he died, and I carried him ont, and conveyed him to the market- 
streetj where 1 set him up in such a place, at the entrance of such a 
lane, is it not enough for me to have killed a Muslim, that a Chris- 
tian should be killed on my account? Hang, tiien, none but me, — 
The Walij therefore, when he heard these words, liberated the Chris- 
tian broker, and said to the executioner^ Hang this man, on the 
ground of his confession. And he took off the rope from the neck of 
the Chrisiian, and put it round the neck of the steward, and having 
stationed him beneath the gallows, was about to hang him, when 

^ Chief police msgiiirate. 


Ehe Jewish pbysician puslied through the crowd, and called out 
to the exctuiioner, s,iying to him. Do it not; for none killed Kim 
bur 1; and the case was this: he came to jiiy house to be cured 
of a disease, and as I descended to him 1 struck against him 
with my foot, and he died: kill not the steward, therefore; but kill 
me. So the Wali gave orders 10 hang the Jewish physician; and the 
executioner took oJl the rope from the steward's neck, and put it 
round the neck of the Jew. But, lo, the tailor came, and, forcing his 
way among the people, sai^d to the executioner. Do it not; for none 
killed him but I; and it happened ihusi I was out amusing myself 
during the day, and as I was returning at the commencement o£ 
the night, 1 met this humpback in a state o£ intoxication, with a tam- 
bourine, and singing merrily; and I stopped to divert myself by 
looking at him, and took him to my hotrse. 1 then bought some 
iish> and we sat down to eat, and my wife took a piece of fish and 
a morsel of bread, and crammed them into his mouth, and he was 
choked, and instandy died. Then I and my wife took him to tlie 
house of the Jew, and the girl came down and opened the door, and 
while she went up to her master, I set up the humpback by the stairs, 
and went away with my wife: so* when the Jew came down and 
stumbled against him, he thought that he had killed iiim. — And he 
said to the Jew, Is this true? He answered, Yes. The tailor, then 
looking to^vards the Wali, sjid to him, Liberate the Jew, and hang 
me. And when the Wali heard this he was astonished at the case 
of the humpback, and said, Verily this is an event that should be 
recorded in books! And he said to the executioner. Liberate the 
Jew, and hang the tailor on account of his own confession. So the 
executioner had him forward, saying, Dost thou put forward this 
and take back that; and shall we not hang one? And he put the 
rope round the neck of the tailor. 

Now the humpback was the Sultanas bufJoon, and the Sultan could 
not bear him to be out of his sight; and when the humpback had 
got drunk, and been absent that night and the next day until ncM:>n, 
the King inquired respecting him of some of his attendants, and 
they answered him, O our lord, the Wali hatli taken him forth 
dead, and gave orders to hang the person who killed him, and there 
came a second and a third person, each saying. None killed him but 


I: — and describing to the Wa!i tlie cause of his killing him. When 
the King, therefore, he^ird this, he called oui to the Chamberlain, 
and said to him. Go down to the Wali, and bring them all hither 
before mi?. So the Chamberlain went down, and found that the 
executioner h^d almost put to death [he tailor, and he called out to 
him, saying, Do it not: — and informed the Wali that the case had 
been reported to the King. And he took him, and the humpback 
borne with him, and the tailor and the Jew and the Christian and 
the steward, and went up with ihem all to the King; and when tlie 
Wali came into the presence of the King, he kissed the ground, and 
related to him all that had happened. And [he King was astonished, 
and was moved with merriment, at hearing this tale; and he com- 
manded that it should be written in letters of gold. He then said to 
those Avho were present, Have ye ever heard anything like the story 
of this humpback i" And upon this the Christian advanced, and snid, 
O King of the age, if thou permit me 1 will relate to thee an event 
that hath occurred to me more wonderful and strange and exciting 
than the story of the humpback. — Tetl us then thy story, said the 
King. And the Chrisdan related as follows:— 

The Srony Told by the C^iristiw Broker 

Know, O King of the age, that I came to tliis country with 
merchandise, and destiny stayed me among your people. 1 was born 
in Cairo, and am one of its Copts, and there I was brought tip. My 
father was a broker; and when i had attained to manhood, he 
died, and I succeeded to his business; and as 1 was sit[ing one day, 
lo, a young man of most handsome aspect, and clad in a dress of the 
richest description, came to me, riding upon an ass, and when he saw 
me, saluted me; whereupon I rose to him, to pay him honour, and 
he produced a handkerchief containing some sesame, and said. What 
is the value of an ardebb^ of this? I answered him, A hundred pieces 
of silver* And he said to me. Take the carriers and the measures, and 
repair to the Khan of Ebjawali in the district of Bab en-Nasr:^ there 

^Tn Cairo, npiiTJy live bu&hch- 

^"Gaw ctt Vkro[>' oi o£ Aid": ihe e.i^KfJirnn^r of the nortlurn piiies o£ Cairo bulk 
ID loS^. Tlio Khan referred m is meniioned by l;l-M,fkniL ss beuiu iiiuaicd Ji 3 
£horl disEanCL- ivithin ihc presenl ^le iind by ihe site o£ the older gale oi ihe ^ame 
name, and as e>;Uiiii|;: in hij limi? [1417J. 


wik thou find me. And he left me and weiic his way, after having; 
given me die handkeithief widi rhe sample of the sesame. So 1 went 
about to the purcliasers; and the price of each ardebb amounted to a. 
hundred and twenty pieces of silver; and I took with me four car- 
riers, and went to him, I found him waiting my arrival; and when 
he saw me he rose and opened a magazine, and we measured its 
conientSj and the whole amounted to lifty ardebbs. The young man 
then said, Thou shalt have» for every ardebb, ten pieces of silver as 
brokerage; and do thou receive the price and keep it in thy care: the 
whole sum will be five thousand; and thy share of it, ^ve hundred; 
so there will remain for me four [housand and Hve hundred; and 
when f shall have finished the sale of the goods contained in my 
store-room, I will come to thee and receive it. I replied, It shall be as 
thou desiresc. And T kissed his hand, and left him. Thus there 
accrued to mcj on that di^V) a thousand pieces of silver, [besides my 

He was absent from me a month, at the expiration of which he 
came and said to me* Where is the money? 1 answered, Here it is, 
ready. And he said. Keep it until I come to thee to receive it. And 
I remained expecting him; but he was absent from me another 
month; after which he came again, and said, Where is the moneyp 
Wliereupon I arose and saluted him, and said to him. Wilt thou eat 
something \vith us? He, however, declined, and said, Keep the 
money until 1 shall have gone and returned to receive it from thee. 
He then departed; and 1 arose, and prepared for him the money, 
and sat expecting him; but again he absented himself from me for 
a month, and then came and said, After this day I will receive it 
from ihee. And he departed, and I made ready the money for him 
as before, and sat waiting his return. Again, however, he remained 
a month absent from me* and I said within myself, Verily this young 
man is endowed with consummate liberality! After the month he 
came, attired in rich clothing, and rest^mbling the full moon, appear- 
ing as if he had just come out of the bivth, with red cheek and fair 
forehead, and a mole like a globule of ambergris. When I beheld 
him I kissed his hand^ and invoked a blessing upon him, and said 
to him, O my master, wilt tliou not lake thy money? — Have 
patience with me. he answered, until 1 shall have transacted all my 


aHciirs, after which I will receive ii from ihec. And so saying, lie 
departed; and I said within myself, Ey AUyh, when he cometh 1 
will entertain him as a guest, on account of the profit which 1 have 
derived from his money; for great wealth hath accrued to mc from it. 

At the close of the year he returned, clad in a dress richer than the 
former; aiml I sv/nre to him that he should alight to be my guest. — 
On the condition, he replied, that thou expend nothing of my money 
that is in thy possession. 1 said, WeU:-^and, having sealed him, 
prepared what was requisite of meats aud drinks and other pro- 
visions, and placed them before him, saying, In the name of Allithl 
And he drew near to the table, and put forth his left hand, and thus 
ate with me: so I was surprised at him;^ and when we had hnished 
he washed his hand, and I gave him a napkin with which to wipe it. 
We then sat down to converse, and I said, O my master, dispel a 
trouble from my mind. Wherefore didst thou eat with thy left 
hand? Probably somttliing paineih thee in thy right handP — On 
hearing these wordsj he stretched forth his arm from his sleeve, and 
behold, it was maimed — an arm without a hand! And J wondered 
at this; btit he said to me, Wonder not; nor say in thy heart that I 
are with thee with my left hand from a motive of self-conceit; for 
rather to be wondered at is the cause of the cutdng oH of my right 
hand. And what, said 1, was the cause of k? He answered thus: — 

Know that I am from Baghdad: my father was one of the chief 
people of that city; and when 1 had attained the age of manhood, 1 
heard the wanderers and travellers and merchants conversing respect- 
ing the land of Egypt, and their words remained in my heart until 
my father died, when 1 took large sums of money, and prepared 
merchandise consisting of the stuffs of Baghdad and of El-Mosil, and 
similar precious goods, and, having packed them up, journeyed 
from Baghdad; and God decreed mc safety until I entered this 
your city. And so saying, he wept, and repeated these verses: — 

The blear-eyed cscapeth a pit inin which the clear-sighted falleth; 
And the ignorant, an compression by which the shrewd sage fs ruined. 
The behevtr can scarci; earn hii food, white tiie impious infidel is 

What art or act can a man devise? It is what the Almighty appointeth! 

^Thc Arabs idji^icIlt k indfcurous lu e^t with iht: left Eumj, 


I entered Cairo» continued ihe young man, and deposUed the stuffs 
in the Khan of Mesrur/ and» having unbound my packages and pu: 
them in the magazines, gave to the servant some money to buy for 
us something to eat, after which I slept a little; and when I arose, 
1 went to Beyn el-Kasreyn* 1 then returned, and passed the night; 
and in the morning following, 1 opened a bale of stufi, and said 
within myielf, I will arise and go through some of the market- 
streets^ and see the state of tlie mart. So 1 took some stufT, and made 
some of my servants carry it, and proceeded until I arrived at the 
Keysariyeh' of Jaharkas, where the brokers came to me, having 
heard o£ my arrival, and took from me tlie stui?, and cried it about 
for sale; but the price bidden amounted not to the prime cost. And 
upon this the Shcykh of the brokers said to me, O my master, I 
know a plan by which thou mayest profit; and it is this: that thou 
do as otiier merchants^ and sell thy merchandise upon credit for a 
certain period, employing a scrivener and a witness and a money- 
changer, and receive a portion of the profits every Thursday and 
Monday; so shah thou make of every piece of silver two; and be- 
sides thatj thou wilt be able to enjoy the amusements afforded by 
Egypt and its Nile. — The advice is judicious, I replied: and accord- 
ingly I took the brokers with me to the Khan, and tliey conveyed 
the stuffs to the Keysariyeh, where 1 sold it to the merchants, 
writing a bond in their names, which I committed to the money- 
changer, and taking from him a corresponding bond. 1 then re- 
turned to the Khan, and remained there some days; and every day 
I took for my breakfast a cup of wine, and had mutton and sweet- 
meats prepared for me, until the month in which I became entitled 
to the receipt of the profits, when I seated myself every Thursday 
and Monday at the shops of the merchants, and the money-changer 
went with the scrivener and brought me the money. 

Thus did 1 until one day I went to the bath and returned to the 
Khan, and, entering my lodging, took for my breakfast a cup of 
wine, and then slept; and when I awoke I ate a fowl, and perfumed 
myself with essence^ and repaired to the shop of a merchant named 

Bedr-ed-Din the Gardener, who, when he ssw me, welcomed me, 

^ [In ihe Bc>'n d-Kasrcyn or "BetviNt [lie PnljccSn" hy the present Suk en-Nahlusin. 
Sco Lanc-l*DDlc> Stury nf Citho (igoa), pp, 2(36-270,] 
' A SJputior kind of auk or market 


and conversed with me a whtk in his shop; ^nd as we were thus 
eng;fged, lo, a fem,i3e came and seated her^elt by my side. She 
wore a headkerchicf inchned on one side, J^nd the odours of sweet 
perfumes were dillused from her, and she captivated my reason by 
her beauty and lovehness as she raised her izar and I beheld her 
bbck eyes. She saluted Bcdr-ed-Din, and he reiurned her salutation, 
and stood conversing with her; and when 1 heard her speech, love 
for her took entire pos^esiion oi my heart. She then said Co Bedr-ed- 
Din, Hast chou a piece of stuiT woven with pure gold thread? And 
he produced to her a piece; and she said, May 1 take i: and go, and 
then send thee the price? But he answered. It is impossible, O my 
mistress; for this is the owner of the siuff, and I owe him a portion 
of the profit. — Woe to theef said she: it Is my custom to rake of 
thee each piece of stufT for a considerable sum of money, giving 
thee a gain beyond thy wish, and then to send thee the price. — Yes, 
he rejoined^ hue 1 am in absolute want of the price this day. And 
upon [his she took the piece and threw it back, to him upon his 
breast, saying, Verily your class knows not how to respect any 
persons rank! And she arose, and turned away. 1 felt then as if 
my soul went with her, and, rising^ upon my feel, I said to her, O 
my mistress, kindly bestow a look upon me, and retrace thine 
honoured steps. And she returned, and smiled and said» For thy 
sake I return. And she sat opposite me upon the seat of the shop; 
and 1 said to Bedr-ed-Din, What is the price that thou hast agreed 
to give for this piece? He answered, Eleven hundred pieces of silver. 
And I said to him, Thy profit shall be a hundred pieces of silver; 
give me then a paper, and 1 will write for thee the price upon it. 
I tlien took the piece of stufT from him, and wrote him the paper 
with my own hand, and gave ihe piece of stufT to the lady, saying 
to her. Take it and go; and if thou wilt, bring the price to me in the 
market; or, if thou wilt, it shall be my present to thee. She replied, 
God recompense thee, and bless thee with my property, and make 
ihee my husband; and may God accept this prayer! — O my misrress, 
said I, let this piece of stuff he thine, and another like it, and permit 
me to see thy face- And upon this she raised her veil; and when I 
beheld her face^ the sight drew from me a thousand sighs, and my 
heart was entangled by her love, so that I no longer remained master 


of my reason. She [hen lowercti the veil jigaln^ an.d took the piece of 
atirlT^ sjj'in^j O my masier, lenve me not desolate. So she departed, 
^vhiie 1 cuiiLiiiued sitting in the ni;irkci:-£trcet uniil the hour of 
a tier noon-prayer, with wandering mind, ovcrpowcrtd by love. In 
the excess of my passion, bchjre 1 ro^e 1 asked [he merchant respect- 
ing her; and he answered me, She is a rich lady, the daughter of a 
deceased Emir, who left her great property. 

Z then took leave of him, and returned to the Khiin, and the 
.icipper was placed before me; but, reflecting upon her, I could eat 
nothing. I hild myself down to rest; but sleep came not to me, and 
1 rem-iined awake uniil ihc morning, when I arose and put on a 
suit of cfoEhing diffcrenE from that wliich I h,td worn [he day before; 
and, having drunk a cup of wine, and eaten a few morsels as my 
breakfast, repaired again to the shop of the merchant, and s,ilured 
him^ and sat down ^vich him. The lady soon came, wearing a dress 
more rich than the former, and attended by a slave-girl; and she 
seated herself, and saluted me instead of Bedr-ed-Din, and said, with 
an eloquent tongue which 1 had never heard surpassed in softness 
or sweetness, Send ^vich me some one to receive the twelve hundred 
pieces of siher, the price of the piece of stuff. — Wherefore, said 1, 
this haste? She replied, M,iy we never lose thee! And she handed 
[o me [he price; and 1 sat conversing with her, and made a sign 
(0 her, which she understood, intimating my wish to visit her: 
whereupon she rose in haste, expressing displeasure at my hint. My 
heart clung to her, and I followed in the direction of her steps 
through the market-srreei; and Id, a slave-girl came to me, and said, 
O my masier» answer the summons of my mistress. Wondering ac 
thisj I said. No one here kooweih me. — Htnv soon, she rejoined, 
hast thou forgotten her! My mistress is she who was to-day at the 
shop of the merchant Bedr-ed-Din, — So I went wi[h her until we 
arrived at the money-changer^s; and when her mistress, who was 
there, beheld me, she drew me to her side, and said, O my beloved, 
thou hast wounded my heart, and love of ihee hath taken possession 
of if; and from the time that I first saw thee, neither sleep nor food 
nor drink hath been pleasant to me. 1 replied, And more than that 
do I feel; and the state in ^vhich I am needs no complaint to 
testify it, — Then shall I visit thee, O my beloved, she asked, or wilt 


rhou come to tne^ [For our marrfage must be a secret.] — I am ii 
aCranger, I ansuered, and have no place o£ reception but the Khaii; 
iherefore, j£ thou uilt kindly permit me lo go to thine abode, tlie 
pleasure will be perfect,^ Well, she replied; but to-night is the e\e 
of Friday, and let nothing be done till to-morrow, when, after thou 
hast joined in the praycfs, do thou mount thine ass, and inquire for 
the Habbaniyeh; and when thou hast arrived there, ask {or the 
house called the Ka'ah of Barakat the Nakib,^ known by the sur- 
name of Abu-Shameh; for there do I reside; and delay not; for 1 
shall be anxiously expecting thee. 

On bearing this I rejoiced exceedingly, and we parted; and I re- 
turned to the Khan in which 1 lodged. 1 passed the whole night 
sleepless, and was scarcely sure chat the daybreak had appeared when 
I rose and changed my clothes, and, having perfumed mysclE with 
essences and sweet scents, took with me fifty pieces of gold in a 
handkercliief, and walked from the Khan of Mesrur to Eab 
Zuweyleh,^ where I mounted an ass, and said to its owner, Go with 
me to the Habbaniyeh. And in less than the twinkling of an eye he 
set olf, and soon he stopped at a by-street called Darb El-Munakkiii, 
when 1 said to him, Enter the street, and inquire for the Ka'ah oi 
the Nakib. He was aijsent but a little while, and, returning, said, 
j\|ight. — Walk on before mc, said I, to the Ka'ah, And he Tvent on 
until he had led me to the house; whereupon i said to iiim. To- 
morrow come 10 me hither to convey me back. — In the name of 
Allah, he replied: and I handed to him a quarter o£ a piece of gold, 
and he took it and departed. I then knocked at the door, and there 
came forth to me two young virgins in whom the forms of woman- 
hood had just de\'cioped themselves, resembling two moons, and 
they said, Enter; for our mistress is expecting thee, and she hath not 
slept last night from her excessive love for thee. I entered an upper 
saloon with seven doors: around it were latticed windows looking 
upon a garden in which were fruits of every kind, and running 
streams and singing birds: it was plastered with imperial gypsum, 
in which a man might see his face reflected: its roof was ornamented 
with gilding, and surrounded by inscriptions in letters of gold upon 

^ Of Za^vJleh. the smilhern gate oi (the cjriirinul) Cairo. 


a ground o£ uitramarine: it compri^d a variety of beauties, and 
shone in the eyes of beliolders: the pavement was of coloured 
marbles^ having in [he midst of if a fountain^ with four snakes o£ 
red gold casting forth water from their mouths hke pearls and 
jewels at the corners of the pool; and it was furnished with carpets 
of coloured silk, and mattresses. 

Having entered, 1 seated myself; and scarcely had I done so when 
the lady approached me. She wore a crown set with pearls and 
jewels; her hands and feet were stained wiih henna; and her bosom 
was ornamented with gold. As Soon as she beheld me she smiled ii] 
my face, and embraced me, saying, Is it true that ihou hast come to 
me, or is this a dream? — I am thy slave, I answered; and she said, 
Tliou art welcome. Verily, from the lime when I first saw thee, 
neither sleep hath been sweet to me nor hath food been pleasant! — 
In such case have / been^ 1 rep]ied;^and we sat down to converse; 
but I hung down my head towards the ground, in bashfulness; and 
not long had I thus remained when a repast was placed before me, 
consisting of the most exquisite dislies, as fricandoes and hashes and 
stuffed fowls, I ate ^vith her until we were satisfied; when ihey 
brought The basin and ewer, and I washed my hands; after which 
we perfumed oursehes with rose-water infused with musk, and 
sat down again to converse; expressing to each other our mutual 
passion; tind her love took such possession of me that all the wealth 
I possessed seemed worthless in comparison. In this manner we 
continued to enjoy ourselves until, night approaching, the female 
slaves brought supper and wine, a complete service; and we drank 
until midnight. Never in my life had I passed such a night. And 
when morning came, 1 arose, and, having thrown to her the hand- 
kerchief containing the pieces o£ gold, I took leave of her and went 
out; but as 1 did so she wept, and said, O my master, when shall 1 
see again this lovely face? 1 answered her, I will be with thee at 
the commencement of the night. And when I went forth, I found 
the o^vner of tlie ass, who had brought me the day before, waiting 
for me at the door; and I mounted, and returned with him to the 
Khan of Mesrur, where 1 alighted, and gave to him half a piece of 
gold, saying to him. Come hither at sunset. He replied. On the head 
be thy command. 


I entered the Khaii^ and are my breakfast^ and ihcn went forth to 
collect the price of my siufis; after which I reiunted. i had prt?pared 
for my wife a roasted himb, and purchcised some sweetmeat; and 
1 now called the porter, described to him the house, and gave him bis 
hire. Having done this^ I occupied myself again with my business 
until sunset, when the owner of the ass came, and J took fifty pieces 
o£ gold, and put them into a handkerchief. Entering the house, I 
found that they had wiped the marble and pohshed the vessels of 
copper and br,"fS3, and filled the lamps and lighted the candles, and 
dished the supper and strained the wine; and when my wife saw me, 
she threw her arms around my neck, and said. Thou hast made me 
dcso]ate by thjne absencci The tables were then placed before us, 
and WE ate until we ivere satisfied^ and the slave-girls took a^vay the 
first table, and placed before us the wine; and we snt drinking, and 
eating of the dried {ruits, and making merry, until midnight. We 
then slept until morning, when 1 arose and handed her the fifty 
pieces of gold as before, and left her. 

Thus I continued to do for a long time, until 1 passed the ni^ht 
and awoke possessing not a piece of silver nor one of gold; and I 
said within myself, This is of the work of the Devil! And I repeated 
these verses: — 

Poverty causcth the lustre of a man to grow dim. like ihe yellowness of 

the setting sun. 
When absent, he is not remembered among mankind; and when present, 

he sharcth not their plea^ares. 
in the market-streets he shunneth notice^ and in desert places he poureth 

forth his tears. 
By Allahf a nun, among his own reloLians, when afflicted with poverty, 

is as a stranger! 

With chese refieclions ! walked forth into Beyn el-Kjsreyn, and 
proceeded thence to Bab Zu^veyleh, where I found the people 
crowding together, so that the gale was stopped up by their number; 
and, as destiny willed, T saw there a trooper, and, unintentionally 
pressing against him, my hand came in contacL with liis pocket, and 
I felt it, and found that it contained a purse; and l caught hold of 
die purse, and took it from his pocket. But the trooper felt that his 
pocket was lightened, and, putting his hand into it, found nothing; 


upon which he looked a^ide ac me, and raised his hand with rhe 
mace, and srrack me upon my head. I fell 10 rhe ground^ and the 
people surrounded us, and seized the bridle of the iroopcr^s horse, 
saying, On account of the crowd dosc thou strike this young man 
such a blow? But he called out to them and said, This is a robher! 
On hearing this 1 feared. The people around me said, This is a 
comely young man, and hath laken nothing. While some, however, 
believed this, others disbelieved; and after many words, the people 
dragged me along, desiring to liberate me: but, as it was predestined, 
there came at this moment the Wali and other magistrates entering 
the gate* and, seeing the people surrounding me and the [rooper, the 
Wali said, What is the news? The trooper answeredj By Allali» O 
Emir* this is a robber: I had in my pocket a blue purse containing 
twenty pieces of gold; and he took it while 1 was pressed by the 
crowd. — Was any one with thee? asked the Wali. The trooper 
answered, No, And the Wali called out to the chief o£ his servants, 
saying, Sei^e him and search him. So he sei'zed mc; and protection 
was withdrawn from me; and the Wali said to him* Strip him of 
all that is upon him. And \vhen he did so, ihey found the purse 
in my clothes: and the Wali, taking it, counted the money* and 
found it to be twenty pieces of gold, as the trooper had said; where- 
upon he was enraged, and called out to his attendants, saying, Bring 
him forward. They, therefore* brought me before him, and he said 
to mc, O young man, tell the truth. Didst thou steal this purse ?^ 
And I hung down my head towards the ground, saying within my- 
self* If I answer that 1 did not steal it, it will be useless, for he hath 
produced it from my clothes; and if I say I stole it, I £al| into trouble. 
I then raised my head* and said. Yes, J took it. And when the Wali 
heard these words, he wondered, and called witnesses* who pre- 
sented themselves, and gave their testimony to my confession, — All 
this took place at Bab Zuweyleh,— The Wali then ordered the 
executioner to cut off my hand; and he cut ofT my right hand; but 
the heart of the trooper was moved with compassion for me, and 
he interceded for me that I should not be killed: so the Wali left 
me and departed. The people however continued around me* and 
gave me to drink a cup of wine] and the trooper gave me the purse, 
saying, Thou art a comely youth* and it is not tit that thou shouldst 


be a thief. And I took it from him, and addressed him with these 

verits: — 

By Allah] good sir, I was not a roT>ber; nor W35 I a thief, O best of 

mankind I 
EuE fortune's vicissiiudes overthrew me saddenly^ and anxiety and trouble 

and poverty overpowered me. 
I cast it not; but it was the Deity who cast an arrow that threw down the 

kingly diadem from my head. 

The trooper then l[?ft me and departed, after having given me the 
purse, and I wenf: my way; but first 1 wrapped my hand in a piece 
of rag, and put it in my bosom. My condition thus altered, and my 
countenance pallid in consequence of my siilfermgs, 1 walked to the 
Ka*ah, and, in a disordered state of mind, threw myself upon the 
bed. My wifej seeing niy complexion thus changed, said to me, What 
hath pained thee, and wherefore do I see thee thus altered? I 
answered her, My head acheth, and I am not well. And on hearing 
this she was vexed, and became ill on my account, and said, Burn not 
my heart, O my master! Sit up, and raise thy head, and tell me 
what hath liappened to tliee this day; for i read a taie in diy face, — 
Abstain from speaking to me, I replied. And she wept, and said, 
it seemeth that thou art tired o£ us; for 1 see thee to he conducting 
thyself in a manner contrary to thy usual habit- Then she wept 
again, and continued addressing me, though I made her no reply, 
until the approach of night, when she placed some food before me; 
but I abstained from it, fearing that she should see me eat with my 
left hand, and said, 1 have no desire to eat at present. She then said 
again. Tell me what hath happened to thee this day, aiid wheT&- 
fore I see thee anxious and broken-hearted. 1 answered, I will 
presently tell thee at my leisure. And she pat the wine towards me, 
saying. Take it; for it will dispel thine anxiety; and thou must drink, 
and tell me thy story, i replied, therefore, If it must be so, give me 
to drink with thy hand. And she filled a cup and drank it; and then 
filled it again and handed it to me, and 1 took it from her witli my 
left hand, and, while tears ran from my eyes, I repeated these 
verses :— 

When God willeth an event to befall a man who is endowed with reason 
and hearing and sight, 


He dcafcncth his ears, and bllndeih his litarr, and draweth his rojwm 
. . from him as a hair. ... 

Till, having fiilHlted his purpose against him» He restoreth him his 
[fiason that he may be ;nJmonJbhcJ, 

Having thus saidj wept again; and when she snw me do so, she 
uttered a loud cry, and said, Whai is the reason of thy weeping? 
ThoQ hast burned my heart! And wherefore didst thou take the 
cup with thy left hand: — I answered her, I have a boil upon my 
right hand, — Then put it forth, said, she, that i may open it for 
thee. — It is not yet, 1 replied, the proper time for opening it; and 
continue not to ask rne; for 1 will not put it forth at present. 1 then 
drank the contents of the cup, and she continued to hand me [he 
wtne until into:?iication overcame me, and I fell asleep in. the place 
where I was silting; upon which she discovered that my right arm 
was without a hand, and, searching me, saw the purse containing 
the gold. 

Grief, such as none else experienceth, overcame her at the sight; 
and she suffered incessant torment on my account until the morning, 
when I awoke, and found that she had prepared for me a disli com- 
posed of four boiled fowls, which she placed before me. She then 
gave me to drink a cup of wine; and 1 ate and drank, and put down 
the purse, and was about to depart; but she said. Whither wouldst 
thou go? 1 answered. To such a place, to dispel somewhat of the 
anxiety which oppresseth my heart. — Go not, said she; but rather sit 
down again. So I sat down» and she said lo me, Hath tiiy love of 
me becoine so excessive that thou hast expended all thy wealth upon 
me, and lost thy hand? 1 take diee, then, as witness against me, and 
God alio is witness, that I will never desert thee; and thou shalt see 
the truth of my words. — Immediately, therefore, she sent for wit- 
nesses, who came; and she said to ihem, Write my contract of 
iTiJrriage to this young man, and bear witness that I have received 
the dowry. And they did as she desired them; after which she said, 
Bear witness that all my property which is in this chest, and all my 
memluks anti female slaves, belong to this young man. Accordingly, 
they declared themselves witnesses of her declaration, and I ac- 
cepted the property, and they departed after they had received their 
fees. She then took me by my hand, and, having led me to a closet, 


opejied a large these, and Siiid Eo me, Sec whiit is ccjntaincth in this 
chest. 1 looked, therefore; and lo, it was full of handkerchiefs; and 
she said, Thi5 is thy propertyj which I have received from thee: for 
every time that tjiou gavest me a handkerchief containing fifty 
pieces o£ gold, I wrapped it up, and threw it into this chest: take, 
then, thy property; for God hath restored it to thee, and thou art 
now of high estate. Fate hath afflicted thee on my account so that 
thou hast lost thy right hand, and I am unable to compensate iheei 
if I should sacrifice my life, it would be but a small thing, and thy 
generosity would stifl have surpassed mine.^Shc then added» Now 
take possession of thy property. So I received it; and she trans- 
ferred the contents of her chest to mine, adding her property to 
mine which 1 had given her. My heart rejoiced, my anxiety ceased, 
and I approached and kissed her» and made myself merry by drink- 
ing with her; after which she said again, Thou hast sacrificed ail 
thy wealth and thy hand through love of me, and how can 1 com- 
pensate thee? By Allah, if I gave my life for love of thee, it were but 
a small thing, and I should not do justice to thy claims upon me. — 
She then wrote a deed of gift transferring to me ail her apparel, and 
her ornaments of gold and jewels, and her houses and other posses- 
sions; and she passed that night in grief on my account, having 
heard my relation of the accident that had befallen me. 

Thtis we remained less than a month, during which time she 
became more and more infirm and disordered; and she endured 
no raore than fifty days before she was numbered among the people 
of the other world. So I prepared her funeral, and deposited her 
body jn the earth, and having caused recitations of the Kurgan to be 
performed for her, and given a considerable sum of money in alms 
for her sake, returned from the tomb. I found that she had ^lossessed 
abundant wealth, and houses and lands, and among her property 
were the store-rooms of sesame of which 1 sold to thee the contents 
of one; and I was not prevented from settling with thee during this 
period but by my being busied in selling the remainder, the price 
of which I have not yet entirely received. Now 1 desire of thee that 
thou wilt not oppose me in that which 1 am about to say to thee; 
since I have eaten of thy food: 1 give thee the price of the sesame. 


which is in thy hands,— This which I h^ve told thee was the caase 
of my eating with my left h,md. 

I replied^ Thou hiist treated me with kindness and generosity: — 
and he chen said, Thou must travel wilh mc to my country; for I 
have bought merchandise of Cairo and Alexandria. Wile rhou ac- 
company me? — I answered, Yes: — ^and promised him that I would 
be ready by the first day of the following month. So I sold ail that 
I possessed, and, having bought merchandise with the produce, 
travelled with the young man to this thy country, where he sold his 
merchandise and bought other in its stead, after which he returned 
to the land of Egypt: but it was my lot to remain hero, and to ex- 
perience that which haih befallen me this night during my absence 
from my native country- — Now is not this, O King of the age, more 
wonderful than the story of the humpback P The King replied, Ye 
must be hanged, all of you! — And upon this, the Sultan's steward 
advanced towards :hc King, and said, If thou permit me, I will relate 
to thee a story that I happened to hear just before I found this 
humpback; and if it be more wonderful than the events relating 
to him, wilt thou grant us our livesr' — The King answered, Tell thy 
story: — and he began thus;^ — 

The Stoky Told bv the Sulttan's Steward 

i WAS last night with a party who celebrated a recitation of the 
Kur'an, for which purpose they had assembled the professors o£ 
religion and law; and when these reciters had accomphshed their 
task, the servants spread 3 repast, comprising among other dishes a 
zirbajeh. We approached, therefore, to eat of the Kirbajeh; but one 
of the company drew back, and refused to partake of it: we con- 
jured him; yet he swore chat he would not eat of it: and we pressed 
him again; but he said, Press me not; for I have aulTered enough 
from eating of this dish- And when he had finished, we said to him, 
By Allah, tell us the reason of thine abstaining from eating of this 
^irbajeh. He replied. Because I cannot eat o£ it unless 1 xvash my 
hands forty times with kali, and forty times with cypcrus, and forty 
times with soap; altogether, a hundred and twenty times- And upon 
this, the giver of the entertainment ordered his servants, and they 



brougUc water and ihc other things which this man required: so he 
washed his hands as he had dejicribcd^ and advanced* though with 
disgust, and, having seated himself^ stretched forth his hand as one 
in fear, and put it into the zirbajeh^ and began to oat, while we 
regarded him with the utmost wonder. His hand trembkd, and 
when he put it forth, we saw thai his thumb was cut off, and that 
he ate with his four fingers: we therefore said to him, We conjure 
thee* by Allah, to tell us how was thy thumb maimed^ was it thus 
created by God, or hath some accident happened to it? — O my 
brothers, he answered, nop only have I lost this thumb, but also 
the thumb of the other hand; and each of my feet is in like manner 
deprived of the great toe: but see ye: — and, 50 saying, he uncovered 
the stump of the thumb of his other hand, and we found it hk.e the 
right; and so also his feet, destitute of the great (oes, Ac the sight of 
this, our wonder increased, and we said to him. We are impatient 
10 hear thy story, and thine account of the cause of the amputation 
of thy thumbs and great toes, and the reason of thy washing thy 
hands a hundred and twenty times. So he said, — 

Know that my father was a grejt merchant, the chief of the 
merchants of die city of Baghdad in the time of the Khalifeh Harun 
Er-Rashid; but he was ardently addicted to the drinking of wine, 
and hearing the lute; and when he died, he left nothing. I buried 
him, and caused recitations of the Kur'an to be j>erformed for him, 
and* after 1 had mourned for him days and nights, I opened his shop, 
and found that he had left in it but few goods, and that his debts were 
many; however, I induced his creditors to wait, and calmed their 
minds, and betook myself to selling and buying from week to week, 
and so paying the creditors. 

Thus I continued to do for a considerable period, until 1 had dis- 
charged all the debts and increased my capital; and as 1 was sitting 
one day, I beheld a young lady, than whom my eye had never beheld 
any more beautiful, decked with magnificent ornaments and ap- 
parel, riding on a mule, with a slave before her and a slave behind 
her; and she stopped the mule at the entrance of the market-street, 
and entered, followed by a eunuch, who said to her, O my mistress, 
entcTj but inform no one who thou art, lest thou open the fire oi 
indignation upon us. The eunuch then further cautioned her; and 



when she looked at the shops of :hp merchants, she found none 
more handsome than mine; so, when she arrived before me, with 
the eunuch following her, she sji clown upon ihe seat of my shop, 
and saluted me; and T never he:ird ^j>eech more diarming than hers, 
or words more sweet. She then drew aside the veil from her face, 
and I directed at her a glance which dretv from me a. sigh; my heart 
was captivated by her love, and I continued repeatedly gazing at her 
face, and recited these two verses; — 

Say to ihe beauty in the dove-coJourcd veil» Dcatfi would indeed be 

welcome to relieve me from my torment. 
Favour me with a visit, that so I may live. See, I stretch forth my hand 

to accept ihy liberality. 

And when she had heard my recitation of themj she answered 
thus: — 

May I lo^e my heart i£ it cease to love joul For verily my heart lovelh 

none hut you. 
It my eye regard any charms but yours, may the sight ot you never 

rejoice it after absence! 

She then said to me, O youth, has: thou any handsome stuffsP—O 
nty mistress, 1 answered, thy slave is a poor man; but wait until the 
other merchants open their shops, and then I will bring thee what 
thou desirest. So I conversed with her, drowned in the sea of her 
love, and bewildered by my passion for her^ until the merchants 
had opened their shops, when I arose, and procured all that she 
wanted, and the price of these stulYs was hve thousand pieces of 
silver: and she handed them all to the eunuch, who took them; after 
which, they both went out from the marker-street, and the slaves 
broughq to her the mule, and she mounted, without telling me 
whence she was, and I was ashamed to mention the subject to her: 
consequently, I became answerable for the price to the merchants, 
incurring a debt o£ five thousand pieces of silver. 

I went home, intoxicated with her love, and they placed before 
me the supper, and 1 ate a morsel; but reflections upon her beauty 
and loveliness prevented my eating more. I desired to sleep, but 
sleep came not to me; and in this condition I remained for a week. 
The merchants demanded of rac their money; but I prevailed upon 


them CO wak another week; and after this week, the lady came again, 
riding upon a mulfij and attended by a eunuch and two other slaves; 
and, having sainted me, said, O my master, we have been tardy in 
bringing to thee the price of rhe stuffs: brin^ now the money- 
changer, and receive it. So the money-changer came, and the eunuch 
gave him the moneyi and I took it, and sat conversing with her until 
tlie marker was replenished, and the merchants opened their shops, 
when she said to me, Procure £or me such and such things. Accord- 
ingly, I procured for her what she desired of the merchants, and she 
took the goods and departed without saying anything to me respect- 
ing ihe price. When she had gone, therefore, I repented of what 
I had done; for I had procured for her what she demanded for the 
price of a thousand pieces of gold ; and as soon as she had disappeared 
from my sight, I said within myself. What kind of love is this? She 
Jiath brought me Eive thousand pieces of silver, and taken goods for 
a thousand pieces of gold! — 1 feared that tlie result would be my 
bankruptcy and the loss of the properly of others, and said. The 
merciianis know none hut me, and this woman is no other than a 
cheat, who hath imposed upon me by her beauty and loveliness; 
seeing me to be young, she hath laughed at me, and 1 asked her not 
where was her residence. 

I remained in a state of perplexity, and her absence was prolonged 
more dian a month. Meanwhile the merchants demanded of me 
their money, and so pressed me that 1 otTered my possessions for 
sale, and ivas on the brink of rtun; but as I was sitting absorbed in 
reflection, suddenly she alighted at the gate of the market-street, and 
came in to me. As soon as I beheld her, my solicitude ceased, and I 
forgot the trouble which 1 had suffered. She approached, and ad- 
dressed me with her agreeable conversation, and said> Produce the 
scales, and weigh thy money:— and she gave me the price of the 
goods which she had taken, with a surplus; after which, she amused 
herself by talking with me, and J almost died with foy and happi- 
ness. She then said to me, Hast thou a wife? 1 answered. No: for 
J am not acquainted with any woman: and wept. So she asked me. 
What causeth thee to weep? And I answered, A thought diat hath 
come into my mind: — and, taking some pieces of gold, gave them to 
the eunuch, requesting him to grant me his mediation in the affair; 


upon which he laughed, and sajd. She is in love wirh thee more tlian 
thou art with herj and hath no want of the stulfs, but hath done this 
only from her love of thee: jiropo^c to hcr^ therefore, what thou wilt; 
for she will not oppose thee in that which thou wilt ^Liy. Now she 
observed me giving the pieces of gold lo ihe eunuch, and returned, 
and resumed her seat; and I said to her, Shew favour 10 ihy slave, 
and pardon me for thjt which I am about to say. 1 then acquainted 
her with the feelings of my he^rt, and my declaration pleased her, 
and she consented to my proposal, saying, This eunuch will come 
with my Tetter; and do ihou what he shall tell thee; — and she arose, 
and departed. 

I went to the merchants, and delivered 10 them iheir money, and 
all profited except myself; for when she left me I mourned for the 
interruption of our intercourse, and I slept not during the whole of 
the nest night; but a few days after, her eunuch came to me, and I 
received him with honour, and asked him respecting his mistress- 
He answered, She is sick: — and 1 said to him, Discfose to me her 
history. He replied, The lady Zubeydeh, the wife of Harun Er- 
Rashid, brought up this damsel, and she is one of her slaves; she 
had desired of her mistress to be allowed the liberty of going out 
and returning at pleasure, and the latter gave her permission: she 
continued, therefore, to do so until she became a chief confident; 
after which, she spoke of thee to her mistress, and begged that she 
would marry her to ihee; but her mistress said, I will not do it until 
I see this young man, and if he have a desire for thee, 1 will marry 
thee to him. We therefore wish to introduce thee immediately into 
the palace; and if thou enter without any one's having knowledge 
of thy presence, thou wilt succeed in accomplishing thy marriage 
widi her; but if thy plot be discovered, thy head will be struck off. 
What, then, sayest thou? — 1 answered, Good: I will go with thee, 
and await the event that shall befall me there.— As soon, then, as 
this next night shall have closed in^ said the eunuch, repair to the 
mosque which the lady Zubeydeh hath built on the banks of the 
Tigris, and there say thy prayers, and pass the night.— Most will- 
ingly, I replied. 

Accordingly, when the lime of nightfall arrived, I went to the 
mosque, and said my prayers therej and passed the night; and as 


soon as the morning began Lo dawn I saw two eunuchs approaching 
in a small boat, conveying some empty chesis^ :vhich ihey brought 
inEo the mosque. One oi them then departed^ and ihe otlier re- 
mained; aud I looked attentively at him, and lo, it was he who had 
been our iuicrmcdjary; and soon after, ihe damsel, my companion, 
came up to us. I ro^e to her when she approached, and embraced 
her; and she kissed inc, and wept; and after we had conversed to- 
gether for a Uttle while, she took me and placed me in a chest, and 
locked it upon me. The slaves then brought a quantity of stuffs, and 
filled with ihem the other chests, which they locked, and conveyed, 
together ^viih the chest in which I was enclosed, to the boat, accom- 
panied by the damsel; and having embarked them, they plied the 
oars, and proceeded to the palace of the honoured lady Zubeydeh. 
The intoxication of love now ceased in me, and reflcciion came in 
its place: 1 repented of what I had done, and prayed God to deliver 
mc from my dangerous predicajnont. 

Meanwhile, they arrived at the gate of the Khalifeh, where they 
landed, and took out all the chests, and conveyed them into the 
palace: but the chief of the doorkeepers, who had been asleep when 
they arrived, was awoke by the sounds of iheir voices, and cried 
out to the damsel, saying, The chests must be opened, that I may 
see what is in them: — and he arose, and placed his hand upon the 
chest in which 1 was hidden. My reason abandoned me, my lieart 
almost burst from my body, and my limbs trembled; but the damsel 
said. These are the chests of the lady Zubeydeh, and if thou open 
them and turn them over, she will bo incensed against thee, and we 
shall all perish. They contain nothing but clodies dyed of various 
colours, except this chest upon which thou hast put thy hand, in 
which there are also some bottles filled with the water of Zemzem,^^ 
and if any of the water run out upon the clothes it will spoil their 
colours. Now i have advised thee, and it is for thee to decide: so do 
what thou wilt. — When he heard, therefore, these words, he said to 
her, Take the chests, and pass on: — and the eunuchs immediately 
took them up, and with the damsel, conveyed them into the palace: 
but in an instant, 1 heard a person crying out, and saying. The 
Khalifeh! The Rhaiifch! 

^° The well ai Mckkch, bclievtd to posaiz^s imcfLcuSous i-iEtues> 


1 was bereft of my reason* and seized with a colic from excessive 
fear; 1 almost died, and my limbs were aflecLed wLih a violent 
shaking. The Khalifeh cried oiii lo the damsel^ saying to her, Wh-i: 
are these chests? She answered, O my lord (mjy God exalt thy 
dominionl), ihese chests contain clothes of my mistress Zubeydeh. — 
Open them, said the Khalifeh, that 1 may see the clothes, — When I 
heard diis, I felt sure of my destruction. The damsel could not dis- 
obey his command; but she replied, O Prince of ihc Faithful, there 
is nothing in these chests but clothes of the lady Zubeydeh, and she 
hath commanded me not to open them to any one. The Khalifeh, 
ho^vever, said. The chests must be opened, all of them, that 1 may 
see their contents: — and immediately he called out to the eunuchs 
to bring them before him, I therefore felt certain that 1 was on the 
point of destruction. They then brought before him chest after 
chest, and opened each to him, and he examined the contents; and 
ivhen they brought forward the chest in which I was enclosed, I bid 
adieu to life, and prepared myself for de;iib: but as the eunuchs were 
about to open it* the damsel said, O Prince of the Faithful, verily 
this chest containeth things especially appertaining to women; and 
it is proper, therefore, that it should be opened before the lady 
Zubeydeh: — and when the Khalifeh heard her words, he ordered 
the eunuchs to convey all the chests into the interior of the palace. 
The damsel then hastened, and ordered two eunuchs to carry away 
the chest in which I was hidden, and they took it to an inner cham- 
ber, and went their way: whereupon she quickly opened it* and 
made a sign to me to come out: so 1 did as she desired, anil entered 
a closet that was before me, and siie locked the door upon me, and 
closed the chest: and when iheeumichs had brought in all the chests, 
and had gone back, she opened the door of the closet, and said, Thou 
hast nothing to fear! May God refresh thine eyel Come forth now, 
and go up with me, that thou mayest have the happiness of kissing 
the ground before the lady Zubeydeh. 

I therefore went with her, and beheld twenty other female slaves, 
high-bosomed virgins, and among them was the lady Zubeydeh, who 
was scarcely able to walk from the weight of the robes and orna- 
ments with which she was decked. As she approached, the female 
slaves dispersed from around her, and I advanced lo her, and kissed 


the ground before her. She made a sign to me to sit down: so I 
seated myself before her^ and she began to ask me questions re- 
specting my condition and Uneage; to all of which I gave such 
answers that she was pleased, and satd» By Allah, the care which we 
have bestowed on the education of this d,"Lmsel haih not been in 
\ain. She then i;ud to me, Know that this damsel is esteemed by 
us as though she were really our child^ and she is a trust committed 
to thy care by God. Upon this, therefore, I again kissed the ground 
before her, well pleased to marry the damsel; after which, she com- 
manded me to remain with them ten days. Accordingtyj I continued 
with them during this period; but 1 knew nothing meanwhile of 
the damsel; certain of the maids only bringing me my dinner and 
supper, as my servants. After this, however, the lady Zubcydeh 
asked permission of her husband, the Prince of the Faithful, to 
marry her maid, and he granted her requesE, iind ordered that ten 
thousand pieces of gold should be given to her. 

The lady Zubeydch, therefore, sent for the Kadi and witnesses, and 
they wrote my contract of marriage to the damsel; and the maids 
then prepared sweetjneats and exquisite dishes, and distributed rhem 
in all the apartments. Thus they continued to do for a period of ten 
more days; and after the twenty days had passed, tliey conducted the 
damsel into the hath, prcparaiively to my being introduced to her as 
her husband. They then brought to me a repast comprising a basin 
o£ zirbajeh ssveeiened with sugar, perf timed with rose-uater infused 
with musk, and containing different kinds of fricindoed fowls and 
a variety of other ingredients, auth as astonished the mind; and, by 
Allah, when this repast was brought, 1 instantly commenced upon 
the zirbajeh, and ate of it as much as satisfied me, and wiped my 
hand, but forgor to wash it. 1 remained sitting until it became dark; 
when the maids lighted the candles, and the singiug-girls approached 
with the tambourines, and they continued to display the bride, and 
to give presents of gold, until she had perambulated the whole of 
the palace; after which they brought her to me, and disrobed her; 
and as soon as 1 was left atone with her, 1 threw my arms around 
her neck, scarcely believing in our union: but as I did so, she per- 
ceived the smell of the zirbajeh from my hand, and immediately 


iiltered a loud cry: whereupon die female slaves ran in to her from 
every quarter. 

I was violently agitaEod, noi knowing what was the matter; and 
the slaves who had come in said lo her^ What hath happened to thee, 
O our sister? — Take away from mc, she exclaimed 10 them, this 
madman^ whom I imagined to be a man of sense! — What indication 
o£ my insanity hath appeared to thee? 1 asked. Thou madnian, 
said she, wherefore hast thou eat&n of the zirbajeh, and not washed 
thy hand? By Allah» I will not accept thee for thy want of sense, 
and iliy disgusting conduct! — And so saying, she took from her side 
a whip, and beat me with it upon my back until I became insensible 
from the number of the stripes. She then said to the other maids, 
Take hijTi Lo the magistrate o£ the city police, that he may cut off 
his hand with which he ate the zirbajeh without washing it after- 
:vards. On hearing this, I exclaimed. There is no strength nor 
power but in Godf Wilt thou cut od my hand on account of my 
eating a zirbajeh and neglecting to wash it? — ^And the maids who 
were present entreated her» saying to her, O our sister, be not angry 
with him for what he hath done this time. But she replied, By 
Allah, I must cut off something from his extremities! And im- 
mediately she departed, and was absent from me ten days: after 
which^ ihe came again, and said lo me, O thou black-faced! Am I 
not worthy of thee? How didst thou dare to eat the zirbajeh and 
not wash thy hand? — And she called to the maids, who bound my 
hand? behind me, and she took a sharp razor, and cut olf both my 
thumbs and both my great toes, as ye see, O companions; and 1 
swooned away- She then sprinkled upon my wounds some powder, 
by means of which the blood was stanched; and I said, 1 will not eat 
of a zirbajeh as Jong as I live unless I wash my hands forty times 
with kali and forty times with cyperus and forty times with soap: — 
and she exacted of me an oath that I would not eat of this dish 
unless I washed my hands as I have described to you. Therefore, 
when this zirbajeh was brought, my colour changed, and I said 
within myself. This was the cause of the cutting oJT of my thumbs 
and great toes: — so, when ye compelled me, I said, I must fulfil the 
oath which 1 have sworn. 


I then $ci[6 10 him (coiidnued the Sultan's steward). And what 
happened to thee afiei- thai? He answered, When i had thus sworn 
10 her, she was appeased, and 1 was admitEcd into her favour and 
we hved happily together for a considerable time: after which slie 
said» The people of the Khalifch's palace know not that thou hast 
resided here with me, and no strange man beside thee hath entered 
it; nor didst ihou enter bnt through the assistance o£ the lady 
Zubeydeh, She then gave me fifty thousand pieces of gold, and said 
to me, Take these pieces o£ gold, and go forth and buy for us a 
spacious house. So I went forth, and purchased a handsome and 
spacious house, and removed thither all the riches that she possessedt 
and all that she liad treasured up, and her dresses and rarities. — This 
was the cause of the amputation of my thumbs and great toes. — So 
we ate (said the Sultan's steward), and departed; and after this, the 
accident with the humpback happened to me: this is all my story; 
and peace be on thee. 

The King said. This is not more pleasant tlian the story of the 
humpback; nay, the story of the humpback is more pleasant than 
this; and ye must all of you be crucified. — The Jew, however, then 
came forward, and, having kissed the ground, sard, O King of the 
age, I will relate to thee a story more wonderful than that of the 
humpback:— and the King said, Relate thy story. So he commenced 
thus: — 

The Stokv Told by the Jewish PfivsiciAX 

The most wonderful of the events that happened to me in my 
younger days was this; — I was residing in Damascus, where I learnt 
and practised my art; and while I was thus occupied, one day there 
came to me a mcmluk from the house of the governor of the city: 
so I went forth with him, and accompanied him to the abode of the 
governor. 1 entered, and beheld, at the upper end of a saloon, a. 
couch of alabaster overlaid with plates of gold, upon which was 
reclining a sick man: he was young; and a person more comely had 
not been seen in his age. Seating myself at his head, I ejaculated a 
prayer for his restoration; and be made a sign to me with his eye. 
1 then said to him, O my master, stretch forth to me thy hand:— 
whereupon he put forth 10 me his left hand; and I ivas surprised at 


this» and said within myself. What scU-conceid I felt his pulse, how- 
ever, and wrote a prescnpdon for him, and continued to visit him 
for a period oi ten days, until he uncovered his strength; when he 
cnlcred tht bath, and washed himself, and Came forth: and the 
governor conferred Li^>on me ,1 handsome dress of honour, and 
^pointed me auperiuteiideni of the hospital o£ D.imascus. But when 
I went with him into the bath, which they had de^tred of all other 
visitors for us alone^ and the servants had brought the clothes, and 
taken away those which he had pulled off within, I perceived that 
his right hand had been cruelly amputated; at the iight of which T 
wondered, and grieved for him; and looking at his skin, 1 observed 
upon him marks oE beating with mikr'ahs, which caused me to 
wonder more. The young man then turned towards rae, and said, 
O doctor of the age, wonder not at my case; for I will relate to thee 
my story when we have gone out from the bath: — and when we 
hjd gone forth, and arrived at the house, and had citcn some food, 
and rested, he said to me. Hast thou a desire to divert thyself in the 
supper-room? 1 answered, Yes: — and immediately he ordered the 
slaves to take up thither the furniture, and to roast a bmb and bring 
us some fruit. So the slaves did as he commanded them: and whea 
tbey had brought the fruit, and wc had eaten, 1 said to him. Relate 
to me thy story:— and he replied, O doctor of the age, listen to die 
relation of the events which have befallen me. 

Know that I am of the children of El-Mosif. My paternal grand- 
father died leaving ten male children, one of whom was my father: 
he was the eldest of them, and they all grew up and married; and 
my father was blest with me; but none of his nine brothers was 
blest with children. So I grew up among my uncles, who delighted 
in me esceedingly; and xvhen I had attained to manhood, I was one 
day with my father in the chief mosque of El-Mosil. The day was 
Friday; and we performed the congregational prayers, and all the 
people went our^ except my father and my uncles, who sat conversing 
together respecting the wonders of various countries, and the strange 
sights of different cities, until they mentioned Egypt; when one of 
my uncles said, The travellers assert, that there is not on the faec o£ 
the earth a more agreeable country than Egypt with its Nile: — and 
my father added, He who hath not seen Cairo hath not seen the 


world: its soil is gold; us Nile is a wonder; its women, are like the 
black-eyed virgins o£ Paradise; its houses are palaces; and Its air is 
icmperate; its odour stirpiissing that o£ aloes-wood, aad cheering the 
heart: and how can Cairo be otherwise when it is the metropolis of 
the world? Did ye see its gardens in the evening (he coniinued), 
with the shade obliquely extending over them, yc would behold a 
wonder, and yield with ecstasy to their attractions. 

When 1 heard these descriptions ot Egypt, my mind became 
wholly engaged by reflections upon [hat country; and after they had 
departed to their homes, I passed the night sleepless from my ex- 
cessive longing towards it, and neither food nor drink was pleasant 
to me. A few days after, my uncles prepared to journey thithet, and 
I wept before my father that 1 might go with them, so that he pre^ 
pared a stock of merchandise for me, and I departed in their com- 
pany; but he said to them, SuiTer him not to enter Egypt, but leave 
him at Damascus, that he may there sell his merchandise. 

I took leave of my father, :md we set forth from Ei-Mosil, and 
continued our journey until we arrived at Aleppo, where we re- 
mained some days; after which we proceeded thence until we came 
to Damascus; and we beheld it to he a city with trees and rivers and 
fruits and birds, as though it were a paradise, containing frnits of 
every kind. We took lodgings in one of the Khans, and my uncles 
remained there until they had sold and bought; and they also sold 
my merchandise, gaining, for every piece of silver, five, so that 1 
rejoiced at my profit. My uncles then left me, and repaired to 
Egypt, and T remained and took up my abode in a handsome Ka'ah, 
such as the tongue cannot describe; the mondily rent of wliich was 

two pieces of gold. 

Here I indulged myself with eating and drinking, squandering 
away the money that was in my possession; and as I was sitting one 
day at the door of the Ka'ah, a damsel approached me, attired in 
clothing of the richest description, such as I liad never seen surpassed 
in cosdiness, and I invited her to come in; whereujx>n, without 
hesitation, she entered; and I was delighted at her compliance, and 
closed the door upon us both. She then uncovered her face, and took 
off her izar, and I found her to be so surprisingly beautiful that 
love for her took possession of my heart: so 1 went and brought a 


repast consisiing of the mosi: delicious viands and fruir and every- 
thing else ihat was requisite for her entertainment^ and we ate 
and sported together; after which we drank till we were intoNicatcd, 
and fell asleep, and so wc remained until the morning, when I 
handed her ten pieces of gold; but she swore that she would nor 
accept them from me, and said» Expect me again^ O iny beloved, 
after three days: at the hour of sunset 1 will bo with thee; and do 
thou prepare for us, with these pieces of gold» a repast similar to 
this which we have ju&t enjoyed. She then gave me ten pieces o£ 
gold, and took leave of me, and departed, taking my reason with 
her. And after the three days had expired, she came again, decked 
with embroitlered stuffsS and ornaments and other attire more mag- 
nificent than those which she wore on the former occasion. I had 
prepared for her what was recjuired previously to her arrival; so 
we now ate and drank and fell a^ccp as before; and in the morning 
she gave me again ten pieces o£ gold, promising to return to me after 
three more days. I therefore made ready what was requisite, and 
after die three days she came attired in a dress still more magnificent 
than the first and second, and said to me, O my master, am I 
beautiful? — Yea, verily, 1 answered. — ^Wilt thou give me leave, she 
rejoined, to bring with me a damsel more beautiful than myself, and 
younger than I, that she may sport with us, and we may make 
merry with her? For she hath requested that she may accompany 
me, and pass the night in frolicking with irs. — And so saying, she 
gave me twenty pieces o£ gold, desiring me to prepare a more plenti- 
ful repast, on account of the lady who was to come widi her; after 
which, she bade me farewell, and departed. 

Accordingly, on the fourth day, I procured what was requisite, as 
usual, and soon after sunset she came, accompanied by a female 
wrapped in an izar, and they entered, and seated themselves. 1 was 
rejoiced, and lighted the candles, and welcomed them with joy and 
exultation. They then took off their outer garments, and when the 
new damsel tmcovered her face, I perceived that she was like the fall 
moon : T never beheld a person more beautiful, 1 arose immediately, 
and placed before them the food and drink, and we ate and drank, 
while 1 continued caressing the new damsel, and filling the wine-cup 
for her, and drinking with her: but the first lady was affected with a 


secret jealousy.— By Allah, she s^id, verily this girl is beautiful! Is 
she not more charming than 1?— Yea, indeed, I answered.— Soon 
after ihi^ 1 fell asleep, and when 1 awoke in the morning, I foujid my 
hand defiled with blood, and opening my eyes, jxrrceived that the 
sun h;id risen; so I attempted 10 roust? the damsel, my new com- 
panion, ivhcreupon her head rolled from her body. The other 
damsel was gone, and I concluded, liiercfore, that she had done 
this from her jealousy; and after reflecting a whiicj I arose, and 
took oEl my tlothes, and dug a hole in the Ka'ah, in which I de^ 
posited the murdered damsel, afterwards covering her remains with 
earth, and replacing the marble pavement as it was before. I tlien 
dressed myself again, and, raking the remainder of my money, 
wen: forth, and repaired to the owner o£ the Ka'ah, and paid him 
a year's rent, saying to him, I am about to journey to my uncles in 

So 1 departed to Egypt, where I met with my nncles, and they 
were rejoiced to see me. 1 found that they had concluded the sale 
of their merchandise, and they said to me, What is the cause of thy 
coming? 1 answered, 1 had a longing desire to be with you, and 
feared that my money would not sulhce me. — For a year T remained 
with them, enjoying the pleasures of Egypt and its NiEe; and, 1 
dipped my hand into the re&idae of my money, and expended it 
prodigally in eating and drinking until near the time of my uncles' 
departure, when I fied from them: so they said. Probably he hath 
gone before us and returned to Damascus: — and ihcy departed, l 
then came forth from my concealment, and remained in Cairo three 
years, squandering asvay my money until scarcely any of it re- 
mained: but meanwhile 1 sent every year the rent of the Ka'ah at 
Damascus to its owner: and after the three years my heart became 
contracted^ for nothing remained in my possession but the rent for 
the year. 

1 therefore journeyed back to Damascus, and alighted at the Ka'ah. 
The owner was rejoiced to see me, and I entered it, and cieansed 
it of the blood of the murdered damsel, and, removing a cushion, t 
found, beneath thi^, the necklace that she had worn that night, I 
look it up and examined it, and wept a while. After this 1 remained 
in the house two days, and on the third day I entered the bath, and 


changed my clothes. 1 now had no money left; and I went one day 
to the marketj where (the Devil suggesting it to nie, in order to 
accomplish the purpose o£ destiny) I handed the necklace of jewels 
10 a broker; and he rose to me, and seated me by his side: then 
having waited until the market was replenished, he took it, and 
announced it for sale secretly, without my knowledge. The price 
bidden for it amounted to two thousand pieces of gold; but he 
came to me and said. This necklace is of brass, of the counterfeit 
manufacture of the Franks, and its price hath amounted to a thou- 
sand pieces of silver, I answered hrm. Yes: we had made it for a 
woman, merely to laugh at her, and my wife has inherited it, and 
we desire to sell it: go^ therefore, and receive the thousand pieces 
of silver. Now when the broker heard this, he perceived thai the 
affair was suspicious, and went and gave the necklace to the chief 
of the market, who took it to the Wali^ and said to him. This neck- 
lace was stolen from me, and we have found the thief, clad in the 
dress of the sons of the merchants. And before i knew what had 
happened, the officers had surrounded me, and they took me to the 
Wall, who questioned me respecting the necklace. I told him, there- 
fore, the same story that I had told to the broker; but he laughed, 
and said. This is not the truth: — and instantly his people stripped me 
of my outer clothing, and beat me with mikr.i'ahs ail over my body, 
until, through the torture that I suffered from the blows, I said, 1 
stole it: — reflecting that it was better I should say T stole it, than 
confess that its owner was murdered in my abode; for then they 
would kill me to avenge her: and as soon as 1 had said so, they 
cut off my hand, and scalded the stump with boiling oil, and I 
swooned away. They then gave me to drink sojue wine, by swallow- 
ing which 1 recovered my sensesj and 1 took my amputated hand, 
and returned to the Ka'ah; but its owner said to me, Since this hath 
happened to thee, leave the Ka'ah, and look for another abode; for 
thou art accused of an unlawful act.— O my master, I replied, give 
me two or three days" delay that 1 may seek for a lodging:— and he 
assented to this and departed and left me. So 1 remained alone, and 
sat weeping, and saying. How can 1 return to my family with my 
hand cut oH. He ivbo cut it off knoweth not that I am innocent: 
perhaps, then, God will brin^ about some event for my relie£. 


T sat \veeping violenrly; and when the owner of the Ka'ah had 
departed from me, excessive grief overcame nic, and J was sick for 
two days; and on the third day, suddenly the owoer of the Ka'yii 
came to me, with some oflicers of the poticc^ and the chief of the 
market, and accui^ed mc again of sceaUng the necklace. So I went 
out to them, and said, What is the news? — whereupon, without 
granting me a moment's delay, they hound my arms behind mc, and 
put a chain around my neck, saying to me. The necklace which was 
in thy possession hath ptoved to be the property of the governor of 
Damascus, its Wezir and its Ruier; it hath been lost from the gover- 
nor's house for a period of three years, and with ic was his daughter. 
— When I heard these words from them, my limbs trembled, and 1 
said within myself, They will kill me! My death is inevitable! By 
Allah, J must rebie my story to the governor; and if he please he 
will kill me, or if he please he will pardon me.— And when we 
arrived at the governor's abodc^ and they had placed me before him, 
and he beheld me, he said. Is this he who stole the necklace and went 
out to sell it? Verily ye have cut off his hand wrongfully. — He then 
ordered that the chief of the market should be imprisoned, and said 
to him. Give to this person the compensatory fine for his hand, or I 
will hang ihee and sc\y.c all thy property. And he called out to his 
attendants, who took him and dragged him away. 

I w^s no^v left with the governor alone, after they had, by his 
permission, loosed the chain from my neck, and untied the cords 
which bound my arms; and the governor looking towards me, said 
to me, O my son, tell me thy story, and speak truth. How did this 
necklace come into thy possession? — So I replied, O my lord, J will 
tell thee the truth: — and I related to him all that had happened to 
me with the first damsel, and how she had brought to me the second, 
and murdered her from Jealousy; on hearing which, he shook his 
head, and covered his face with his handkerchief, and wept. Then 
looking towards me, he said. Know, O my son, that the elder damsel 
was my daughter: I kept her closely; and when she had attained a 
fit age for marriage, I sent her to the son of her uncle in Cairo; but 
lie died, and she returned to me, having learnt habrts of profligacy 
from the inhabitants of that city; so she visited thee four times; and 
on die iourdi occasion, she brought to thee hei younger sister. They 


were sisters by the same morhi^r, nnd much attached to each other; 
and when the event which thou hast related occurred to the elder, 
she imparled her secret to her sister, who disked my permrssion to go 
out with her; after which the elder returned alone; and when. I 
questioned her respecting her sister, 1 found her weeping for lier, 
and she answered, I know no tidings of her:— but she afterwards 
informed her mother, secretly, of the murder ^vhich she had com- 
mitted; and her mother privately related the affair to me; and she 
continued to weep for her incessantly, saying. By Allah, 1 will not 
cease to weep for her until 1 die. Thy account, O my son, is true; 
for I knew the affair before thou toldest it me. See then, O my son, 
what hath happened; and now I request of thee that thou wilt not 
oppose me in thac which 1 am about to say; and it is this: — I desire 
to marry thee to my youngest tlaughter; for she is not of the same 
mother as ihey were: she is a virgin, and 1 will receive from thee 
no dowryj but will assign to you both an allowance; and thou shall 
be to me as an own son. — I replied, Let it be as thou desiresc, O my 
master. How could 1 expect to attain unto such happiness? — The 
governor then sent immediately a courier to bring the property which 
my father had left me (for he had died since my departure from 
him), and now I am hving in the utmost allluence. 

} wondered, said the Jew, at his history; and after I had remained 
with him three days, he gave me a large sum of money; and I left 
him, to set forth on a journey; andj arriving in this your country, 
my residence here pleased me, and I e^^perienced this which hath 
happened to me with the humpback. 

The King, when he had heard this story, siiid. This is not more 
wonderful than the story of the humpback, and ye must all of you 
be hanged, and especially the tailor, wlio is ihe source of all the 
mischief. Bnt he afterwards added, O tailor, if ihou tell me a story 
more wonderful than that of the humpback, 1 will forgive you your 
ofTences. So the tailor advanced, and said, — 

Th& Story Told bv TiiE Tah-or 


t Kkow, O King of the age, that what hath happened to me is more 

^ wonderful dian the events which have happened to all the others. 


Before I met the humpback, I was, early in the morning, at an enter- 
tainment given to certain tradesmen of my acquaintance, consisting 
of tailors and Unen-trrapers and carpenters and Others; and when the 
sun had risen, the repast was brought for ns to eat; and lo, the 
master of the house came in 10 us, accompanied by a strange and 
handsome young man, of the inhabitants of Baghdad. He was attired 
in clothes of the handsomest description, and was a most comely 
person, except that he was lame; and as soon as he had entered and 
saluted us, we rose to him; but when he was about to seat himself, 
he observed among us a man wKo was a barber, whereupon he 
refused to sit down, and desired to depart from us. We and the 
master of the house, however, prevented him, and urged him to seat 
himself; and the host conjured him, saying, What is the reason of 
thy entering, and then immediately departing? — By AHah, O my 
master, replied he, offer me no opposition; for the cause of my 
departure is this barber, who is silting with you. And when the 
host heard this, he was exceedingly surprised, and said. How is it 
that the heart of this young man, who is from Baghdad, is troubled 
by the presence of this barber f We then looked towards him, and 
said, Relate to us the cause of thy displeasure against this barber; 
and the young^ man replied, O company, a surprising adventure 
happened to me with this barber in Baghdad, my city; and he was 
the cause of ray lameness, and of the breaking of my leg; and I 
have sworn that 1 will not sit in any place where he is present, nor 
dwell in any town where he resides: 1 quitted Baghdad and took up 
my abtidc in this city, and 1 will not pass the next ntght without 
departing from it.— Upon this, we said to him, We conjure diee, by 
Allah, to relate to us thy adventure with him. — And the counte- 
nance of the barber turned pale when he heard us make this request. 
The young man then said, — 

Know, O good people, that my father was one of the chief 
merchants of Baghdad; and God (whose name be exalted!) blessed 
him with no son but myself; and when I grew up, and had attained 
to manhood, my father was admitted 10 the mercy of God, leaving 
me wealth and servants and other dependants; whereupon 1 began 
to attire myself in clothes of the handsomest description, and to feed 
upon the most delicious meats. Now God (whose perfection be 


extolled!) made me to be a hater of women; ant5 so I continued, 
until, one day, 1 was walking through the streets of Baghdad, when a 
party of them stopped my way; 1 therefore fled from them, and, 
entering a by-strect which was not a thoroughfare, I reclined upon a 
mastab^ih at its further extremity. Here I had been seated but a 
short time when, lo, a window opposite the place where 1 sat was 
opened, and chere looked out from it a damsel like the full moon, 
5uch as 1 had never in my life beheld. She had some flowers, which 
she was watering, beneath the window; and she looked to the right 
and left, and then shut the window, and disappeared from before 
me. Fire had been shot into my heart, and my mind wns absorhcd 
by her; my hatred of women was turned into love, and I continued 
sitting in the same place until sunset, in a state of distraction from 
the violence of my passion, when, lo, the Kadi of the dry came 
riding along, wich slaves before him and servants behind him, and 
alighted, and entered the house from which the damsel had looked 
out; so I knew ih;it he must be her father. 

I then returned to my house, sorrowful and fell upon my bed, full 
of anxious thoughts; and my female slaves came in to me, and 
seated themselves around me, not knowing what was the matter 
with me; and i acquainted them not with my case, nor returned any 
answers to their questions; and my disorder increased. The neigh- 
bours, therefore, came to cheer me with their visits; and among those 
who visited me was an old woman, who, as soon as she saw me, 
discovered my state; whereupon she seated herself at my bead, and, 
addressing me in a kind manner, said, O my son, tell me what hath 
happened to thee? So 1 related to her my story, and she said, O my 
son, this is the daughter of the Kadi of JSaghdad, and she is kept in 
close confinement: the place where thou sa\^'esl her ia her apart- 
ment, and her father occupies a large saloon below, leaving her 
alone; and often do I visit her: thou canst obtain an interview with 
her only through me: ro brace up thy nerves. When I heard, there- 
fore, what she said, I took courage, and fortified my heart; and my 
family rejoiced that day. 1 rose up firm in limb, and hoping for 
complete restoration; and the old woman departed; bur she re- 
turned with her countenance changed, and said, O my son, ask not 
what she did when 1 told her of thy case; for she said, If thou 


abstain not, O ill-omened old womanj from this discourse, I 
will treat thee as thou dcservcst; — but 1 must go to her a second 

On hearing this, my disorder increased: after some days, however, 
the old woman came again, and said, O my son, I desire of thee a 
reward for good tidings. My soul returned to my body at these 
words, and I rcpHcd, Ihou shalt receive from me everything that 
thou canst ^vish. She then said, I went yesterday to the damsel, and 
when she beheld me with broken heart and weeping eye, she said 
to me, O my aunt, ivherefore do I see thee with contracted heart?— - 
and when she had thus said, I wept, and answeredj O my daughter 
and mistress, I came to thee yesterday from visiting a youth who 
loveth thee, and he is at the point oi death on thy account: — and, 
her heart being moved with compassion, she asked, Who is this 
youth of whj^m thou speakest? 1 answered, He is my son, and the 
child that is dear to my soul: he saw thee at the window some days 
ago, while thou wast watering thy flowers: and when he beheld 
thy face, he became distracted with love for thee: I informed him of 
the conversation that ] had with thee the tirsc time; upon which his 
disorder increased, and he took to his pillow: he is now dying, 
and there is no doubt of his fate.— And upon this, her countenance 
became pale and she said, Is this all on my account P — Yea, by Allah, 
I answered; and whac dost thou order me to do?— Go to him, said 
she; convey to him my salutation, and tell him that my love is 
greater than his; and on Friday next, before the congregation prayers, 
let him come hither: I will give orders to open the door to him, and 
to bring him up to me, and I will have a short interview with him, 
and he shall return before my father comes back from the prayers. 

When I heard these words of the old woman, the anguish which 
I had suffered ceased; my heart ^vas set at resf, and I gave her the 
suit of clothes which I was then wearing, and she departed, saying 
to me, Cheer up thy heart- I replied. 1 have no longer any paJn. The 
people of my house, and my friends, communicated, one to another, 
the good news of my restoration to health, and I remained thus until 
the Friday, when the old woman came in to me, and asked me 
respecting my state; so 1 informed her that 1 was happy and well. 
I [hen dressed and perfumed myself, and sat waiting for the people 
to go to prayers, that I might repair to the damsel; but the old 


THE TAlLOa 153 

woman said lo me. Thou hasr yet more than ample time» and if 
thou go to the bath and shave» especially for the sake of obliterating 
the traces of thy disorder^ it will be more becoming. — It is a judicious 
pieceof advice, replied I; but I will shave my he^d firsthand iheii go 
into the bath. 

So I sent for a barber to shave my headj saying to the boy, Go to 
tlie market, and bring me a barber, one who is a man of sense, little 
inclined to impertinence, that he may not make my head ache by his 
chattering. And the boy went, and brought this sheykh, who, on 
entering, saluted me; and when 1 returned his salutation, he said to 
me. May God dispef thy grief and thme anxtety, and misfortunes 
and sorro^vs! I responded, May God accept thy prayerl He then 
said. Be cheerful, O my master; for hcakh hath returned to thee, 
Dostihou desire to be shaved or to be bled? — for it hath been handed 
down, on the authority of Ibn-' Abbas" that the Prophet said. Whoso 
shorteneth his hair on Friday, God will avert from him seventy 
diseases; — and it hath been handed down also, on the same aathor- 
iiy, that the Prophet said, Whoso is cupped on Friday will not be 
secure from the loss of sight and from frequent disease.— Abstain, 
said 1, from this useless discourse, and come immediately, shave my 
head for 1 am weak. And he arose, and, stretching fortli his hand, 
took out a handkerchief, and opened it; and lo, there was in ir an 
astrolabe, consisting of seven plates; and he took it, and went into 
the middle of the court, where he raised his head towards the sun, 
and looked for a considerable time; after which he said to me, 
Know that there have passed, of (his our day, — which is Friday, and 
which is the tenth of Safar, ot the year 263 of the Flight of the 
Prophet, — upon whom he the most excellent of blessings and peacel 
— and the ascendant star of which, according to the reqtiired rales 
of the science of computation, is the planet Mars, — seven degrees and 
six minutes; and it happenech that Mercury hath come in conjunc- 
tion with that planet; and this indicateih that the shaving of hair 
is now a most excellent operation: and it hath indicated to me, also, 
that thou desireat to confer a benefit upon a person: and fortunate 
is hel — but after that, there is an announcement that presenteth itself 
to me respecting a matter which T will not mention lo thee, 

'1 One flf iht: mcftl Ic^rocd of ihe comii^nion'i nf his coLisin Mahammdd, and oiw 

I of the mo^t tcliibraicd of ihc relators ot hi> sa^tngs and iifLLous. 


By Allah^ 1 exclaimed, thou hast wearied me» ifnd dissipated my 
mind, and augured against me, when I required ihee only lo shave 
my head: arisc^ then, and shave it; and prolong not chy discourse 
to me. But he repKed, By Allah, if thou knewest the truth of the 
case, thou wouldst demand o£ me a further exphcation; and I eoun&el 
thee to do this day as I direct thee, according to the calculations 
deduced from the stars: it is thy duty to praise God, and not to 
oppa&e mei £or I am one who giveth thcc good advice, and who 
regardeth ihec with compassion: 1 \vou3d that 1 were in thy service 
for a whole year, that thou mightest do mc justice; and I desire 
not any pay from thee for so doing. — When I heard this, I said to him, 
Verily thou an killing me this day, and there is no escape for me. — 
O my master, he replied, 1 am he whom the people call Es-Samii, 
['^the Silent,"] on account of the paucity of my speech, by which I 
am distinguished above my brothers: for my eldest broiher is named 
El'Bakbuk; and the second, El-Hcddar; and the third, Bakbak'^; 
and the fourth is named El-Kuz el-Aswani; and the fifth. El- 
Fcshshar; and the sixih is named Shakalik; and the seventh brother 
is named Es-Samii; and he is myself. 

Now when diis barber thus overwhelmed me with his ralk, 1 felt 
as if my gall-bladder liad burst, and said to the boy. Give him a 
quarter of a piece of gold and let him depart from me for the sake 
of Allah: for I have no need to shave my head. But the barber on 
hearing what I said to the boy» exclaimed, What is this that thou 
hast said, O my lord? By Albh, I will accept from thee no pay 
unless I serve thee; and serve thee 1 must; for to do so is incumbent 
on me, and to perform what thou retiuirest; and 1 care not if 1 
receive from thee no money. If thou knowest not my worth, 1 
know thine; and thy father — may Allah have mercy upon him! — 
treated us with beneficeoce; for he was a man of generosity. By 
Allahi thy father sent for me one day, like this blessed day, and 
when 1 went to him, he had a number oi his friends with him, and 
he said to me. Take some blood from me. So 1 took the astrolabe, 
and observed the altitude for him, and fouiid the ascendant of the 
hour to be of evil omen, and tliat the letting of blood would be 
attended with trouble: 1 therefore acquainted him with ihis, and he 

I'All three names signify "Chaiojter," 


conformed to my wishj and waited until the arrival of the approved 
houTt when 1 took the blood from him. He did not oppose mc; 
butj on the contrary, ihanked me; and in like manner all the many 
present thanked me; and thy father gave me a hundred pieces of 
gold for services similar to ihe letting of blood. — May God, said I, 
shew no mercy to my father for knowing such a man as thou! — and 
the barber laughed, and exclaimed. There is no deity but God! 
Mohammad is God's Apostle! Extolled be the perfection of Him 
who changeth others, but Is not changed! 1 did not imagine thee to 
be otherwise than a man of sense; but thou hasr talked nonsense in 
consequence o£ thine illness. God hath mentioned, in his Excellent 
Book, [hose who restrain their anger, and who forgive men: — but 
thou art excused in every case. I am unacquainted, however, with 
the cause of thy haste; and thou knowesi that thy father used to do 
nothing without consulting me; and it hath been said, that the 
person 10 whom one applies for advice should be tru.sted: now thou 
wilt find no one better acquainted with the affairs □£ the world than 
myself, and I am standing on my feet to serve thee. I am not dis- 
pleased with thee, and how then art thou displeased with me? But 
I will have patience with thee on account of the favours which I 
have received from thy father.— By Allah, said 1, thou hast wearied 
me with thy discourse^ and overcome me with thy spcechi I desire 
that thou shave my head and depart from me. 

1 gave vent to my rage; and would have risen, even if he had 
wetted my head, when he said, 1 knew that displeasure with me had 
overcome thee; but I will not be angry with thee, for thy sense is 
weak, and thou art a youth : a short time ago 1 used to carry thee on 
my shoulder, and take thee to the school— Upon this, I said to him, 
O my brother, I conjure thee by Allah, depart from me that I may 
perform my business, and go thou thy way. Then I rent my clothes; 
and when he saw me do this, he took the razor, and sharpened it, 
and continued to do so until my soul almost parted from my body; 
then advancing to my head, he shaved a small portion of it; after 
which he raised his hand, and said, O my lord, haste is from the 
Devil; — and he repeated this couplet : — 

Deliberate, and haste not to accornpTish thy desire; and be merciful, so 
shalt ihou meet with one merciful: 


For there is no hand but Gwi*? hand is above it; nor oppressor ihat shall 
not meet wiih an oppressor. 

O my lord (he then coiiciiiued)^ I do not imagine chat thou knowest 
my condition in society; for my hand hghieth upon the heads of 
kings and emira and wezirs and sages and learned men; and of such 
a oDe as myself hath tlie poet said^ — 

The trades altogether arc like a necklace, and this barber is the chief 

pearl of ihe strings. 
He exceUeth all thai arc endowed with skill, and under his hands are 

the heads of Kings. 

— Leave, said I, that which doth not concern iheef Thou hast con- 
tracted my heart, and troubled my mind- — 1 fancy that thou art in 
haste, Ke rejoined. 1 replied, Yes! Ycsl YesI— Proceed slo^vly, said 
he; for verily haite is from the Devil, and it giveth occasion to re- 
pentance and disappointment; and he upon whom be blessing and 
peace hath said, The best of affairs is that which is commenced with 
deliberation:— and, by Allah, 1 am in doubt as to thine affair: J wish, 
therefore, that thou wouldst make known to me \^'hat thou art 
hasting to do; and may it be good; for 1 fear it is otherwise. 

There now remained, to the appointed time, three hours; and he 
threw the razor from his hand in anger, and, taking (he astrolabe, 
went again to observe the sun; then after he had waited a long 
time, he returned, saying, There remain, to the hour of prayer, thtce 
hours, neither more nor less.- — For the sake of Allah, said I, be 
silent; for thou hast crumbled my hver! — and thereupon he took the 
razor, and sharpened it as he had done the first tiine, and shaved 
another portion of my head. Then stopping again, he said, 1 am 
in anxiety on account of thy hurry; i£ thou wouldst acquaint me 
with the cause of it, it would be better for thee; for thou knowest 
that thy father used to do nothing without consulting me. 

I perceived now that I eonld not avoid his importunity, and said 
within myself, The time of prayer is almost come, and I desire to 
go before the people come out from the service: if I delay a little 
longer, I kno^v not how to gain admission to her, I therefore said to 
him, Be quick, and cease from this chattering and impertinence; 


for I desire to repair to an entertiiinmenc with my friends. But 
when he heard the mention o£ [he entertainment, he exclaimed. 
The day is a blessed day for mc! I yesterday conjured a party of my 
intimate friends to come and feast widi me, and forgot to prepare 
for them anything to eaE; and now I have remembered it. Aks 
for ilie disgrace that I shall experience from thcml — So I said to him, 
Be in no anxiety on this accotmt, since thou hast been told that 1 
am going to-day to an entertainment; for all the food and drink that 
3S in my house shall be thine if diou use expedition in my affair, 
and quickly finish shaving my head, — May God recompense thee 
with every blessingl he replied: describe to me what thou hast for 
my guests, that I may know it.— 1 have, said I, five dishes of meat, 
and ten fowls fricandoed, and a roasted lamb. — Cause them to be 
brought before mej he said, that 1 may see them- So I batl them 
brought to him, and he exclaimed, Divinely art thou gifted! How 
generous is thy soul; But the incense and perfumes are wanting,— 
1 brought him, therefore^ a box containing nedd^^ and aloes-wood 
and ambergris and musk, worth fifty pieces of gold.— The time 
had now become contracted, like my own heart; so I said to him, 
Receive this, and shave the whole of my head, by the existence of 
Mohammad, God bless and save himi But he replied, By Allah, I 
will not take it until I see all that it contains. 1 therefore ordered 
the boy, and he opened the box to Kim; whereupon the barber threw 
down the astrolabe from his hand, and seating himself upon the 
ground, turned over the j^crfumes and incense and aloes-wood in 
the box until my soul almost quitted my body- 
He then advanced, and took the razor, and shaved another small 
portion of my head; after which he said, By Allah, O my son, I 
know not whether 1 should thank thee or thank thy father; for my 
entertainment to-day is entirely derived from thy bounty and kind- 
ness, and I have no one among my visitors deserving of it; for my 
guests are Zeytun the bath-keeper, and Sali' the wheat-seller, and 
*Awkal the bean-seller, and'Akresheh the grocer, and Homcyd the 
dustman, and 'Akarish the milk-seller, and each of these bath a 
peculiar dance which he pcrformeth, and peculiar verses which he 
reciteth; and the best of their qualides is, that they are hke thy 

'^A perfume composed of Jinbcrgris, musk, and aloes-wood; or simply ambcrHns. 


servant, the memluk who is before thee; and 1, thy slave, know 
neither loquacity nor impertinence. As to the bath-keeper, he saith. 
It I go not to the fea&t, it Cometh to my housel— ^and as to the dust- 
man, he is witty, and full of frolk: often doih he dancc^ and say, 
News, with my wife, is not kept in a chest! — and each of my friends 
hath jests that another hath not: but tlic description is not like the 
aciLiai observation. If thou choose, therefore, to come to us, it will 
be more pleasant both to thee and to us: relinqirish, then, diy visit 
to thy friends of whom thou hast told us that thou desiresi to go to 
them: for the traces of disease are yet upon thee, and probably thou 
art going to a people of many words, who will talk of that which 
conccrnetli them not; or probably there will be among them one 
impertinent person; and thy soul is already disquieted by disease. — 
I replied. If it be the will of God, that shall be on some other day; 
—but he said, It will be more proper that thoti first join my party 
of friends, that thou mayest enjoy their conviviality, and delight 
thyself with their salt. Act in accordance with the saying oi the 
poet: — 

Defer not a pleasure when it can be had; for fariune often dcstroycth 
our phus. 

Upoii this I laughed from a heart laden with anger, and sjid to 
him. Do what i require, that 1 may go in the care of God, whose 
name be exaltedl and do thou go to thy friends, for they are awaiting 
thine arrival. He replied, I desire nothing but to introduce diee 
into the society of these people; for verily they are of the sons of 
that class among which is no impertinent person; and if thou didst 
but behold them once, thou wouldst leave all thine own companions. 
— ^May God, said 1, give thee abundant joy with them, and I must 
bring them toged:Ler here some day.— if that be thy wish, he rejoined, 
and thou wilt first attend the entertainment of thy friends this day, 
wait until 1 take this present with which thou hast honoured me, 
and place it before my friends, that they may eat and drink without 
waiting for me, and then 1 will return to thee, and go with thee to 
thv companions; for there is no false delicacy between me and my 
companions that should prevent my leaving them; so 1 will return 
to thee t^uickly, and repair with thee whithersoever thou goest, — 


Upon this 1 cxdnimedT There is no strength nor power but in God, 
the Highj the Great! Go thou to thy companions, and delight thy 
heart with them, and leave me toiepair to mine, and to remain with 
them this dayj for they are waiting my arrival.— But he said» I will 
not leave thee to go alonc.^-The place to which i am going, said I, 
none C3i\ enter except myself. — I suppose then, he rejoined, that chou 
hast an appointment to-day with some female: oihcrwise, thou 
wouldst take me with thee; for I am more deserving than all other 
meoj and will assist thee to attain what diou desiresr. I fear that 
ihou arc going to visit some strange woman, and that thy life will 
be lost; for in this city of Baghdad no one can do anything of this 
liind, especially on such a day as this; seeing chat the Wali of 
Baghdad is a terrible, sharp sword.— Wo to thee, O wicked old 
man! I oxclaimedj what are these words with which thou addressest 
me! — And upon this, he kept a long silence. 

The time of prayer had now arrived, and the time of the KhuC- 
beh'* was near, when he had finished shaving my head: So I said 
to him, Go witli this food and drink to thy friends, and I will wait 
for thee until ihou returnj and thou shalt accompany me: — and I 
continued my endeavours to deceive him; that he might go away; 
but he said to me. Verily thou art deceiving me, and wilt go alone, 
and precipitate thyself into a calamity from which there will be no 
escape for thee; by Allah! by Allah! then quit not this spot until I 
return to thee, and accompany thee, that I may know what will be 
the result of thine affair. — J replied, Well: prolong not thine absence 
from me. And he touk the food and drink and other things which 
I had given him, but intrusted them to a porter to convey them to 
his abode, and concealed himself in one of the by-streets. I then 
immediately arose. The mueddins on the menarchs had chanted the 
Selam of Friday; and 1 put on my clothes, and went forth alone, 
and, arriving at the by-street, stopped at the door of the house where 
I had seen the damsel: and lo, the barber was behind me, and 1 
knew it nor. I found the door open, and entered; and immediately 
the master of the house returned from the prayers, and entered the 
saloon, and dosed the door; and I said within myself. How did this 
devil discover me? 


Now it happened, just at this time, for the fulfilment o£ God^s pur- 
pose to rend [he veil of protection before mc, that a female slave 
belonging to the master of the Eiouse committed some oilence, in con- 
sequence of which he beat her, and she cried out; whereupon a male 
slave came rn [o him lo liberate her; hut he beat him also» and he 
likewise cried out; and the barber concluded that he was beating 
me; so he cried, and rent his clothes, and sprinkled dust upcfn his 
head, shrieking, and calling far assistance. He was surrounded by 
people, and said lo them. My master hath been killed in the house 
of the Kadil Then running to my house, crying out all the while, 
and with a crowd behind him, he gave the news to my family; and 
I knew not what he had done ^vhen they approached, crying, Alas 
for our masierf — the barber all the while being before them» with 
his clothes rent, and a number of the people of the city with them. 
They continued shrieking, the barber shrieking at their head, and 
all of them exclaiming, Alas for our slain! — Thus ihey advanced to 
the house in which I was confined; and when the Kadi heard of 
this occurrence, the event troubled him, and he arose, and o^iened 
the door, and seeing a great crowd, he was confounded, and said, O 
people, what is the news? 

The servants replied, Thou hast killed our inaster. — O people, 
rejoined he, what hath your master done unto me that I shouki kill 
him; ynd wherefore do 1 'lec this barber before you? — Thou hast 
just now beaten him with mikra'ahs, said Ehe barber; and 1 heard 
his eries- — What hath he done that I should kill himP repeated the 
Kadi. And whence* he added, came he; and whither would he gof* 
— be not an old man of malevolence, exclaimed the bLirber; for I 
kno\v the story, and the reason of his entering thy house, and [he 
truth of the whole affair; thy daughter is in love with him, and he 
is in love with her; and thou hast discovered that he had entered 
thy house, and hast ordered thy young men, and they have beaten 
him. By Allah, none shall decide between us and thee e>:cept rhe 
Khalifeh; or ihou shalt bring forth to us our master that his family 
may lake him; and oblige me not to enter and lake him forth from 
you: haste then thyself to produce him. 

Upon this* the Kadi was withheld from speaking, and became 
utterly abashed before the people: but presently he said to the 


barbefj If ihou spenk truth, enter thyself, and bring him forth. So 
the barber advanced, and entered the house; and when 1 saw him 
do so, i sought for a way to escape; but 1 found no place of refuge 
except a large chest wliich I observed in the same upartment in 
wliich I ihen was; 1 therefore entered this, and shut do^vn [he hd, 
and held in my breath. Immediately afier^ the barber ran into die 
saloon, and, without looking in any other direction than that in 
which I had concealed myself, came thither: then turning bis eyes to 
the right and left, and seeing nothing but the chest, he raised it upon 
his head; whereupon my reason forsook me. He quickly descended 
with it; and I, being now certain diat he would not quit me, opened 
the chest, and threw myself upon the ground. My leg was broken 
by the fail; and when i came to the door of the house, 1 found a 
miikitude of people: 1 liad never seen such a crowd as was there 
collected on thai: day; so 1 began to scatter gold among them, to 
divert diem; and while they were busied in picking it up, 1 hastened 
through the by-streets of Baghdad, followed by this barber; and 
wherever I entered, he entered after me, crying, They would have 
plunged me into affliction on account of my master! Praise be to 
God who aided me against them, and delivered my master from 
their hands! Thou continuedst, O my master, to be excited by 
haste for the accomphshmcnt of thine evil design until thou 
broughtcst upon thyself this event; and if God had not blessed thee 
widi me, thou hadst not escaped from this calamity into which [hou 
hast fallen; and they might h;]ve involved thee in a calamity from 
which thou wouldst never have escaped. Beg, therefore, of God, 
that I may hve for thy sake, to liberate thee in future. By Allah, 
thou hast almost destroyed me by ihinc evil design, desiring to go 
alone; but we will not be angry with thee for thine ignorance, for 
(hou art endowed with litde sense and of a hasty disposition, — Art 
thou not satisfied, replied 1, with that which thou hast done, but wiir 
thou run after me through the market-streets? — And 1 desired for 
death to hberatc me from him; hut found it not; and in the excess of 
my rage I ran from him, and, entering a shop in the midst of the 
market, implored the protection of its owner; and be drove away 
the barber from me. 
I then seated myself in a magazine belonging to him, and said 


witbin myself, T cannot now rid myself of this barber; but he will 
be with me night and diiy> and 1 cannot endure the sight of his fnce. 
So I immiidiatoly summoned wimesses, and wrote a document^ divid- 
ing my property among my family ^ and appointing a guardian over 
them, and 1 ordered him to sell the house and all the immovable 
possessions, charging him with the care of the old and young, 
and set forth at once on a journey in order to escape from this wretch. 
1 then arrived in your counEry, where I cook up my abode, and have 
remained a tonsidcrnbEe time; and ivhcn ye invited me, and 1 came 
unto you, I saw this vile wretch among you, seated at the upper end 
of the room. Ho>v, then» can my heart be at ease, or my sitting 
in your company be pleasant to me, with tliis fehow, who hath 
brought these events upon me, and been the cause of the breaking 
of my leg ? 

The young man still persevered in his refusal to remain with us; 
And when we had heard his story, we said to the barber, Is this true 
which the young man bath said of thee? — By Allah, he answered, 
it was through my intelligence that I acted thus towards him; and 
had i not done so, he had perished: myself only was the cause of his 
escape; and it was through the goodness of God, by my means, that 
he was afHicied by the breaking of his leg instead of being punished 
by the loss of his life. Were I a person o£ many words, I had not 
done him this kindness; and now I will relate to you an event that 
happened to me, that ye may believe mc to be a man of few words, 
and less of an impcrdnent than my brothers; and it was this: — 

TiiE Baiter's Storv of Htmself 

T WAS living in Baghdad, in the reign of the Prince of the Faithful 
El-Muntasir bi-llah,^^ who loved the poor and indigent, and asso- 
ciated with the learned and virtuous; and it happened, one day, 
that he was incensed against ten persons, in consctjuence of which, 
he ordered the chief magistrate of Baghdad to bring them to him in 
a boal;, 1 saw them, and I said within myself, These persons have 
assembled for nothing but an entertainment, and, 1 suppose, will 
pass their day in diis boat eating and drinking; and none shall be 

'^ Gixar-fiTandson of Hanjn Er-Rashid; jcccdeJ 36i ajj. 


their companion but myself: — so I embarked, and mixed myself 
among tKcm; and when they had landed on the opposite bank, the 
guards o£ the Wali came with chains, and put them upon their necks, 
and put a chain upon my neck also.— Now this, O people, is it not 
a proof of my generosity, and of my paucity oi speech? For I 
determined not to speak.— They took us, therefore, all together, in 
chains, and placed us before El-Muniasir bi-tlah, tlie Prince of the 
Faithful; whereupon he gave orders to strike oil the heads of the 
ten; and the esecuiioner struck off the heads of the ten, and I 
remained. The Khalifeh then turning his eyes, and bchoMing me, 
said to the executioner, Wherefore dost [hou not strike oil the heads 
of all the ten? He answered, I have beheaded every one of the ten, 
— I do not think, rejoined tlie Khalifeh, that thou hast beheaded 
more than nine; and this who is before me is the tenth. But the 
eKecutioner replied. By thy beneficence, they are ten. — Count them, 
said the Khalifeh. And they counted rhem; and lo, they were ten. 
The Khalifeh then looked towards me, and said. What hath induced 
ihee to be silent on this occasion; and how hast ihou become in- 
cluded among the men of blood? — And when I heard the address 
of the Prince of the Faithful, I said to him, O Prince of the Faithful, 
that I am the sheykh Es-Samit (the Silent) : I possess, of science, a 
large stock; and as to the gravity of my understanding, and the 
quickness of my apprehension, and the paucity of my speech, they 
are unbounded: my trade is that of a b.irber; and yesterday, early 
in the morning, T saw these ten men proceeding to the boat; where- 
upon I mixed myself with them, and embarked with them, thinking 
[hat they had met together for an entertainment; but soon it ap- 
peared that they were criminals; and the guards came to them, and 
put chains upon their necks, and upon my neck also they put a 
chain; and from the excess of my generosity I was silent, and sjwke 
not: my speech was not heard on that occasion, on account of the 
excess of my generosity; and they proceeded with us until they 
stationed us before thee, and ihou gavesi the order to strike off the 
heads of the ten, and i remained before the executioner, and ac- 
quainted you not with my case. Was not this great generosity which 
compelled me to accompany them to slaughter? But throughout my 
life 1 hsvG acted in this excellent manner. 


When the Khalifcli heard my words, and knew dial i weis of a 
very generous ch:irat[er, and of few words, and not inclined 10 
impertinence as thh young man» whom I delivered from horrors, 
assecteth, he saidj Hast thou brothers? I answered. Yes: si^:. — And 
are ihy six hrothers, said he» like thyself, distinguished by science 
and knowledge, and paucity of speech? I answered, They lived nor 
so as 10 be hke me: thou hnst dispiraged me by thy supposition, O 
Prince of [he Faithful, and it is not proper that thou .shouldsi com- 
pare my brothers to me; for through the ubundiince of their speech, 
and the smallness of their generous qualuieSi eneli of them cKpeiri- 
enced a defect: the firsf was iame; the second, deprived of many of 
his teeth; the third, blind; the fonrch, one-eyed; the fifth, cropped 
of his ears; and the si^Lih had both his lips cut off: and think not, O 
Prince of the Faithful, that I am a man of many words: nay, I must 
prove to thee that I am of a more generous character than they; 
and each of them met with a particular adventure, in consequence 
of ivhich he experienced a defect: if thou please, I will relate their 
stories to thee, 

TiiE Barbek's Story of His First Brotheg 

know, O Prince of the Faithful, tliat the first (who was named 
Ei-Bakbuk) w.LS the lame one. 14c practised the art of a tailor in 
Baghdad, and used to sew in a shop which he hired of a man 
possessing great wealth, who Lived over the shop, and who had, in 
die lower part of his house, a miD. And as my lame brother was 
silting in his shop one day, sewing, he raised his head, and saw 
a woman like the rising full moon, at a projecting window of the 
house, looking at the people passing by; and as soon as he beheld 
her, his heart was entangled by her love. He passed that day gating 
at her, and neglecting his occupation, until die evening; and on the 
following morning ho opened his shop, and sat down to Sew; but 
every time that he sewed a stitch, he looked towards the window; 
and in this state he continued, sewing nothing sufficient to earn a 
piece of silver. 

On the third day he seated himself again in his place, looking 
towards the woman; and she saw him, and, perceiving that he had 

THE barber's first BROTHER 165 

become enslaved by her lovo» laughed in his fiice, and he» in like 
m^nnerj laughed in her face. She then disappeared from before him, 
and sent Co him her slave-girl, wilh a wrapj^cr containing a piece of 
red flowered silk; and the girl, coming to him, said to him. My 
mistress s:tlu[cch ihee, and desireth thee to cut out for her, with the 
hjn<i o£ skill, a shirt of this piece, and to sew it beautifutly. So he 
answered, 1 hear and obey: — and he cut out for her the shirt, and 
finished the sewing of it on that day; and on the following day the 
slave-girl came to him again, and said to him, My mistress salnteth 
thee, and saith to Ehee, How didst thou pass last night? — for she 
tasted not sleep, from her passion for ihee. — She then placed before 
him a piece of yellow satin, and said to him, My mistress desireth 
thee to cut out for her, of this piece, two pairs of trousers, and to 
make them this day. He replied, I hear and obey. Salute her with 
abundant salutations, and say to her, Thy slave is submissive to thine 
order, and command him to do whatsoever thoti wilt, — He then 
busied himself with the cutting out, and used all diligence in sewing 
the two pairs of trousers; and presently the woman looked out at 
him from the window, and saluted him by a sign, now casting down 
her eyes, and now smiling^ in his face, so that he imagined he should 
soon obtain possession of her. After this, she disappeared from be- 
fore him, and the slave-girl came to him; so he ddivered to her the 
two pairs of trousers, and she took them and departed: and when 
the night came, he threw himself upon his bed, and remained turn- 
ing himself over in restlessness until the morning. 

On the following day, the master of the house came to my brother, 
bringing some linen, and said to him. Cut out and make this into 
shirts for me. He replied, I hear and obey;— and ceased not from 
his work until he had cut out twenty shirts by the time of nightfall, 
without having tasted food. The man dien said to him, How much 
is thy hire for this? — but my brother answered not; and the damsel 
made a sign to liim that he should receive nothing, though he was 
absolutely in want of a single copper coin. For three days he con- 
tinued scarcely eating or drinking anything, in his diligence to 
accomplish his work, and when he had finished it, he went to 
deliver the shirts. 

Now the young woman had acqtiainted her husband wilh the 


siaie of my brother's miji<J, but my brother knew not this; and she 
planned with her huiband to employ him in se^ving without re- 
muneration, and moreover to amuse themselves by laughing at him; 
so, when he had finished all tJie work that they gave him^ they 
contrived a plot against him, and married him to their siave-gjrl; 
and on the night when he desired to introduce himself to hcr^ they 
said to him» Pass this night in the mill, and to-morrow thon shalt 
enjoy happiness. My brother, therefore, thinking that their inten- 
tion was good, passed the night in the mill alone. Meanwhile, the 
husband of the young woman went to the miller, and instigated him 
by signs to make my brother turn the mill. The miller, accordingly, 
went in to him at midnight, and began to exclaim, Verily this bull 
is la^y* while there is a great quantity of wheat, and the owners of 
the l^our are demanding it: I will therefore yoke him in the mill, 
that he may finish the grinding of the flour: — and so saying, he 
yoked my brother, and thus he kept him until near morning, ^vhen 
the owner of the house came, and saw him yoked in the mill, and 
the miller flogging him with the whip; and he left him, and retired. 
After this» the slave-girl to whom he had been contracted in mar- 
riage came to him early in the morning, and, having unbound him 
from the mill, said to him. Both I and my mistress have been dis- 
tressed by this which hath befallen Ehce, and we have participated 
in the burden of thy sorrow. But he had no tongue wherewith to 
answer her, by reason of the severity of the flogging. He then re- 
turned to his house; and lo, the sheykh who had performed the 
marriage-contract came and saluted him, saying, May God prolong 
thy life! May thy marriage be blessed! — May God not preserve the 
liarJ returned my brother: thou thousandfold villain! By Albh, I 
went only to turn the mill in the place of the bull until the morning. 
— Tell me thy story, said the sheykh: — and my brother told him 
what had happened to him: upon which the sheykh saidj Thy star 
agreeth not with hers: but if thou desire that 1 should chringe for 
thee the mode of the contract, I will change it for another better 
than it, that thy star may agree ^vith hers. — See then, replied my 
brother, if thou hast any other contrivance [o employ. 

My brother then left him, and repaired again to his shop, hoping 
that somebody might give him some work, with the profit of which 


Kg miglit obtain his food; and lo, the slave-girl came to hitn. She 
h^id cojispired with her mistress to play him chis trick, Eind said to 
him, Verily^ "ly mistress is longing for tliee, and she hath gone up 
to look iit thy £yce from the window. And my brother had scarcely 
heyrd these words when she looked out at him from the window, 
andj weeping, said, Wherefore hast thou cut ihort the Intercourse 
between us and thee? But he returned her no answer: so she swore 
to him that all that had happened to him in the mill was not with 
her consent: and when my brother beheld her beauty and loveliness, 
the troubles that had befallen him became effaced fron^ his memory, 
luid he accepted her excuse, and rejoiced at the sight of her. He 
salured her, therefore, and conversed with her, and tlien sac a while 
at his work; after which the slave-girl came to him, and said, My 
mistress saluieth thee, and informeth thee that her husband hath 
determined to p^iss this next night in the house of one of his intimate 
friends; wherefore, when he hath gone tliither, do thou come to 
her.— Now the husband o£ the young woman had said to her, How 
shall we contrive when he cometh to thee that I may take him and 
drag him before the Wall? She replied. Let me then play him a 
trick, and involve him in a disgrace for which he shall he paraded 
throughout this city as an example to others: — and my brother knew 
nothing of the craftiness of women. Accordingly, at the approach 
of evening, the slave-girl came to him, and, taking him by the hand, 
returned with him to her mistress, who said to him. Verily, O my 
master, 1 have been longing for thee. — Hasten [hen, said he, to give 
me a kiss, first of all. And his words were not finished when the 
young woman's husband came in from his neighbour's house, and, 
seizing my brother, exclaimed to him, By Allah, I will not loose thee 
but in the presence of the chief magistriite of the police. My brother 
humbled himself before him; buL, without listening to him, he took 
him to the house of the Wall, :vho flogged him ^vith whips, and 
mounted him upon a camel, and conveyed him through the streets 
of the city, the people crying out, This is the recompense of him who 
breakeih into the harims of others! — and he fell £rom the camel, and 
his leg broke: so he became lame. The Wjli then banished him 
from the city; and he went forth, not knowing whither to turn his 
steps: hut I, though enraged, overtook him, and brought him back; 


and I have taken upoa myself to provide him with meat and drink 
unio the present day. 

The Khalifeh laughed ac my story, and exclaimed^ Thou hasc 
spoken well: — bur I replied, I will noc accept this honour until thou 
hast hstencd to me while 1 relate to thee whiit hjppened to the rest 
o£ my brothers; and think nie not a man of many words, — Tell me, 
said the Khalifeh, what happened to all thy brothers, and grace my 
eats with tliese nice particuliirs: I beg thee to employ exuberance o£ 
diction in thy relation of these pleasant talcs. 

The Bareeh^s SroRV of His Second B 

R0T3 lEK 

SqT said. Know, O Prince of the Faithful: that my second brother, 
■whose name was Ei-Heddar, was going one day to transact some 
business, when an old woman met him, and said to him^ O man, 
stop a little, that I may propose to thee a things which, if it please 
thee, thou shak do for mc My brother, therefore, stopped; and she 
said to him, I will guide thee to a thing, and rightly direct thee to lT, 
on the condition that thy words be nor many. So he saidj Com- 
municate what thou hast to tell me:— and she proceeded thus:—' 
What saycst thou of a handsome house» with running water, and 
fruit and wine, and a beautiful face to behold, and a smooth cheek 
to kiss, and an elegant form to embrace; and to enjoy all these 
pleasures without interruption? Now, if thou wilt act agreeably 
with the condition that 1 have imposed upon thee, thou wiit see 
prosperity. — When my brother had heard her words, he said to her, 
O my mistress, how is it that thou hast sought me out in preference 
to all the rest of the creation for this affair; and what is there in me 
that hath pleased thee? She replied. Did I not say to thee that thou 
must not be a person of many words? Be silent then, and come 
with me. 

The old woman then went her way, my brother following her, 
eager to enjoy the pleasures which she had described to him, until 
they had entered a spacious hou'ie, when she went up with him to 
an upper story, and my brother perceived that he was in a beautiful 
palace, in which he beheld four damsels, than whom none more 
lovely had ever been seen, singing with voices that would charm a 

THE barber's second BSOTHER. 169 

heart as insensible as stone. One o£ these damsels drank a cup o£ 
wrnc; and my brother sjid to her» May it be attended with heiilth 
and vigour!— and advanced to wdt upon her; bur she prevented 
bis domg sOj giving him to drink a cup of winej and as soon as be 
bad drunk it, she slapped bhn on his neck. When he found chat 
she treated him tlius, iie went out from the chamber in anger, and 
with many words; but the old woman, following liim, made a sign 
to bim With her eye tha: be should return: so be returned, and seated 
himself, without speaking; and upon this, the damsel slapped him 
again upon the b^ek of his neck until he became senseless; after 
wliich, recovering, he withdrew again. The old woman, however, 
overtook him, and said to him. Wait a Uttle, and xhou shak attain 
thy wish. — How many rrmesj said be, shall I wait a little before 1 
attain it? The old woman answered. When she hath become es- 
biiarated with wino thou shah obtain her favour. He therefore 
returned to his place, and resumed his scat. All the four damsels 
then arosej and the old woman directed them to divest my brother 
of his outer clothes, and to sprinkle some rose-water upon his face; 
and when they had done so, the most beautiful one among them 
said to bim, May Allah exalt thee to honourl Thou bast entered my 
abode, and i£ thou have patience to submit to my ret^uisitions, thou 
wilt attain thy wish, — O my mistress, be replied, 1 am thy slavCj and 
under thy authority. — Know then, said she, that 1 am devotedly fond 
of frolic, and he who complicth with my demands will obtain my 
favour. Then she ordered the other damsels to sin^; and they sang 
so that their iiearcrs were in an ecstasy; after which the chief lady 
said to one of the other damsels. Take thy master, and do wiiat is 
required, and bring him back to me immediately. 

Accordingly, she took him away^ ignorant of that which she was 
about to do; and the old woman came to him, and said. Be patient; 
for there remaineth but little to do. He then larncd towards the 
damsel, and the old woman said to bim. Be patient: thou hast 
almost succeeded, and there remaineth but one thing, which is, to 
shave thy beard.— How, said he, shall I do that which ^vill disgrace 
me among the people? The old woman ans^vercd. She desireth this 
only to make thee like a beardless youth, that there may be nothing 
on thy fact to prkk her; for her heart is affected ^vith a violent love 


for Lhee. Be patient, ihcreEore, and thou shalt atCiiiii thy desire, — So 
my brorher pjtienily submitted to the d:imsel's directions: his beard 
Wiis shaven, and he was shorn also of fiis eyebrows and mustaches^ 
and his face was painted red, before the damsel took him back to 
the cliief lady, who, when she saw him, was at first frightened at 
himj and then laughed until she fell backwards, and exclaimed, O 
my master, thou hast gained me by these proofs of thine amiable 
manners! She then con)ured him by her life to arise and dance; and 
he did so; and there was not a single cushion in the chamber that 
she did not throw aL him. In like manner also the other damsels 
threw at him variona things, such as oranges, and limes, and cicrons, 
until he fell down senseless from the pelting, while they slapped him 
incessantly upon the back of his neck, and cast things in his face. 
But at length the old woman said to him, Now thou hast attained 
thy wish- Know that there remaineth to thee no more beating, nor 
doth there remain for thee to do more than one thing, namely, this: 
it is her custom, when she is under the inRtienee of wine, to suffer 
no one to come near her until she hath taken off her outer clothes: 
thou, being prepared in the like manner, musE run after her, and 
she will run before thee as thouqh she were flying from thee; but 
cease not to follow her from plate to place until thou overtake her. 
He arose, therefore, and did so: the lady ran before, and as he fol- 
lowed her, she passed from chamber to chamber, and he still ran 
after her. At last he heard her utter a slight sound as she ran before 
him, and, coniinuiiig his pursuit, he suddenly found himself in the 
midst of the street. 

This street was in the market of the leather-scUers, who were then 
crying skins for sale; and when the people there collected saw him 
in this condition, almost naked, with shaven beard atid eyebrows 
and mustaches, and with his face painted red, they shouted at him, 
and raised a loud laugh, and some of them beat him with the skins 
until he became insensible. They then placed him upon an ass, and 
condticted him to the Wall, who exclaimed, Whnit is this? — They 
answered, This descended upon tis from the house of the Wezir, in 
this condition. And the Wall inflicted upon him a hundred lashes, 
and banished him from the city: but I went out after him, and 
brought him back privately into the city, and allotted him a main- 


tenance. Had it not beeii for my generous disposition, I had not 
borne with such a person - 

The Barber's Stocy of His Tihrli Brotueh 

As to my third brother (ihc blind mao, Biikbak), who was also 
surnamed KnfTeh, fate and destiny impelled him one day to a large 
houscj and he knocked at the door^ hoping that its master would 
answer him, and ihiH he might beg o£ him a trifle- The owner called 
out, Who is iit the door? — but my brother answered not; and then 
heard him eall wiih a loud voice^ Who is ihisP Still, however, he 
returned him no answer; and he heard the sounds ot his footsteps 
approaching until he came to the door and opened it, when he said 
to him, What dost thou desire? My brother answered. Something 
for the sake of God, whose name be exalted! — An thou blind? said 
the man; and my brother ans^vered, Yes. — Then give me thy hjnd, 
rejoined the master of the house; — so my brother stretched forth to 
him his hand, and the man took him into the house, and led him up 
from stair-case to suiir-eose until he had ascended to the highest 
platform of the roof: my brother thinking that lie was going to give 
him some food or money: and when he had arrived at this highest 
terrace of his house, the owner said, What dost thou desire, O bhnd 
man? — I desire something, he answered again, for the sake of God, 
whose name be CHalted! — ^May God, replied the man, open to thee 
some other way! — What is this! exclaimed my brother: cauldst thou 
not tell me so when 1 was below?— Thou vilest of the vile! retorted 
the other: why didst thou not ask of me something for the sake of 
God when thou heardest my voice the first time, when ihou wast 
knocking at the door? — What then, said my brother, do5t thou 
mean to do to me? — The man of the house answered, I have nothing 
to give thee.^ — Then lake me down the stairs, said my brother. The 
man replied. The way is before thee. So my brother made his way 
to the scairs, and coniinijed descending until there remained, between 
him and the door, tweLity steps, when his foot slipped and he fell, 
and, rolling do^vn, broke his head. 

He went forth, not knowing whither to direct his steps, and 
presendy there met him two blind men, his companions, who said 


to him, WhiiE haih happened to thee this day? My brother^ there- 
fore) related to them the event thai: had just befallen him; and then 
said to ihem, O my brothers, I desire to take a portion of the money 
now in our possession, to expend it upon myself. — Now the owner 
□£ the house which he bad jvist before entered had followed him to 
acquaint himself with his proceedings, and \^'iihour my brother's 
knowledge he walked behind him until che latter entered his abode; 
when he went in after him, still unknown. My brother then sat 
wailing for bis companions; and when they came in to him^ he said 
to them, Shut the door, ai^d search the room, lest any stranger have 
followed us. When the intruder^ Eherefore, heard what he said, he 
arose, and clung to a rope that was attached to the ceiling; and the 
bhnd men went feeling about the whole of the chamber, and, find- 
ing no one, returned and seated themsehes by my brother, and 
brought foi'ih their money, and counted it; and lo, ii was more dian 
ten thousand pieces of silver. Having done this, they laid it in a 
corner of the room, and each of them took o£ the surplus o£ that sum 
as much as he wanted, and they buried the ten thousand pieces of 
silver in the earth; after which, they placed before themselves some 
food, and sat eating; but my brother heard the sound of a stranger 
by his side, and said to his friends. Is there a stranger among us? 
Xlien stretching forth his hand, it grasped the hand of the intruder; 
whereupon he cried out to his companions, saying. Here is a stranger! 
— and they fell upon him with blows until they were tiredj when 
they shouted out, O Muslims! a thief hath come in upon us, and 
desireth to take our property!— and immediately a number of per- 
sons collected around them. 

Upon this, the stranger whom they accused of being a thief shut 
his eyes, feigning to be blind like themselves, so that no one who 
saw him doubled him to be so; and shouted, O Muslims! I demand 
protection of Allah and the Sultan! I demand protection of Allah 
and the Wahl I demand protection of Allah and the Emir! for I 
have important information to give to the Emir! — and before they 
could collect their thoughts, the ofiicers of the Wali surrounded 
rhem and took them all, including my brother, and conducted them 
before their master. The Wali said, What is your story? — and the 
stranger replied, Hear my words^ O Wali; the truth of our case will 


not become known to thee but by means of beating; and if thou wik, 
begin by beadng me before my companions. The W,ili therefore 
said, Throw down this man, and flog him wiih whips; — and 3CCord- 
ingfy ihey threw him down and flogged him; and wbcn the stripes 
tortured him, he opened one of hiseye?; and after they had continued 
the flogging a httle longer, he opened his other eye; upon wliich the 
WaU exclaimed, What meancth this conduct, O thou villain? — 
Grant me indemnity^ replied the man, and I will acquaint thee:— 
jnd the Wali having granted his request, he said, We four pretend 
that we are blind, and, intruding among other people, enter iheir 
houses, and sec their women, and employ stratagems to corrupt 
them, and to obtain money from ihem. We have acquired, by these 
means, vast gain, amounting to ten ihoasand pieces of silver; and 1 
said to my companions, Give me my due, two thousand and five 
hundred; and they rose against me and beat me, and took my prop- 
erty, 1 beg protection, therefore, of Allah and of thee; and thou art 
more deserving of my share than they- If thou desire to know the 
truth of that which 1 have said, flog each of them more than thou 
hast flogged me, and he will open his eyes. 

So the Wali immediately gave orders to flog them; and the first 
of them who sulTcred was my brother. They continued beating him 
until he almost died; when the Wali said [o them, O ye scoundrelsl 
do ye deny the gracious gift of God, feigning yourselves to be blind? 
My brother exclaimed, Allah! Allah! Allahl there is none among us 
who seethi — ^They then threw him down again, and ceased not to 
beat him until he became insensible^ when the Wah said, Leave him 
until he shall have recovered, and then give him a third flogging: — 
and in the meantime, he gave orders to flog hi? companions, to give 
each of them more than three hundred stripes; while the seeing 
man said to them, Open your eyes, or they will flog you again after 
this time. Then addressing himself to the Wali, he said, Send \^'rth 
me some person to bring thee the projicrty; Cor these men will not 
open their eyes, fearing to be disgraced before the spectators. And 
the Wali sent with him a man, who brought him [he money; and 
he took it, and gave to the informer, out of it, two thousand and 
five hundred pieces of silver, according to the share which he 
claimed, in spite of the others (retaining the rest), and banished 


from the city my brother and the two other men; but 1 went forth, 

Prince of the Fjithful, and, having overtaken my brother, asked 
him respcciing his snfTerJngs; and he acquainted me with that which 

1 have related unco thee, i then brought him back secretly into the 
city, and iiliotted him a supply of food and drink as long as he lived. 

The Khahfeh laughed at my story, and said, Give him a present, 
and let him go: — but I replied, I will receive nothing until 1 have 
declared to the Prince of the Faithful what happened to the rest of 
my brothers, and made it manifest to him that I am a man of few 
words: — whereupon the Khafifeh said, Crack our ears, then, with 
thy ridiculous stories, and continue to us thy disclosure of vices and 
misdeeds. So 1 proceeded thus: — 

The Bakb^rs Sxokv of His Fourth Brothee. 

Mv fourth brother, O Prince of the Faithful, was the one-t^yed 
(named El-Kuz el Aswani) : he was a butcher in Baghdad, and both 
sold meat and reared Iambs; and the great and the rich had recourse 
to him to purchase of him iheir meat, so that he amassed great 
wealth, and bceame possessor of cattle and houses. Thus he con- 
linued to prosper for a long time; and as he was in his shop, one 
day, there accosted him an old man with a long beard, who handed 
[0 him some money, saying, Give mc some meat for it. So he look 
the money, and gave him the meat; and when the old man had 
gone away, my brother looked at the money which he had paid him, 
and, seeing that it was of a brilliant whiteness, put it aside by itself. 
This old man continued to repair to him during a period of five 
months, and my brother always threw his money into a chest by 
itself; after which period he desired to take it out for the purpose 
of buying ,some sheep; but on opening the chest, he found all the 
contents converted into white paper, clipped round; and he slapped 
his face, and cried out; whereupon a number of people collected 
around him^ and he related to them hts story, at which they were 

He then went again, as nsnal, into his shop, and, having killed 
a ram and hung it up within the shop, he cut oEf some of the meatj 
and suspended it outside, saying widiin himself. Perhaps now this 


oil} m^jn will conic ^ig^in^ uni] lE so, 1 will seize him :— Eind very soon 
afcer, thi: old m;m ypproychcd with his money; upon which my 
brother arose^ and, laying hold upon hirrij began to cry out, O 
Muslims, come to my aid, and hear what this scoundrel hath done 
unto mc! But when the old man heard his words he said to him, 
Which will be more agrecyble to thee— that thou abstaii:i from dis- 
gracing me, or ihiu I disgrace thee, before the people?— For what 
wilt thou disgrace me? said my brother. The old man answered, 
For thy selling human flesh for muuon,— Thou liest, thou accarsedi 
exclaimed my hrother,^None is accursed, rejoined the old man, bur 
he who haih a man suspended in his shop. My brother iaiil, If it 
be as thou h:ist asserted, my property and blood shall be lawful to 
thee:— and immediately the old man e^^claimed, O ye people here 
assembled] verily this butcher slaughicreih human beings, and 
selleth their flesh for mutton; and if ye desire to know the truth of 
my assertion, enter his shop! So the people rushed upon his shop, 
and beheld the ram converted into a man, hung up, and they laid 
hold upon my brother, crying out against him. Thou infidel! Thou 
scoundrel! — and those who had beeu his dearest friends turned Ufxin 
him and heat him; and [he old man J^^vc him a blow upon his eye, 
and knocked it out- The people then carried the carcass, and took 
with them my brother, to the chief magistrate of the police; and 
the old man said to him, O Emir, this man slaughtereth human 
beings, and selleth their fiesh for mutton; and we have therefore 
brought him to dice: arise, then, and perform the requisition of God, 
whose might and glory be extolled! Upon this, the magistrate thrust 
back my brother from him, and, refusing to listen to what he would 
have said, ordered that five hundred blows of a sta^ should be 
inflicted upon him, and took all his property. Had it not been for 
the great amount of his weakh, he had put him to death. He then 
banished him from the city. 

My brother, therefore, went forth in a state of distraction, not 
knowing what course to pursue; but he journeyed onwards until 
he arrived at a great city, where he thought fit to settle as a shoe- 
maker: so he opened a shop, and sat there working for his sub- 
sistence. And one day he went forth on some business, and, hearing 
the neighing of horses, he inquired respecting the cause, and was 


told ihcit tlic King wjs going forth to hunt; whereupon he went lo 
jmuse himself wiih the sight of the procession: huE ihe King hap- 
pening to look on one side, his eye met Lhat of my brother, and imme- 
diately he hang down his he,!dT iind exclaimed, I seek refuge with 
God from the evil ot this day! He dien turned aside the bridle of 
his horse, and rode back, and all his troops returned with him; after 
which, he ordered his pages to run aiter my brother, and to beat 
him; and they did so; giving him so severe a beating that he almost 
died; and he knew not the cause. He returned to his abode in a 
misicrable plight, and afterwards went and related his misfortune to 
one of the King's attendants, who laughed at the recital until he 
fell backwards, and said to him, O my brother, the King cannot 
endure the sight of a one-eyed person, and esiHicially when the 
defect is that of the left eye; for in tliis case^ he failetli not to put 
the person to death. 

When my brother heard these words, he determined to fly from 
that city; and forthwith departed from it, and repaired to another 
city, where there was no King, Here he remained a long time; and 
after this, as he was meditating upon his adventure in the former 
city, he went out one day to amuse himself, and hcurd again the 
neighing of horses behind liim; ujjon which he exclaimed, The 
decree of God haih come to pass! — and ran away, seeking for a place 
in which to conceal himself; but he found none, until, continuing 
his search, he saw a door set up as a barricade; so he pushed this, and 
it fell d<:)wn; and, entering the doorway, he beheld a long passage^ 
into which he advanced. Suddenly, however, two men laid hold 
upon him, and exclaimedi Praise be to God who h,iih enabled us 
to take thee, O thou enemy of God! For these three nights thou 
hast suffered us to enjoy neither quiet nor sleep, and we liave found 
no repose: nay> thou hast given us a foretaste of death! — O men, 
said my brother, what haih hapf>ened unto you? They answered, 
Thou keepest a watch upon us, and desirest to disgrace us, and to 
disgrace [he master of the house! Is it not enough for thee that thou 
hast reduced him to poverty, thou and thy companions? Produce 
now the knife wherewith thou tlireatenest us every night. — And so 
saying, they searched him, and found upon his waist the knife with 
which he cut the shoe-leather.— O men, he exclaimed, fear God in 


ynuF treatmeni of me, and know ihaE my iiory is ^voiiderfuL They 
said, WhaE then is ihy scoryp So he related iL 10 ihenij iti [he hope 
thai they would hbcr^tc him: but they believed not what he said; 
and, insteud o£ shewing him any regard, they beat hjm, and tore his 
clothes; whereupon, his body becoming exposed to their view, they 
discovered upon his sides ibe marks o£ beating with mikra'ahs, and 
exclaimed, O wretch! these scars bear testimony to thy gujir. They 
ihen conducted him before the WaU, while he said within himself, 
1 am undone for my transgressions, and none can deliver me but 
God, whoie niime be exaliedl And ^vhen he was brought before the 
Waii, the magistrate said to him, O thou scoundrel! nothing but a 
heinous crime hath occasioned thy having been beaten with mik- 
ra'ahs:— and he caused a hundred lashes to be inilicted upon him; 
after which, they mounted him upon a camel, and proclaimed be- 
fore him. This is the recompense of him who breaketh into men's 
housesl^But I had already heard of his misfortunes, and gone 
fordi, and found liim; and I accompanied him about the city while 
they were making this proclamationj undl they left him; when 1 
took him, and brought him back secretly into Baghdad, and appor- 
tioned him a daily allowance of food and drink. 

TriE Barber's Fifth Biioii^ieb 

My fifth brother (El-Feshshar ["Alnasdiar"]) was cropped of his 
ears, O Prince of the Falthfuh He was a pauper, who begged alms 
by night, and subsisted upon what he thus acquired by day: and 
our father was a very old man, and he fell sick and died, leaving 
to us seven hundred pieces of silver, of which each of us tt>ok his 
portion; namely, a hundred pieces. Now my fifth brother, when he 
had received his share, was perplexed, not knowing what to do with 
it; bu[ while he was in [his state, it occurred to his mind to buy 
with it all kinds of articles of glass, and to sell them and make profit : 
so he bought glass with his hundred pieces of silver, and put it in a 
large tray, and sat upon an elevated place, to sell it, leaning his back 
against a wall. And as he sat, he meditated, and said within him- 
self. Verily my whole stock consisteth of this glass: 1 will sell it for 
two hundred pieces of silver; and with the two hundred 1 will buy 


other ghss which 1 will sell for four hundred; and thus 1 will con- 
tinue buying and selhng unci! 1 hjvc acquired great wealth. Then 
with this 1 will purchase all kinds o£ merchandise and essences and 
jewels, and so obtain vast gain. After that, 1 will buy a handsome 
house* and memluks,and horses, and gilded saddles; and 1 wilt eat 
and drink; and I will not leave in the city a single female singer but 
I will have her brought to my house that I may hear her songs, — 
All this he calculated with the tray of glass lying before him.— Then* 
said he, I will send all the female bctrothers to seek in marriage for 
me the daughters of Kin^s and We-^irs; and I will demand as my 
wife the daughter of the chief Wezir; for I have heard that she is 
endowed with perfect beauty and surprising loveliness; and 1 will 
give as her dowry a thousand pieces of gold. If her father consent, 
my wish is attained; and if he consent not, I will take her by force, 
in spite of him : and when I have come back to my house, I will buy 
ten young eunuchs, and I will purchase the apparel of Kings and 
Sultans, and cause to be made for me a saddle of gold set with 
jewels; after which 1 will ride every day upon a horse, with slaves 
behind me and before me, and go about through the streets and 
markets to amuse myself, while the people will salute me and pray 
for me. Then I will pay a visit to the Wezir, who Is the father of 
the maiden, with memluks behind me and before me, and on my 
right hand and on my left; and when he seeth mc, he will rise to 
me, in humility, and seat me in his own place; and he himself will 
sit down below me, because I am his son-in-law- I will then order 
one of the servants to bring a purse containing (he pieces of gold 
which compose the dowry; and he will place it before the Wezir; 
and I will add to it another purse, that he may know my manly 
spirit and excessive generosity, and that the world is contemptible 
in my eye; and when hoaddresseih me with ten words, I will answer 
him with two, Aad I will return to my house; and when any per- 
son eomcih to me from the house of the Wc-iir, I will clothe him 
with a rich dress: but if any come with a present, I will return it; 
1 will certainly not accept it. Then, on the night of the bridal dis- 
play, 1 will attire myself in the most magnificent of my dresses, and 
sit upon a mattress covered with silk; and when my wife comelh to 
me, like the full moon, decked with her ornaments and apparel, I 


will command her to stand before mc as swnds the timid and the 
abject; and I will nor look ai her^ on account of the haughtiness of 
my spirit and the gravity of my wjjidom ; so ihar the maids will say, 
O our master and our lord, may wc be thy sacrifice! This thy wife, 
or rather thy handmaid, awaiteth thy kind regard, and is standing 
before thee: then graciously bestow on her one glance; for the pos- 
ture haih become painful to her. — Upon this» I will raise my head» 
and look at hec with one glance, and again incline my head down- 
wards; and thus I will do until the ceremony of displaying her is 
finished; whereupon they will conduct her to the sleeping-chamber; 
and I will rise from my place, and go to another apartment, and 
put on my night-dress, and go to the chamber in ^vhich she is sit- 
ting, where I will scat myself upon the divan; but 1 will not look 
towards her. The tirewomen will urge me to approach her; but I 
will not hear their words^ and will order some ol ihc attendants to 
bring a purse containing five hundred pieces of gold for them, and 
command them to retire from the chamber. And when they have 
gone, I will seat myself by the side of the bride; bur with averted 
countenance, that she may say. Verily this is a man of a haughty 
spirit. Then her mother will come to me, and will kiss my hands, and 
say to me, O my master, look upon thy handmaid with the eye of 
mercy; for she is submisiiively standing before thee. But 1 will return 
her no answer. And she will kiss my feet, again and again, and will 
say, O my master, my daughter is young and hath seen no man but 
thee; and if she experience from thee repugnance, her heart will 
break: incline to her, therefore, and speak to her, and calm her mind. 
And upon this I will look at her through the corner of my eye, and 
command her to remain standing before me, that she may taste the 
savour of humiliation, and know that I ym the Sultan of the age. 
Then her mother will say to me, O my master, this is thy^ hand- 
maid: have compassion upon her, and be gracious to her: — and she 
will order her to fill a cup with wine, and to put it to my mouth. 
So her daughter will say, O my lord, 1 conjure thee by Allah that 
thou reject not the cup from thy slave; for verily 1 am thy slave. 
But I will make her no reply; and she will urge me to take it, and 
will say. It must be drunk; and will put it to my mouth: and upon 
this, T will shake my hand in her face, and spurn her with my fool. 




and do chus. — So saying, Kc kicked the tray of glass* which, being 
upon a place elevated above the ground, fell, and all that was in it 
broke; there escaped nothing: Jiiid he cried out and said, All this is 
the result of my pride! And he slapped his face, and tore his clothes; 
the passengers gazing at him, while he wept, and eKclaimed, Ahl 
O my grief! 

The people were now repairing lo perform the Friday-prayers; 
and some merely cast their eyes at him» while others noticed him 
not; but while he was in this state, deprived of his whole properly, 
and weeping, without intermission, a female approached him, on 
her way to attend the Friday-prayers: she was of admirable loveli- 
ness; the odour of musk was diffused from her; under her was a 
mule with a stuiTed saddle covered with gold-embroidered silk; and 
with her was a number ol servants; and when she saw the broken 
glass, and my brother's state and his tears, she was moved with pity 
for him, and asked respecting his case. She was answered. He had 
a tray of glass, by the sale of which to obtain his subsistence, and it 
is broken, and he is afflicted as thou seest:^and upon this, she called 
to one of the servants, saying. Give what thou hast with thee to this 
poor man. So he gave Kim a purse, and he took it, and when he had 
opened it, he found in it five hundred pieces of gold, whereupon he 
almost died of excessive joy, and offered up prayers for his ben- 

He returned to his house a rich man, and sat reflecting, and lo, 
a person knocked at the door: he rose, therefore, and opened it; and 
beheld an old woman whom he knew not, and she said to him, O 
my son, know that the time of prayer hath almost expired, and I 
am not prepared by ablution; wherefore I beg that thou wilt admit 
me into thy house, that I may perform it. He replied, I hear and 
obey;— and, retiring within, gave her permission to enter; his mind 
sdll wandering from joy on account of the gold; and when she had 
finished the ablution, she approached the spot where he was sitting, 
and there perforined the prayers of two rek'ahs. She then offered up 
a supplication for my brother; and he thanked her, and doffed her 
two pieces of gold; but when she saw this, she exclaimed. Extolled 
be God's perfection! Verily T wonder at the person who fell in love 
widitheeinthy beggarly condition! Take back thy money from me, 


and if dioii want it not, return it to her who gave it thee when ihy 
glass broke. — O my mother, said he, how can 1 contrive to obtain 
access to her? She answered, O my son, she hath an afTcttion for 
thee; but she is the wife of an affitJenl man; take then with thee all 
thy tnoney, and when thou art with her be not deficient in courieoiis- 
ness and agreeable woids; so sbalt thou obtain of her favours and 
her wejlth whatever thou shalt desire. My brother, therefore, took 
all the gold* and arose and went with the old woman, hardly believ- 
ing what she had told him; and she proceeded, and my brother 
behind her^ until they arrived at a great door, at which she knocked; 
whereupon a Greek damsel came and opened the door, and the old 
woman entered, ordering my brother to do the s^me. He did so* 
and found liimself in a large house, where he hehcld a great fur- 
nished chamber, with curtains hung jn it; and, seating himself 
there, he put down the j^ld before him, and placed his turban on 
his kiices; and scarcely had he done so, when there came to him a 
damsd, the like of whom had never been seen, attired in most 
magnificent appareL My brother stood up at her approach; and 
when she beheld him she laughed in his face, and rejoiced at his 
visit: then going to the door, she locked it; after which she returned 
to my brother, and took his hand, and both of them ^vent together 
into a private chamber, carpeted with various kinds of silk, where 
my brother sat down, and she seated herself by his side, and toyed 
with hini for a considerable time. She then rose, saying to him, 
Move not, from this place until I return to thee;— and ^vas absent 
from him for a short period; and as my brother was waiting for her, 
there came in to him a black slave, of gigantic stature, with a drawn 
sword, the brightness of which dazzled the sight; and he exclaimed 
to my brother, Wo to theel Who brought thee to this place? Thou 
vilest of men! Thou misbegotten wretch* and nur^hng of impunity! 
— My brother was unable to make any reply; his tongue was in- 
standy tied: and the slaves laid hold upon him, and stripped him, 
and struck him more than eighty blows with the flat of his sword, 
until he fell sprawhng upon the floor; when he retired from him, 
concluding that he was dead, and uttered a great cry, so thut the 
earth trembled, and the place resounded at his voice, saying, Where 
is El-Mehhah? — u[>on which a girl came to him, holding a hand- 


some tray coniainjng sak; ztnd with this she forchwiEh stuffed :hs 
flesh-wounds wilh which my brcjihcrs skin was gjshcd undl they 
gaped open; but he moved nol» feariag the slave would discover 
that he was aUvc, and kill him. The girl then went away, and the 
slave uttered another cry, like the first, whereupon the old woman 
came to my brother, and, dragging him by ihe feet to a deep and 
dark vault, threw him into it upon a heap of shin. In this phice he 
remained for two whole days; and God (whose perfection he ex- 
tolled!) misde the salt to be the me^ns of preserving his life, by 
stanching the How of blood from his vein?; so, when he found thyt 
he had strength sufHcient to move, he arose, and, opening a shutter 
in the wall, emerged from the place of the slain; and God (to ^vhom 
be ascribed all might and glory!) granted him his protection. He 
therefore proceeded in the darkness, and concealed himself in the 
passage until the morning, when the old woman went forth to seek 
another victim, and my brother, going out after her, without her 
knowledge, returned to his house. 

He now occupied himself with the treatment of his wounds until 
he was restored; and continued to watch for the old woman, and 
constantly saw her taking men, one after another, and conducting 
them to the same house. But he uttered not a word on the stibject; 
and when his health returned, and his strength was completely re- 
newed, he took a piece of rag, and made of it a purse, which he filled 
with pieces of glass: he then tied if to his waist, and disguised him- 
self so that no one would know him, in the dress of a foreigner; and, 
taking a sword^ placed it within his clothes; and as soon as he siiw 
the old woman, he said to her, jn tlie dialect of a foreigjier. Old 
woman, hast thou a pair of scales fit for weighing nine hundred 
pieces of gold? The old woman answered, I have a young son, a 
money-changer, and he hath all kinds of scales; therefore accom- 
pany me to him before he go forth from bis itbode, that he may 
weigh for thee thy gold. So my brother said, Walk on before mei-^ 
and she went, and my brother followed her until she arrived at the 
door, and knocked; upon which the girl came out, and laughed in 
his face; and the old woman said to her, I have brought you to-day 
some fat meat. The girl then took my brother's hand, and conducted 
htm into the house (the same which he had entered before), and 

THE barber's fifth BROTHER 183 

after slie had sat witli him a short limci she rose, saying to him, Quit 
not this plricG until 1 retLirn to thee: — and she retired; and my 
brother had remained not long after when the slave cyme to him 
with the drawn swotd, and said to him^ Rise, thou unlucky! So my 
hrother rose, and, as the slave walked before him, he put liis hand 
to the sword which was concealed beneath his clorhesj and struck 
the slave with it, and cut off his head; after which he dragged him 
by his feet to the vauk, and called out, Where is El-Mchhah? The 
slavc-gfr], therefore^ came, h;iving in her hand ihe tray containing 
the salt; but when she saw my brother with the sworti in his hand, 
she turned back and fled: my brother, however, overcook her, and 
struck off her head. He tlien called out, Where is the old woman? 
—and she came; and he said to her, Dosi thou know me, Q malev- 
olent hjg? She answered. No, O my lord,^ — 1 am, said he, the man 
who had the pieces o£ gold, and in whose house thou performedst 
the ablution, and prayedst; after whichj devising a stratagem against 
me, thou betrayedst me into this place.— The old woman exclaimed. 
Fear God in thy treatment of me!-4jul my brother, turning towards 
her, struck her with the sword, arid clove her in twain. He then 
went in. search for the chief damsel, and when she saw him, her 
reason fled^ and she implored his pardon; whereupon he granted 
her his pardon, and said to her, What occasioned thy falling into 
the hands of this bbck? She answered, I was a slave to one of the 
merchants, and this old woman used to visit me; and one day she 
said to me» We are celebrating a. festivity^ ihe like of which no one 
hath seen, and I have a desire that thou shouldst xvitness it. I replied, 
I hear and obey: — and arose, and clad myself in the best of my 
attire, and, taking with me a purse containing a hundred pieces of 
gold, proceeded with her until she entered this hou^e, when sud- 
denly this black took me, and I have continued with him in this 
state three years, through the stratagem of the old witch. — My 
brother then said to her^ Is there any property of his in the house? — 
Abundance, she answered; and if thou canst remove if, do so: — and 
upon t\i]'i, he arose and went with her, when she opened to him 
chests filled with purses, at the sight of which he was confounded; 
and she said to him, Go now, and leave me here, and bring some 
person to remove the property. So he went out, and, having hired 


ten men, returned; bm on his atrivat at the door, he found it open, 
and S3:v neither the dymse! nor the piirsesi lie found, however, some 
little money remaining, and the stuffs. He discovered, therefore, 
that she had eluded him; and he took the money that remained, and, 
opening the closets, took ail the stuffs which they contained, leaving 
nothing in the house- 
He passed the next night full of happiness; but when the morn- 
ing came^ he found at the door twenty soldiers, and on his going 
forth to them, they laid hold tipon him, sayings The Wall sum- 
montth thee. So they took him, and conducted hiin to the Wali» 
who* when he saw him, said to him. Whence obtainedsi thou these 
stuffsP — Grant me indemnity, said my brother: — and the Wall gave 
him the handkerchief of indemnity; :md my brother related to him 
all that had befiEllcn him with the old woman from first to last» and 
the flight of the damsel; adding»--and of that which 1 have taken, 
take thou what thou wilt; but Jeave me wherewith to procure my 
food. The Wall thereupon demanded the whole of the money and 
the stutis; hut fearing that the Sultan might become acquaiiited 
ivith the matter, he retained a portion only* and gave the rest to niy 
brother, saying to him, Quit this city, or 1 will hang thee. My 
brother replied, 1 hear and obey: — and went forth to one of the 
surrounding cities. Some robbers, however, came upon him, and 
stripped and beat him, and cut off his ears; and I, having heard of 
his situation, went forth to him, taking to him some clothes; and 
brought him back privily into tlie city, and supplied him ivith daily 
food and drink, 

Thh Barber^s Story of His Sixth Brother 

Mv sixth brother (Sbakalih), O Prince of the Faithful, had his 
lips cut ofi. He ivas in a state of extreme poverty, possessing nothing 
of the goods of this perishable world; and he went forth one day to 
seek for something with which to stay his departing spirit, and on 
his way he beheld a handsome house, with a wide and lofty vestibule, 
at the door of which were servants, commanding and forbidding; 
whereupon he inquired of one of the persons standing there, who 
answered, This house belongeth to a man of the sons of the Barmekis. 
My brother, therefore, advanced to the doorkeepers, and begged 

THE barber's sixth BltOTHER 185 

them to give him something; and they said, Enter the door of the 
hciuse^ and ihou wilt obtain what thou desirest oi its master. So he 
entered the vestibule, and proceeded through ir a while until lie 
arrived at a mansion of the utmost beauty and elegance^ having a 
garden in the midst of it, unsurpassed in beauty by anything that 
had ever been seen: its floors were paved with marble, and its cur- 
tains were hanging around. He knew not in which direction to go; 
hut advanced to the upper extremity; :tnd rhere he beheld a man 
of handsome countenance and beard, who, on seeing my brother, 
rose to him, and welcomed him, inquiring respecting bis circum- 
stances. He accordingly informed bim that be was in want; and 
when [he master of the house heard his words, he manifested exces- 
sive grief, and, taking hold of his own clothes, rent chem, and 
exclaimed, Am I in the city, and chou in it hungry? It is a thing 
that I cannot endure! — Then promising bim every kind of happi- 
ness, he snid. Thou must stay and partake o£ my salt. But my 
brother replied, O my master, I have not patience to wait; for I am 
in a state of esEreme hunger. _ 

Upon this, the master of the house called out, Boy, bring the basin 
and ewer! — and he said, O my guest, advance, and wash thy hand. 
He then performed the same motions as if he were washing his 
hand; and called to his attendants eo bring the tahle; whereupon 
ihey began to come and go as though ihey were preparing it; after 
which the master of the house look my brother, and sat down with 
him at this imaginary table, and proceeded to move his bands and 
hps as if he were eating; saying to my brother, Eat, and be not 
ashamed, for thou art hungry, and I know how thou art suffering 
from the violence of thy hunger- My brother, therefore, made the 
same motions, as if he also were eating, while his host said to him. 
Eat, and observe this bread and its whiteness. To this, iny brother 
at first made no reply; but observed in his own mind. Verily this 
is a man who loveth to jest w^kh others: — so he said to bim, O my 
master, rn my life I have never seen bread more beautifully white 
than this, or any of sweeter taste: — on which the host rejoined. This 
was made by a female slave of mine whom i purchased for five hun- 
dred pieces of gold. He then called out. Boy, bring to us the sikbaj,'^ 

'^A dish computed o£ meat, wTie:it-Jloiir, and vinogar. 


the like of which is iioi found among the dishes oi Kings!— and, 
addressing my brothetj he said, Eat, O my guest; for thou art 
hungry, vehemently so and in absolure want o£ food. So my brother 
began to twist about his mouth, and to chew, as in eating. The 
master ot the house now proceeded to demand different kinds of 
viands^ one after aooihcr; and, though nothing was brought, he con- 
tinued ordering my brother to eat. Next he called out. Boy, place 
before us the chickens stuffed with pisEachio-nuts: — and said to his 
guestj Eat that of which thou hast never tasted the Uke.— O my 
master, replied my brother, verily this disli hath not its equal in 
sweetness or Havour:— and the host, thereupon, began to put his 
hand to my brother's mouth as though he were feeding him with 
morsels; and proceeded to enumerate to him the various different 
kinds of viands, and to describe their several exeeUencies; while his 
hunger so increased that he longed for a cake of barley-bread. The 
master of the house then said to him, Hast thou tasted anything more 
delicious than the spiees in these dishes? — No, O my master, an- 
swered my brother. — Eat more then, resumed the host; and he not 
ashamed.-^I have eaten enough of the meats, replied the guest. So 
the man of the house called to his attendants to bring the sweets; 
and they moved their hands about in the air as if they were bringing 
them; whereupon the host said to my broiher. Eat of this dish; for 
ic is excellent; and of these kataifj'' by my hfe] and take this one 
beft)rc tiie sirup runs from it, — May I never be deprived of thee, O 
my master! exclaimed my brother, proceeding to inquire of him 
respecting the abundance of musk in the kaiaif. — Tliis, answered 
the host, is my usical custom in my house: ihey always put for me, 
in each of the kaiaif, a mithkai'* of musk, and half a mithkal of 
ambergris. — All this time my brother was moving his head and 
mouth, and rolling about his tongue between his cheeks, as if he 
were enjoying the sweets. After this, the master of the house called 
out to his attendants, Bring the dried fruits! — and again they moved 
about their hands in the air as though they were doing what he 
ordered; when he said to my brother. Eat of these almonds, and of 
the!?e walnuts, and of these raisins;— and so on; enumerating the 
various kinds of dried fruits; and added again, Eat, and be not 

^^ Small pancakft tr oihcr liiveei pjjiiTy. '^ The ivcighi of 2 din^T. 


ashamed. — O my master, replied ray brother, I have had enough, 
and have not power io eai anything mare: — but the host rejoined, 
If thou desire, O my guest, to eat more, and Lo deMght thy- 
self with extraordinary dainties, by Allah! by Allah! remain not 

My brother now reflected upon his situation, and upon the man- 
ner in which this man was jesting with him» iind said within him- 
self, By Allah, I will do to him a deed that shall make him repent 
before God of these acEions! The man of Ehe house next satd to his 
attendants, Bring us the wine: — and, as before, they made the same 
motions with ihcir hiinds in ihe air as if they were doing what he 
commanded; atier which he pretended to hand to my brother a cup, 
saying, Take this cup, for it will delight thee:— and his guest replied, 

my master, this is of thy bounty: — and he acted with his hand 
as though he were drinking it. — Hath it pleased thee? said the host, 
— O my master, answered my brother, 1 have never seen anything 
more delicious than this wine, — Drink then, rejoined the master of 
the house, and may it be attended with benefit and health: — and he 
himself pretended to drink, and to hand a second cup to my brother^ 
wfio, after he had affected to drink it, feigned himself intoxicated, 
and, taking his hosE unawares, raised his hand until the whiteness 
of his arm-pit appeared, and struck him sueh a slap upon his neck 
that the chamber rang at the blow; and this he followed by a second 
blow; whereupon the naan exelaimcd, What is thisj thou vilest of 
the creation? — O my master, answered my brother^ I am thy slave, 
wliom thou hast graciously admitted into thine abode, and thou hast 
fed him with thy provisions, and treated him wtEh old wine, and he 
haih become intoxicated, and committed an outrage upon thee; 
but thou art of too exalted dignity to be angry ^vith him for his 

When the master of the house heard these words of my brother, 
he uttered a loud laugh, and said to him, Verily for a long time have 

1 made game of men, and jested with all persons accustomed to 
joking and rudeness, but 1 have not seen among them any who could 
endure this trick, nor any who had sagacity to conform to all my 
actions, except thee: now therefore, I pardon thee; and be thou my 
companion in reality, and never relinquish me. He then gave orders 


Xo bring ji ninnher of [he dishes Libovc mentioned, and lie and my 
broihcr ate together lo syrisfsiciion; afier which they removed to the 
drinking-chamber^ where fcmiilo slaves hke so m;iiiy moons sang 
dJ kinds ot melodies, and played on all kinds of musicjl instru- 
ments. There they drank until intoxication overcame them: the 
master of the house treated my brother as a famihar friend^ became 
greatly attached to him, and dad him with a costly dress; and on 
the following morning they resumed their feasting and drinkmg. 
Thus they condnued to live for a period of twenty years: the man 
then died, and the Sultan sei:ied upon his property, and took posses- 
sion of it. 

My broihcri upon this, went forth from the city, a fugitive; and 
upon his way, a party of Arabs came upon him. They made him a 
captive, and the man who captured him tortured him with beating, 
and said 10 him, By Allah, purchase thyself of me by wealth, or I 
will kill thee:^ — but my brother^ weepings replied, By Allah, I possess 
nothing, O Sheykh of the Arabs; nor do 1 know the means of 
obtaining any property: T am thy captive; \ have fallen into thy 
hands, and do with me what thou wilt. And immediately the tyran- 
nical Bedawi drew forth from his girdle a broad-bladed kiiife (sutih 
as, if plunged into the neck of a camel, would cut it across from 
one jugular vein to the other) and, taking it in his right hand, 
approached my poor brother, and cut oil with it his lip^j stdl urging 
his demand- 
Now this Bedawi had a handsome wife, who, when he was absent, 
used to manifest a strong ailection for my brother; though he 
observed a proper decorum towards her, fearing God (whose name 
be exalted!), and it happened one day, that she had called him, and 
seated him with her; but while they were together, lo, her husband 
came in xipun them; and when he beheld my brother* he exclaimed. 
Wo to thee, thou base wretch! Dost thou desire now to corrupt my 
wifeP — Then drawing his knife, he inflicted upon him another cruel 
wound; after which he mounted him upon a camel, and having 
cast hjm upon a mountain, left him there, and went his way. Some 
travellers, however, passed by him, and when they discovered him, 
they gave him food and drink, and acquainted me with his case, 


so I went foTih to bim» and conveyed him back into the city, and 
ii Hotted him a suffidcni maintenance. 

Now 1 have come irnto thcc^ O Prince of tlic Faiihfiil, continued 
the harber, and feared lo return lo my honse without relating lo 
thee these facts; for to neglect doing so had been an error. Thus 
thou hast seen that, although having six brothers, i am of a more 
tipright character than they.— But when ihc Prince at the Faithful 
had heard my story, and all that I had related to him respecting my 
brothers, he laughed, and said, Thou hast spoken truth O Samii {O 
silent mun)i thou art a person of few words, and devoid of im- 
pertinence; now, however, depart from this clty^ and take up thine 
abode in another. So he banished me from (Baghdad; and 1 jour- 
neyed through various countries, and traversed many regions, until 
I heitrd of his deaths and of the succession of another Khalifeh; 
when returning to my city, I met with this young man, unto whom 
I did the best of deeds, and who, had it not been tor mc, had been 
slain: yet he hath accused mc of that which is not in my character; 
for all that he hath related of me, with respect to impertinence^ -iDd 
loquacity^ and dulness, and want of taste, is false, O people, — 

The tailor then proceeded thus; — Whan we heard the story of tlie 
barber, and were convinced of his impertinence and loquacity, and 
that the young man had been treated unjustly by him, we sei:^ 
hold upon him, and put him in confinement, and. seating ourselves 
to keep watch over him, ate and drank; and the feast was finished 
in the most agreeable manner. We remained sitting together until 
the call to afternoon -prayers, when I went forth, and returned to 
my house; but my wife looked angrily at me, and said, Thou hast 
been all the day enjoying thy pleasure while I have been sitting at 
home sorrowful; now if thou go not forth with me and amuse me 
for the remainder of the day, thy refusal will be the cause of my 
separation from thee. So 1 took her and went out with her, and we 
amused ourselves until nightfall, when, returning home, we met this 
humpback, full of drink, and repeating verses; upon which I invited 
him to come home %vith us and he consented. 1 then went forth to 
buy some fried fish, and having bought it and returned, we sat 


down i:o eai; and my wife look a morsel of bread and a piece ot fish, 
Liiid put them into his mouih^ and choked him^ no that he died; 
whereupon I took him up, and contrived to throw him into [he 
house of [his physician, and he contrived to throw him lUto the 
house of the steward, ynd [he steward contrived Lo throw him in 
the way oi the broker. — This is the story of what happened to me 
yesterday. Is it not more wonderful than that of the humpback? 

When the King had heard this story, he ordered certain of his 
chamberlains to go with [he tailor, and [o bring the barberj saying 
to them, His presence is indispensable, tha: 1 may hear his calk, and 
it miiy be the cause o£ the dchvcranco of you all: then we will bury 
Ehis humpback dectn[]y in the earth, for he hath been dead since 
yesterdays and we will make him a monument round his grave, 
.since he hath been the occasion of our acquaintance with diese won- 
derful stories. 

The chamberlains and the tailor soon came back, after having 
gone to the place of confinement and brought the barber, whom they 
placed before the King; and when the King beheld him^ he saw 
him to be an old man, passed his ninetieth year, of dark countenance, 
and white beard and eyebrows, with fimall ears, and long nose, and 
a haughty aspect. The King laughed at the sight of him and said 
to him, O silent man, I desire ihai thou relate to me somewhat of 
thy stories. — O King of the age, replied the barber, what is the occa- 
sion of the presence of this Christian and this ]ew and this Muslim, 
and this humpback lying dead among you- and what is the reason 
of this assembly?^ — Wherefore dost thou ask this? said [ho King. 
The barber answered* I ask it in order that the King may know me 
to be no impertinent person, nor one who meddleth with that which 
doth not concern him, and that I am free from the loquacity of which 
they accuse me: for 1 am fortunate in my characteristic appella[ion, 
since they have surnamed me Es-Samit; and, as the poet hath said,— 

Seldom hast thou seen a person honoured with a surname, but thou wilt 
find, if thou seaith, that his character is expressed by it. 

The King therefore said. Explain to the barber the case of this 
humpback, and what happened to him yesterday evening, and ex- 


plain to him also what the Christian hath related, and che Jew and 
the steward and ihe tailor. So they repealed to him the stories of 
all these persons. 

The barber^ thereupon, shook his head, saying, By Allah, this is 
a wonderful thingi Uncover [his humpback that I may examine 
him.— And they did so. He then seated himself at his head, and, 
taking it up, placed it upon his lap, and looked at his face, and 
laughed so violently that he fell backwards, exclaiming. For every 
death there is a cause; and the death of this humpback is most 
wonderful: it is worthy of being registered in ihe records, that 
posterity may be instructed by this evcntl — The King, astonished 
at his words, said, O Samii, explain co us Lho reason o£ thy saying 
this. — O King, replied the barber, by ihy beneficence, life is yet in 
the humpback' He then drew forth from bis bosom a pot contain- 
ing some oimmeiii, and with this he anointed the neck of the huinp- 
back; afcer which he covered it up until ft perspired; when he took 
forrh an iron forceps, and put it do^^ii his throai, and extracted the 
piece of Hsh with its bone, and all the people saw them. The hump- 
back now sprang upon his feet, and sneezed, and, recovering his 
conscinnsncss, drew his hands over his face, and exclaimed, There 
is no Deiiy but God! Moh.iinmad is God's Apostle! God bless and 
save him! — and all who were present were astonished at the sight 
and the King laughed until he became insensible; as did also the 
other spectators. The King exclaimed. By Allah, this accident is 
wonderful! I have never witnessed anything more strange!^and 
added, O Muslims! O assembly of soldiersl have ye ever in. the 
course of your hves seen any one die and afier that come to life? 
But had not God blessed him with this barber, the humpback had 
been to-day nnmbered among the people of the other world; for 
the barber hath been the means of restoring him to life. — They 
replied. This is indeed a wonderful thing! 

The King then gave orders to record this event; and when tliey 
had done so, he plated the record in the royal library; and he 
bestowed dresses of honour upon the Jew and the Christian and 
the steward; upon each o£ them, a costly dress; the tailor he ap- 
pointed to he his own tailor, granting him regular allowances, and 
reconciling him and the humpback with each oilier: the humpback 


he honoured with :i rich and beautiful dress, and witli similar aIlo:v- 
ances, and appointed him lus cup-companion; and upon the barher 
also he conferred the like favours, rewarding him with a costly dress 
of honour, rt!f:i.ihir allowances, and a fixed salary, and appointing 
him state-barber, and his own cup -companion: &o they all hved in 
the utmost happiness and comton until they were visited by the 
terminator of detightH and the separator tsf friends. 


[NigAti 32-36] 
The SrocY of Nufi.-E4)-Dj>j and Enis-El-Jelis 

THERE ivas» in El-Bjsiah, a ccrtiiin King, who loved the 
puoT and indigent^ and regarded his subjects with bencv- 
olejice; he bestowed of his wealth upon him who believed 
in Mohummad (God bless and save himi) and was such as one of 
the poets who have written of him hath thus described :— 

He used his lances as pens; and ihe hearts of his enemies, as paper; their 

biood litliig his ink; 
And hence, I imajjinej our forefathers applied to the lance the term 


The name of this King was Mohammad [he son of Suleyman Ez- 
Zeyni; and he had two We^irs; one of whom was named EI-Mo'iu 
the son of Sawi; and the other, EI-FadI the son of Khakan, El-Fadl 
the son of Khakan was the most generous of the people of his age, 
upright in conduct, so ihai all hearts agreed in loving him, and the 
wise complied with his counsel, and all the people supplicated £or 
him length of life; for he was a person of auspicious aspect, a pre- 
venter of evil and mischief: but the Wezir EI-Mo*in the son of Sawi 
hated others, and loved not good; he was a man of inauspicious 
aspect; and in the same degree that the people loved Fadl-cd-Din 
the son of Khakan, so did they abhor El-Mo'in the son o£ Sawi in 
accordance with the decree of the Almighty. 

Now the King Mohammad the son of Suleyman Ez-Zeyni was 
sitting one day upon his throne, surrounded by the officers of his 
court, and he called to his Wczir El-Fadl the son of Khakan, and 
said to him, 1 desire a female slave unsurpassed in beauty by any in 
her age, of perfect loveliness and exquisite symmetry, and endowed 
with all praise wo rdiy quahiies. — Such as this, replied his courtiers, 
is not to be found for less ihaii ten thousand pieces of gold. And 
the Sultan thereupon called out to the treasurer, saying, Carry ten 



thousand pieces of gold to [he house oi El-Fadl the son of Khiikan. 
So the treiisurer did iis ho commanded^ jind the Wezir departed^ after 
the SultJn had ordered him lo repair every day lo die market, arid 
to commission the brokers to procure what he had described, nnd 
had commanded also that no female j^Iave oi a greater priee thati 
one thousand pieces of gold should be j^old without having been 
shewn to the We?jr. 

The brokers^ therefore^ sold no female slave without shewing her 
to him, and he coniplied with the King's commajjd, and thus he 
continued to do for a considerable time^ no ^kve pleasing him; but 
on a certain day, one oE the brokers came to the mansion of the 
Wezir El-Fadl, ynd found that he had mounted to repair to the 
palace of the King; and he laid hold upon his stirrup, and repeated 
these two verses:— 

O thou vho bait reanimated what was rotten in the state! Thou art the 

Wczir ev(?r aided In Heaven, 
Thou hast revised the noble qualities that were extinct amon^ men. May 

ihy conduct never cease to be approved by Godl 

He then said^ O my master, the female slave for the procuring of 
whom die noble mandate was issued hath arrived. The Wezir 
replied, Bring her hither to me. So the man returned^ and, after a 
short absence, came again^ accompanied by a damsel of elegant 
siatur(3, high-bosomed, with black eyelashes, and smooth cheek, and 
slender waiii, and large hips, clad in the handsomest apparel; the 
moisture of her lips was sweeter than syrup; her figure put to shame 
the branches of the Oriental willow; and her speech was more soft 
than the zephyr passing over the flowers of the garden; as one of 
her clescribers hath tht:s expressed: — 

Her skin is like silk, and her speech is soft, neither redundant nor 

Her eyes^ God siit! to them, Be,' — and they were, affecting men's hearts 

with the potency of wine. 
May my luve for htr grow more warm each night, and cease not until 

the day of judgment! 
The lock5 on her brow are dark as night, while her forehead shines like 

ihe ^leam of morning. 


When the Wezir beheld her, she pleased him extremely, and he 
looked lovvards the broker, and sJid to him, What is the price o£ 
this damsel? The broker answered, The prite bidden for her h^ch 
amounted to ten thouiaud pieces of gold, and her owner hath sworn 
that this sum doth not equal the cost of the chickens which she hath 
eatenj nor the cost of the dresses which she hath bestowed upon her 
teachers; for she hath learnt writing and grammar and lexicology, 
and the interpretation of the Kur'an, and tlie fundamenrals of law 
and religion, and medicine, and ilie computation of the calendar, 
and the art of playing upon musical InstrumenLs. The Wezir then 
said, Bring to me her master: — and the broker immediately brought 
him; and lo, he \^'as a foreigner, who had lived so long th^t time had 
reduced him to bones ^nd skin, as the poet hath said, — 

How hiilh time ma^e me to tremblel For time is powerful and severe. 
I used to walk without being wearj'; but now I 3ni weary and do not 

And the Wezir said to him, Art thou content to receive for this 
damsel ten thousand pieces of gold from the Sultan Mohammad 
the son of Sulcvman Ez-Zeyni? The foreigner answered, As she is 
for the Sultan, it is incumbent on mo to give her as a present to him, 
without price. So the Wezir, upon this, ordered that the money 
should be brought, and then ^veighed the pieces of gold for the 
foreigner; after which, the slave-broker addressed the Wezir, and 
said. With the permission of our lord the Wezir, 1 will speak. — 
Impart what thou hast to say, replied the Wezir, — It is my opinion 
then, s^iid the broker, that thou shouldst not take up this damsel to 
the Sultan to-day; for she hath just arrived from her journey, and 
the change of air h,ith affected her, and the journey hath fatigued 
her" but rather let her remain with thee in thy palace ten days, that 
she may take rest, and her beauty will improve: then cause her to be 
taken into the bath, and attire her in clothes of the handsomest 
description, and go up with her to the Sultan; so shak thou ejtperi- 
cnce more abundant good-fortune. And the Wezir considered the 
advice of the slave-broker, and approved it. He therefore took her 
into his palace, and gave her a private apartment to herself, allotting 
her every day what she required of food and drink and other sup- 
plies, and she continued a while in this state of enjoyment. 


Now the Wczir El-F;tdl had a son like tho shining full moon, 
wich briUijm countenance, and red chf^ek, marked with a mole like 
3 globule of ambergris, and with grey down. The youth knew nor 
of this damsel, and his father had charged her, saying, Know that I 
have purchased thee for the King Mohammad the son of Suleyman 
Es-Zeyni, and ihat I have a son who hath Dot left a girl in the 
quarter ^vithout making lo^e !o her: therefore keep thyself concealed 
from him, and beware of shewing him thy face, or sa(Tering him to 
hear thy voice. The damsel replied, I hear and obey: — and he left 
her and departed. And it happened, as fate had ordained, that she 
went one day into the bath whieh was in the house^ and, after cer- 
tain of the female slaves had bathed her, she attired herself in rich 
apparel, and her beauty and loveliness increased in consequence. 
She then went in to the Wezir's wife, and kissed her hand, and said 
to her, May it be favourable, O Enis-eUjelisI How didst thou find 
this bath? — O my mistress, she answered, 1 wanted nothing but thy 
presence there- And upon this, the mistress of the botise said to the 
female slaves. Arise, and let us go into the bath. And [hey complied 
with her command, and went, accompanied by their mistress, who 
first charged two young slave-girls to keep the door of the private 
apartment in whicli was Enis-el -Jells, saying to ihcm. Suffer no one 
to go in to the damsel; — ^and they replied, We hear an^l obey. But 
while Enis-ehjelis was sitting in her chamber, lo, the Wezir's son, 
whose name was 'Ali Nur-ed-Din, came in, and asked after his 
mother and the family. The two girls answered, They are gone into 
the bath. Now the damsel Enis-el-Jelis heard the speech of 'Ali Nur- 
ed-Din as she sat in her chamber^ and she said within herself, I 
wonder what this yonth is like, of whom the Wezir haih told me 
that he hath not left a girl in the quarter without making love to 
her: by Allah, 1 have a desire to see him. She then rose upon her 
feet, fresh as she was froni the bath, and, appro;iching the door of 
the chamber, looked at "Ali Xur-ed-Din, and beheld him to be a 
youth like the full moon. The sight of him occasioned her a thou- 
sand sighs^ and a look from the youth, at her, affected him also in 
the same manner. Each was caught in the snare of the other*s love, 
and the youth approached the two slave-girls, and cried out at them; 
\vhereupon ihey fled from before him, and stopped at a distance, 


looking to see whai he would do. He then jdvanced to the door of 
the chamber, and, oi^ening it, went in, and said to the damsel, Art 
thou she whom my father hath purchased for me? She answered. 
Yes. And upon this, the youth, ^vho was in a state of intoKication, 
went up to her» and embraced her, white she, in iike manner, threw 
her arms around his neck, and kissed him. But the two slave-girls, 
having scan their young master enter the chamber of the damsel 
Enis-el-Jelis, cried out. The youth, therefore, soon ran forth, and 
fled for safety, fearing the consequence of his iuErusion; and when 
the mistress of the hoQjie heard the cry of die two slave-girls^ she 
came out dripping from the haih, saying, What is the cause of this 
cry in the house? And when she drew near to the two slave-girU 
whom she liad placed at the door of the private chaniber, she said 
to them, Wo to youl What is the matter? — They answered, as soon 
as they beheld her. Our masEer 'Ali Nur-ed-Din came to us and beat 
us, and we fled from him, and he went into the chamber of Enis-el- 
Jelis, and when we cried out to thee he fled. The mistress of the 
house then went to Enis-el-Jelis, and said to her. What is the news? 
— O my mistress, she answered, as I was sitting here, a youth of hand- 
some person came in to me, and said to me. Art thou she whom my 
father hath purchased Cor me?^ — And 1 answered. Yes- — By Allah, O 
my mistress, I believed that what he said was true; and he came up 
to me and embraced mc, and kissed me three limes, and left me 
overcome by his love. 

Upon this, the mistress of the house wept, and slapped her face, 
and her female slaves did the like, fearing for 'Ali Nur-ed-Din, lest 
his father should slay him; and whrle ihey were in this state, lo, the 
Wezir came in, and inquired what had happened. His wife said to 
him, Swear that thou wilt listen to that which I thall say. He replied, 
WellP So she told him what his son had done; and he mourned. 
and rent his clothes, and slapped his face, and plucked his beard. 
His wife then said to him, Kill not thyself. I will give thee, of my 
own property, ten thousand pieces of gold* her price. — But upon this, 
he raised his head towards her, and said to her, Wo to thee! 1 want 
not her price; but I fear the loss of my life and my property.— 
Wherefore, O my master? she asked. — Knowcst thou not, said he, 
that we have this enemy El-Mo'in the son of Sawi? Whea he 


heareth of this event, he will repair to the SulLan, and say to him, 
Thy Wezir whom thou to love thee hsth received from 
thee ten thousand pieces of gold, and purchased therewith a female 
slave such as no one hath seen equalled, and when she pleased him, 
he said to his son. Take her; for tliou art more worthy o£ her than 
the Suhan:— and he took her; and the damsel is now with him,— 
Then the King will s,iy> Thou liest. And he will say to the King^ 
With thy permission, 1 will break in upon him suddenly, and bring 
her to thee. And he will give him permission 10 do so: he will there- 
fore make a sudden attack tipon the house, and take the damsel, 
and conduce her into the presence of rhe Sultan, and he will ques- 
tion her, and she will not be able to deny: he will then say, O my 
lordj I give thee good counsel, but I am not in favour with thee: — 
and the Sultan will make an example of me, and all the people will 
make me a gazing-stock, and my life will be lost- — His wife, how- 
ever, replied. Acquaint no one; for this thing hath happened privily: 
commit, therefore, thine affair unto God, in this extremity. And 
upon this, the heart of the Wezir was quieted, and his mind was 

Such was the case of the Wezir. — Now as to Nur-ed-Din, he 
feared the result of his conduct, and so passed each day in the gat- 
dens, not returning to his mother until towards the close of the 
night: he then slept in her apartment, and rose before morning with- 
out being seen by any one else- Thus he continued to do for the 
space of a month, not seeing the face of his father; and at length his 
modier said to his father, O my master, wilt thou lose the damsel and 
lose the cliild? For if it long continue thus with the youth, he will 
flee his country. — And what is to be doneP said he. She answered. 
Sit up this night, and when he comethi lay hold upon him, and be 
reconciled to himj and give him the damsel; for she loveth him, and 
he loveth her; and I will give thee her price- So the Wezir sat up 
the whole night, and when his son came, he laid hold upon him, 
and would have cut his throat; but his mother came to his succour, 
and said to her husband, What dost thou desire to do unto him? 
He answered her, 1 desire to slay him. The youth then said to his 
father. Am I of so small account In thy estimation? And upon this, 
the eyes of his father filled with tears, and he said to him, O my son. 


is the loss of my property and my life of smnll accoiini with thee ^— 
Listen, O my lather, rejoined the youth:— and he implored his ior- 
giveness. So the Wesir rose from the breast o£ his son, and was 
moved with compassion for him; and the youth rose, and kissed his 
fathers liand; and the Wcxir siiid, O my son, if I knew that ihou 
wouldst act equitably to Enis-el-Jelis, I would give her to thet. — 

my father, replied the youth, wherefore should I not act equitably 
towards her? And his father said, 1 charge thee, O my son, thai 
thou rake not a wife to share her place, and that thou do her no 
injury, nor ielL her. He replied, O my father, I swear to thee that 

1 will neither take a wife to share her place, nor sell her:— and he 
promised him by oaths to act as he had said, and took up his abode 
widi the damsel, and remained with her a year; and God (whose 
name be exalted!) caused the King to forget the afTair of the female 
slavei but the matter became known to El-Mo*in the son o£ iawi; 
yet he could not speak of it, on account of the high estimation in 
which the other Wezir was held by the Sultan. 

After this year had expired, the Wezir Fadl-ed-Diu the son o£ 
Khakan entered the bath, and came out in a state of excessive per- 
spiration, in consequence o£ which the external air smote him, so 
that he became confined 10 his bed, and long remained sleepless; 
and his malady continued unremittingly; so he called, thereupon, 
his sonj *Ali Nur-ed-Din, and when he came before him, said to him, 
O my son, verily the means of life are apportioned, and its period 
!s decreed, and every soul must drink the cup of death. I have 
nothing with which to charge thee but the fear of God, and fore- 
thought with regard to the results of thine actions, and that thou 
conduct thyself kindly to the damsel Enis-el-Jclis. — O my father, 
said the youth, who is like unto thee? Thou hast been celebrated 
for virtuous actions, and the praying of the preachers for thee on 
the pulpits. — O my son^ rejoined the Wezir, 1 hope for the appro- 
bation of God, whose name be exalted! And then he pronounced 
the two professions of the faith, and uttered a sigh, and was re- 
corded among the company of the blest. And upon this, the palace 
was filled with shrieking, and die news reached the ears of the 
Sultan, and the people of the city heard of the death of El-Fadl the 
son of Khakan, and even the boys in the schools wept for him. His 


son *Ali Nur-ed-Din arose, and prcpiircd his funeral, and the Emirs 
and Wczirs and other officers of the state ai:teiided it, and among 
them was the Wezir El-Mo'iii the son of Sawi; and as the pro- 
cession passed out Irom Uie mansion, one ot ihc mourners recited 
these verses: — 

I said to the man who was appointed to wash him,— Would thai he had 
yielded obedftncc to my counsel, — 

Put away from him the water, and \^aiil iiim with the tears of honour, 
shed in lamentation for him: 

And remove these fragrant substances colkcEed for his corpse, and per- 
fume him raiher wirh tiie odours of his praise: 

And order the nohle angels to carry him in honour. Dost thou not beliold 
ihem attending him? 

Cau$e not men's necks to bo strained by bearing him: enough are they 
laden aheady by his LenefitS' 

'Ali Nur-ed-Din for a long time remained in a state ol violent 
grief for the loss oi his father; but as he was sitting one day in his 
father's house, a person knocked at the door, and he rose up and 
opened it, and lo, there was a man who was one of his father's 
intimate companions, and he kissed the hand of Nur-ed-Din, and 
said Co him, O my tnaster, he who hath left a son like thee hath 
not died. This is the destination of the lord of the first and the last 
among mankind.' O my master, cliccr up thy heart, and give over 
mourning.~And upon this, *Ah Nur-ed-Din arose, and went to (he 
guest-chamber, and removed thither all that he required, and his 
companions came together to him, and he took again his slave. Ten 
of the sons of the merchants became his associates, and he gave 
entertainment after entertainment, and began to be lavish witli pres- 
ents. His steward, therefore, came to him, and said to him, O my 
master Nur-ed-Din, hast thou not heard the sayings He who ex- 
pcndeth and doth not calculate is reduced to poverty? This profuse 
expenditure, and these magnificent presents, will annihilate the 
properly, — But when *Ali Nur-ed-Din heard these words of his 
steward, he looked at him, and rephed, Of all that thou hast said 
to me, I will nor attend to one word. How excellent is the saying 
of the poet: — 

^The Fiophei MohnmmaJ. 


If I be possessed of wealih and be not liberal, may my hand never be 

extended, nor my toot raised! 
Sbew me ihe flvaiidouii who h^ith attained glory by his avarice^ and the 

niuniiiccnt who haih died tbrough his munificence. 

Know, O steward, he coiiiiiiued^ ihjit if there remain m thy hands will suffice for my dinner, thou shalt not burden me with 
anxiety respecting my supper. — So the steward left him^ and went 
his WJy; and "Ali Nur-ed-Din resumed his habits o£ extravagant 
generosity: whenever any one of his companions said, Verily this 
thing is beauciful! — he would reply, It is a present to tiiee: — and if 
any sjiid, O my master, verily such a house is delighiftd!— he \vould 
reply, It is a present to ihee. 

He ceased not to give entertainments to his companions from the 
commencement o£ day, one aiter another, until he had passed in 
this manner a whole year; after which, as he was sitting with iliem, 
he heard the slave-girl recite these two verses:— 

Thou thouglite&t well of the days when they went well with thee, and 

fearedst not ilie evil that desliny was brinj^ing. 
Thy nighis were peaccl'ul, and thou waai deceived by ihem: in the midst 

of their brightness there conieth gloom. 

And immediately after, a person knocked at the doorj so Nur-ed- 
Din rose, and one of his companions followed him without his 
knowledge; and when he opened the door, he beheld his steward, 
and s:iid to him, What is the news?— O my master, answered the 
steward, that which I feared on thy account hath happened to thee. — 
How is that? asked Nur-ed-Din, The steward answered, Know 
that there remaineth not of thy property in my hands, anything 
equivalent to a piece of silver^ or less than a piece of silverj and these 
are the accounts of thy expenses, and of thy original property, When 
'All Nur-ed-Din heard these words, he hung down his head towards 
the groutid, and exclaimed, Ihere is no strength nor power but in 
God! And the man who had followed him secretly to pry into his 
case, as soon as he heard what the steward told him, returned eo his 
companions, and said to ihem, See what ye will do; for 'Ali Nur-ed- 
Din hath become a bankrupt. So when Nur-ed-Dui returned to 
them, grief appeared to iliem in his counEcnance, and immediatdv 


ocit or them rose, :ind* loi^kiiig towards him, a.iid m hiin, O my 
mailer, I desire chai thou vvoaidst pcrnTJt me lo dep;irl. — Why thus 
depart to-day? said Nur-ed-Din. His guest answered^ My wife is to 
give birth to a ehlld this nighty :md ir is impossible for me to be 
absent from her: I desire^ tlierefore, to go and see her. And he 
gave him leave- Then another rose, and said to him, O my master 
Nur-ed-Din, 1 dpsire to-day to visit my brother; for he celebrateth 
the circumcision of his son. Thus each of them asked leave of him 
deceitfully, and went his way, umil all had dcp:irted. 

So 'Aii Nur-ed-Din remained alone; and he called his slave-girl, 
and said to her, O Enis-el-Jehs, seest thou not what hath befjHeo 
me? And he related to hei what the steward had told him. She 
replied* O my master, for some nights past, I have been anxious 
to fipeak lo thee of this allair; but I heard thee reciting these two 
verses : — 

When fortune is liberal to thee, be thou liljtral to all others bcEore sfie 

escape from ihee: 
For liberality will not annihilate thy wealth when she is favourable; nor 

avarice preserve jE when she dcserteth ttiee. 

And when I heard thee repeat these words, T w^s silent, and would 
not make any remark to thee. — O Enis-el-JcUs, he rejoined, thou 
knowest that 1 have not expended my wealth but on my com- 
panions; and I do nor think that they will abandon me without 
rehef, — By Allah, said she, they will be of no use to thee. But he 
said, I will immediately arise and go lo them, and knock at their 
doorsi perhaps I shall obtain from rhem something which 1 will 
employ as a capital ^vhere^vitli to trade, and I will cease from di- 
version and sport. So he arose instantly, and proceeded without 
Slopping until he arrived at the by-street in which his ten com- 
panions resided; for [hey all lived In that same street: and he ad- 
vanced to the first door, and knocked; and ihere came forth to him 
a slave-girl, who said to him, Who arc thou? He answered. Say to 
ihy masrer, — Ah Nur-cd-Diii is standing at the door, and saiih to 
thee, Thy slave kisseih thy hands, looking for a favour from thee. — 
And the girl entered and acquainted her master; but he called out 
to her, saying, Return, and tell him. He is not here. — The girl, 


therefore, returned to Nur-ed-Din, and said 10 him, My master. Sir, 
is not here. And he \vent on, saying within himselE, li this is a 
kniive, -md hath denied himself, ^mother is not. He then advanced 
to the next door, and said as he had before; and iht? second also 
denied himself; and Nur-ed-Din cxelaimcd, — 

They are gone, who, if thoti stoodest ai iheir door, would bestow upon 
ihee the bnanty thou dcsirest. 

By Allah, he added, 1 must try all ot them: perchance one of them 
may stand me in the place of all the others. And he went round to 
all the ten; but found not that one of them would open the door, or 
shew himself, or even order him a cake or bread; and he recited the 
following verses: — 

A man in prosperity resembleih a tree, around which people flock as 

long as iL haih (ruit; 
But as soon as it hath dropped all that it bore, ihey disperse from beneath 

It, and seek another. 
Perdition to all the people of this age! for I find not one man of integrity 

among ten. 

He then returned to his slave: his anxiety had increased, and she said 
to him, O my master, said i not unto ihee that they would not 
profit thee? — I5y Allah, he replied, not one of them shewed me his 
face.^ — O my master, rejoined she, sell of the movables of ihe house a 
little at a time, and expend ihe produce. And he did so until be had 
sold all that was in the house, and there remained nothing in his 
poiiession; and upon ibis he looked towards Enis-el-Jehs, and said 
to her. What shall we do now? — If is my advice, O my master, she 
answered, that thou arise immediately, and lake me to the market, 
and sell me; iot thou knowest that thy father purchased me for ten 
thousand pieces of gold, and perhaps God may open to chee a way to 
obtain a part of this price; and if God have tlccteed our reunion, we 
shall meet again. But he replied, O Enis-ei-Jelis, it is not easy for me 
to endure thy separation for one hour. — Nor is the like easy to me^ 
said she: but necessity is imperious. And upon this, he took Enis-el- 
Jelis, his tears flowing down his cheeks, and went and delivered her 
to the broker, saying to him. Know the value of that which thou art 


to cry for sale. — O my master Nur-ed-Din, replied the broker^ noble 
qa;ilities are held in remembrance. Is she not Enis-cI-Jclis, whom 
thy father purchased of me for ten thousand pieces of gold? — He 
answered. Yes. And ihe broker thereupon went to the merchants; 
but he found ihat they had not all yet assembled; so he waited until 
ihe rest had come; and the market was filled with all varieties of 
female slaves, Turkish and Greek and Circassian and Georgian and 
Abyssinian; and when he beheld its crowded state, he arose and 
exclaimed, O merehantaT O possessors o£ wealth! everything that is 
round is not a nut; nor is everything bng^ a banana; nor is every- 
thing that is red, meat; nor is everything white, fat; nor is every- 
thing that is ruddy, wine; nor is everything tawny, a dale! O 
merchants! this precious pearl, whose value no money can equal, 
with \^'hac sum ^^ill ye open the bidding for her?— And one of the 
merchants answered. With foui thousand and five hundred pieces 
of gold. 

But, lo, the Wezir El-Mo'in the son of Sawi ivas in the market, 
and, seeing 'AU Nur-ed-Din standing there, he said within himself. 
What doth he want here, having nothing left wherewith to purchase 
female slaves? Then casting his eyes around^ and he^iring the broker 
as he stood crying in the market with the merchants around him, he 
said within himself, I do not imagine anything else than that he hath 
become a bankrupt, and come forth \vith the slave-girl to sell her; 
and if this be the case, how pleasant to my heart! He then called the 
crier, who approached him, and kissed the ground before him; and 
the Wezir said to him, 1 desire this female slave whom thou art 
crying for sale. The broker, therefore, being unable to oppose his 
wish, brought the slave and placed her before him; and when he 
beheld her, and considered her charms, her elegant figure and her soft 
speech, he was delighted with her, and sriid xo the broker. To what 
has the bidding for her amounted? The broker answered. Four 
thousand and five hundred pieces of gold. And as soon as the 
mcrcliants heard this, not one of them could bid another piece of 
silver or of gold; but all of them drew b^ek, knowing the tyrannical 

conduct of that Wezir. El-Mo'in the son of Sawi then looked towards 
the broker, and said to him, Why standest thou still? Take away 
the slave-girl for me at the price of four thousand and five hundred 


pieces of gold, and thou wik have five hundred for thyself. — So the 
broker wcnc 1.0 ^A\{ Nur-ed-Din, and said to him, O my master, the 
sbve-girl is loii to tliee ^vitho^.ll price- — How so? said Niir-ed-Din. 
The broker answercclj We opened tlie bidding; for her at four ihou- 
sand and live hundred pieces o£ gold; but this tyrant El-Ma*in the 
son of Sawi came into the market, and when he beheld the damsel 
she pleased him, and he said to me, Ask her oivner if he will agree 
for four thousand pieces of gold, and five hundred for thee: — snd 
I doubt not but he knou'eth that tlie slave belongeth 10 thee; and if 
he give thee her price immediately, it \^'ill be through the goodness 
of God; but 1 know, from his injusdce, that he will write thee an 
order upon some of his agents for the money, and' then send to 
them and desire them to give thee nothing; and every time that thou 
shalt go to demand it of them, they will say to thee, To-morrow we 
will pay thee: — and they will not cease to promise thee, and to defer 
from day to day, notwithstanding thy pride; and when they are 
overcome by thy importunity they will say. Give us the written 
orderi^and as soon as they have received the paper from thee they 
will tear it in pieces : so thou wilt lose the price of the slave. 

When Nur-ed-Din^ therefore, heard these words of the broker, 
he said to him, Wh:it is to be done? The broker answered, I will 
give thee a piece of advice, and if thou receive it from me, thou will 
have better fortune.— What is ii? Asked Nur-ed-Dln. — That thou 
come to me immediately, answered the broker, while I am stand- 
ing in the midst of the market, and lake the slave-girl from me, and 
give her a blow with thy hand, and say to her. Wo to thee! I have 
expiated my oath that 1 swore, and brought thee to the market, be- 
cause I swore to thee that thou shouldst be exposed in the market, 
and that the broker should cry thee for sale. — If thou do this, per- 
haps the trick will deceive him and the people, and they will believe 
that thou tookest her not to the market but to expiate tlie o;ith-— 
This, replied Nur-cd-Din, is the right counsel. So the broker returned 
into the midst of the market, and, takinj^ hold of the hand of the 
slave-girl, made a sign to the Wezir EhMo'in the son of Sawi, 
saying, O my lord, this h her owner who hath ju&t come. Then 
'All Nur-cd-Din advanced to the broker, and tore the damsel from 
him, and struck her with his hand, saying to her, Wo to thee! I 


have brought thee tn [he niiirket for the sake o£ expiating my oaih. 
Go home, and disobey me not agsin. 1 want nor ihy price, th^t I 
should sell ihee; and if I sold the furniture o£ the house and every- 
thing else of the kind over and over again* their produce would 
not amount to thy price. — But when El-Mo'iu the ion o£ Sawi* 
beheld Nur-^d-Din, he said to him. Wo to thee! Hast thou any- 
thing left to be sold or bought? — And he would have laid violent 
hands upon him. The merchants Ehen looked towards Nur-ed-Din 
(and ihey all loved him), and he said to ihem, Here am I before 
yoiu £ind ye have all known his tyranny. — By Allah, exclaimed the 
We^JTj were it not for you* I had killed him! Then all oi them made 
signs, one to another, wiih the eye* and said* Not one of us will 
interfere between thee and him. And upon this, 'Ali Nur-ed-Din 
went up to the Wezir, the son of Sawi (and Nur-ed-Din was a man 
of courage), and he drajjged the Wezir from his saddle^ and threw 
him upon the ground. There was at that spot a kneading-place for 
mud/ and the Wezir fell into the midst of it, and Nur-ed-Din heat 
him with his iist, and a blow fell upon hia teeth, by which his beard 
became dyed with Ills blood. Now there were with the Wezir ten 
memluks, and when they saw Nur-ed-Din treat their master in this 
manneTi they put their hands upon the hiks of their swords* and 
would have fallen upon him and <:ut him in pieces; but the people 
said to them, This is a Wezir, and this is the son of a Wezir, and 
perhaps they may make peace with each other, and ye will incur 
the anger of both of them; or perhaps a blow may fall upon your 
rnaster, and ye will all of you die the most ignominious of deaths: 
it is advisable* therefore, that ye interfere not between them. — And 
when 'Aii Nur-ed-Din had ceased from beating the Wezir, he took 
his slave-girl and returned to his house. 

The Wezir, the son of Sawi* then immediately arose, and his 
dress, which before was white, was noTV dyed with three colours, 
the colour of mud, and the colour of blood, and ihe colour of ashes; 
and when he beheld himself in this condition, he took a round mat, 
and hung it to his neck, and took in his hand two bundles of coarse 

^ By ihLi ]s meant, a place where mud was kneaiJcd m Itf emplo^^ed in buildlnW' 
The Tjiortar geneTally usivl in ihc coniicuciiun oi Arab houses is (."omposed of mud in 
ihc pj-dporsioti ot ufle-hj!f, wiili a lomCh pari of ILne, ^d ihi: itnijiniDg pail of ihc 
ashu ol slraiv 9nd cubbish r 


grass, iind went and scood benearh rhe palace o£ the Sultan, and 
cried oui, O King o£ the age! I am oppressed! — So they brought him 
before tlie King, who looked at him iittentively, and saw ihac he 
was his Wezir, El-Mo*in the son of Sawi. He said, therefore^ Who 
hath done thus unto thcc? — and the Wc^ir cried and moaned, and 
repeated these two verses; — 

Shall fortune oppress me while thou esiitest: and the dogs devour me 

when thou art a Jionr 
Shall all else who are dry drink freely from ihy tanks, and I thiist in 

thine asylum ^^heJl thou *irc as rain? 

— O my lord, he continued, thus is every one who loveth thee and 
serveth thee: these afflictions always bef^ill him. — And who, said the 
King again, huthdone thus unto thee? — Knuvv^ answered the Wezir, 
that I went fortli to-day to the market of the female slaves with the 
idea of buying a cook-maid, and saw in the market a slave-girl the 
like of whom 1 had never in my Ufe beheld, and the broker said 
that she belonged lo 'Ali Nur-ed-Din, Now our lord the Sukan 
had given his father ten thousand pieces o£ gold to buy for him with 
it a beautiful female slave, and he bought that girl, and she pleased 
him; so he gave her lo his son; and when his father died, the son 
pursued the path of prodigality, until he sold all his houses and 
gardens and utensils; and when he had become a bankrupt, noth- 
ing else remaining in his possession, he took the slave-girl to the 
market to sell her, and delivered her to the broker: so he cried her 
for sale^ and die merchants continued bidding for her until her price 
amounted to four thousand pieces of gold; whereupon 1 said to my- 
self, 1 will buy this for our lord the Sultan; for her original price 
was from him. I therefore said, O my son, receive her price, four 
thousand pieces of gold- Blm when he heard my words, he looked 
at me and replied, O ill-omened old man! 1 will sell her to the Jews 
and the Chrisdans rather than to thee.— 1 then said to him, I would 
not buy her for myself, but for our lord the Sultan, who is our bene- 
factor. As soon, however, as he had heard these words from me, he 
was filled with rage, and dragged me and threw me down from the 
horse, noiivithstanding my atTvanced age, and beat me, and ceased 
not to do so Tindl he left me in the state in which tliou seest me. 

2q8 the thousand and one nights 

Nothing exposed me to all this ill treatment but my mming to pur- 
chase this slave-girl for your majesty. — The Wezir then threw him- 
self upon the ground, and by weeping and trembling, 

Kow when the Snltim beheld his condition, and had he^rd his 
speech, the vein of anger swelled between his eyes, and he looked 
towards the members of his court who were attending him; where- 
upon forty swordsmen stood before him, and he said to them, De- 
scend immediately to the house oi 'AU the son of El-FadI the son of 
Khakan, and plunder it :md demolish it, and bring hither him and 
the stave-girl with their liands bound behind them : drag them along 
upon, their faces, and so bring ihem before me. They rep]ied,we hear 
and obey: — and went forth to repair to the house of 'Ali Nur-ed-Din. 
But there was in the court of theSukan a chamberlain named 'Alam- 
ed-in Senjer, who hatl been one of the mcmluks of E[-Fadl the son 
of Khakan, the father of *Ali Nur-ed-Din; and when he heard the 
order of the Sulran, and saw the enemies prepared to slay his 
master's son, it was insupportable to him; so he mounted his horse, 
and proceeded to the house of 'All Nur-cd-Din, and knocked at the 
door. Nur-ed-Din came forth to him, and, when he saw him, knew 
him, and would have saluted him; bitt he said, O my ma,^ter, this 
is not a lime for salutation, nor for talking, Nur-ed-Din said, O 
'Alam-ed-Din, :vhat is the newsp He replied, Save thyself by flight, 
thou and the slave-girl; for El-Mo^in the son of Sawi hath set up a 
snare for you, and if ye fall into his hands he will slay you : (he Sultan 
hadi sent to you forty swordsmen, and it is my advice that ye fly 
before the evil fall upon you. Then Senjer stretched forth his hand 
to Nur-ed-Din with some pieces of gold, and he counted chem, and 
found them to be forty pieces; and he said, O my master, receive 
these, and if I had with me more, T would give it thee; but this is not 
a time for expostulating. And upon this, Nur-ed-Din went in to the 
damsel, and acquainted her with the occurrence, and she was con- 

The two then went forth immediately from the city, and God let 
down the veil of his protection upon iheni, and they proceeded to 
the bank of the river, where they found a vessel ready to sail; the 
master was standing in the midst of it, and saying, He who hath 
anything to do, whether leave-taking or procuring provisions, or 


who hath forgoitcn aughc^ lei him do what he desirpih and return; 
for we are going. And ihey all replied. We have nothing remaiQing 
to doy O master. So, upon this, the master said to his crew, Quick) 
Loose the rope's end, and pull up the stake.— And 'Ali Nur-ed-Din 
esclaimed, Whicher, O master? He answered, To ihc abode of 
Peace, Baghdad- And Nur-ed-Diii embarked, and the damsel with 
him, and they set the vessel afloatj and spread the sails and it shot 
along like a bird wich its pair of wings, carrying them forward with 
a favourable wind. 

Meanwhile, [he forty men whom the Sultan had sent came to the 
house of 'Ail Nur-ed-Din, and broke open the doors and entered, 
and searched all the chambers, but without success; so they de- 
molished the house, and returned, and acquainted che Sultan, wht) 
saidi Search for them in every place where they may be: — and they 
replied. We hear jnd obey. The Wezir El-Mo'in the son of Sawi then 
descended to his house, after the Sultan had invested him with a 
robe of honour, and had said to him. None shall take vengeance for 
thee but myself. And he greeted the King with a prayer for long 
life, and his heart was set at ease: and the Sultan gave orders to 
proclaim throughout the city, O all ye people! our lord the Sultan 
hath commanded that whoever shall meet with 'Ali Nur-ed-Din, 
and bring him to the Sultan, shall be invested with a rijbe of honour, 
and he will give him a thousand pieces of gold; and he who shall 
conceal him, or know where he is, and not give rnformarion thereof, 
will merit the exemplary punishment that shall befall him! So all 
the people began to search for him; but could not trace him.— Such 
was the case with these people. 

Now as to *Ali Nur-cd-Djn and his slave, they arrived in safety at 
Baghdad, and the master of the vessel said to them, This is Baghdad, 
anditisacityof security; winter with its cold hath departed from it, 
and the spring-quarter hath come with its roses, and its trees are in 
blossom, and its waters are flowing. And upon this, *Ali Nur-ed-Din 
landed with his slave-girl, and gave the master five pieces of gold. 
They then walked a little way, and destiny cast them among the 
gardens, and they came to a place which ihey found ij^vept and 
sprinkled, with long mastahahs, and pots suspended filled with 
water, and over it was a covering of irellis-work of canes e.\Eending 


along the whole length of a lane, at ihe upper end o[ which was Lhe 
gale of a garden; but this was shut. And Nur-cd-Din said to the 
damsel. By Allah, this is a pleasant place! — and she replied^ O my 
master, let us sit down a while upon one of these masrabahs. So [hey 
mounted and seated themselves there, and they washed their faces 
and hands, and enjoyed the current of the zephyr, and slept.— Glory 
be to Him who sleepeth not! 

This garden was called the Garden of Delight, and in it was a 
palace called the Palace of Diversion^ and it belonged lo the Khahfeh 
Harun Er-Ri^shid, who, when his heart was coniractedi used to come 
to this garden, and enter (he palace above mentioned, and thece sit. 
The palace had eighty latticed windows, and eighty lamps were 
suspended in it, and in the midst of it was a great candlestick of 
gold; and when the Khalifeh entered it, he commanded the female 
slaves to open the windows, and ordered Ishak, the cup-companion, 
to sing with them: so his heart became dilated, and his anxiety 
ceased, Thete was a superintendent to the garden, an old man, 
named the sheykh Ibrahim; and it happened that he went forth once 
to transact some business, and found there persons diverting them^ 
selves with women o£ suspicious character, whereupon he was vio- 
lently enraged, and having waited until the Khalifeh came thither 
some days after, he acquainted him with this occurrence, and the 
Khalifeh said, Whomsoever thou shait find at the gate of the garden, 
do with him what thou wilt. Now on this day the sheykh Ibrahim 
went out to transact an afTair of business, and found the two sleep- 
ing at the garden-gate, covered with a single izar; and he said, Do 
not diese two persons know tliat the Khalifeh hath given me per^ 
mission to kill every one whom 1 find here? But I will only give 
these two a slight beating, that no one may again approach the 
gate of the garden. He then cut a green palm-stick, and went forth 
to them, and raised his hand until the whiteness o£ his armpit 
appeared, and was about to beat them; but he reflected in his mind, 
and said, O Ifjrahim, how shouldst thou beat them when thou 
knowest not their case? They may he two strangers, or of the 
children of the road,^ whom destiny hath cast here. 1 will therefore 
uncover their faces, and look at them.— So he lifted up the izar from 

2 Wjyf aieis. 


their fiiccs and said» These Eire two handsome persons, and it is not 
proper that I should bear tliem. And he covered their faces again, 
andj approaching the foot of 'ALi Nur-ed-Din, began to rub it 
gently; whereupon Nur-ed-Din opened his eyes^ and s:iw that he was 
an old man; and he blushed, and drew in his feet, and, sitting up, 
took the hand of the sheykh Ibrahim and kissed it; and tlie sheykh 
said to him, O my son, whence are ye? — O my master, he answered, 
we are strangers, — And ii tear gushed from his eye. The sheykh 
Ibrahim then s.iid to him, O my son, know that the Prophet (God 
bless and save himf) h;Lth enjoined generosity to the stranger. Wilt 
thou not arise, O my son, and enter die garden, and divert thyself in 
it, that chy heart may be dilated? — O my master, said Nur-ed-Din, 
to whom doth this garden belong? The sheykh answered, O my 
son, this garden I inherited from my family. And his design in 
saying this was only that they might feel themselves at ease, and 
encer the garden. And when Nur-ed-Din heard his words, he 
thanked him, and arose, together with his slave, and, the sheykh 
Ibrahim preceding them, they entered the garden. 

The gate was arched, and over it were vines with grapes of dif- 
ferent colours; the red, like rubies; and the black, like ebony. They 
entered a bower, and found within it fruits growing in clusters and 
singly, and the birds were warbling their various notes upon the 
branches: the nightingale was pouring forth its melodious sounds; 
and the turtle-dove filled the place with its cooing; and the black- 
bird, in its singing, resembled a human being; and the ring-dove, a 
person exhilarated by wine. The fruits upon the trees, comprising 
every description that was good to eat, had ripened; and there were 
two of each kind: there were the camphor-apricot, and the almond- 
apricot, and the apricot of Khurasan; ihe plum of a colour hke the 
complexion of beauties; the cherry delighting the sense of every 
man; the red, the white, and the green fig, of the most beautiful 
colours; and flowers like pearls and coral; the rose, whose redness 
put to shame the cheeks of the lovely; the violet, hke sulphur in 
contact with lire; the myrde, the gillifiower, the lavender, and the 
anemone; and their leaves were bespangled with the tears of the 
clouds; the chamomile smiled, displaying its teeth, and the narcissus 
looked at the rose with its negroes" eyes; the citrons resembled round 


cups; the liinc^ were like buUcus of gold; the ground was carpeted 
with lloivers of every colour, and the place beamed with the charms 
of springs the river murmured by while the birds S3.i\g, and the wind 
whistled among the trees; the season was temperate, and the zephyr 
was languishing. 

The sheykh Ibrahim conducted them into the elevated saloon, and 
they were charmed with its beauty and the extraordinary elegances 
which it dispLiycdj and seated themselves in one of the windows; 
and Nur-ed'Din, reflecting upon his past entertainments, exclaimed, 
By Allah, this pbce rs most delightful] It hath reminded me o£ past 
events, and quenched in me an anguish like the tire of the ghada. — 
The sheykh Ibrahim then brought to them some food, and they 
ate to sati if action, and washed their hands, and Nar-ed-Din, seating 
himself again in one of the :vindows, called to his slave, and she 
came to him; and they sat gazing at the trees laden with all kinds 
of fruits; after which^ Nur-ed-Din looked towards the sheykh, and 
said to him, O sheykh Ibrahim, hast thou not any beverage? For 
people drink after eating. — So the sheykh brought him some sweet 
and cold water: but Nur-ed-Din said, This is not the beverage 1 
desire. — ^Dost thou want wine? asked the sheykh- — Yes, answered 
Nur-ed-Din, The sheykh exclaimed, I seek refuge with Allah from 
itT Verily, for thirteen years I have done nothing of that kind; for 
the Prophet (God bless and save him[) cursed its drinker and its 
presser and its carrier.— Hear from me two words, said Nur-ed-Din. 
The sheykh replied, Say what thou wilt. So he said, If thou be 
neither the presser of the wine, nor its drinker, rjor its carrier, will 
aught of the curse fall upon thee? The sheykh answered, No. — 
Then take this piece of gold, rejoined Nur-ed-Din» and these two 
pieces of silver, and mount the ass, and halt at a distance from the 
place, and whatsoever man thou findesl to buy it, call to him, and 
say to him, take these two pieces of silver, and with this piece of 
gold buy some wine, and place if upon the ass: — so, in this case, 
thou wilt be neither the carrier nor the presser, nor the buyer; and 
nothing will befall thee of that which befaheih the rest. 

The sheykh Ibrahim, after laughing at his words, repTied, By 
Allah, I have never seen one more witiy than thou, nor heard speech 
more sweet. And Nur-ed-Din said to him, We have become de- 


pendent upon thee» and thou hast noihing to do but to comply with 
our wishes: bring us* therefore, atl th^it %ve retjuire. — O my son, SAid 
the sheykb, my buttery here is befori^ thee (iind it was the store-room 
furnished for die Prince of the Fyiihf ul) : enter it then» and take 
from it what thou wilt; for it containetb more than thou desirest. 
So Nur-ed-Din entered the store-room, and beheld in it vessels of 
gold and silver and crystal, adorned with a variety of jewels; and 
he look out snch of them as he desired, and potired the wine into 
the vessels of earthenware and hottles of glass; and he and the 
damsel began to drink* astonished at the beauty of the things which 
ihcy beheld. The shcykh Ibrahim then brought to theni sweet- 
scented Rowers, and seated himself at a distance from them; and 
they coiiiinLied drinking, in a stale of the utmost delight, until llie 
wine took elTect upon them, and their cheeks reddened* and their 
eyes wantoned like those of the gazelle* and their hair hung down: 
whereupon the sheykh Ibrahim said* What ajleth me that I am 
sitting at a distance from them? Why should I not sit by them? 
And when shall I be in the company of such as these two, who are 
like two moons? — He then advanced, and seated himself at the edge 
of the raised portion of the floor; and Nur-ed-Dui said to him, O 
my master, by my life I conjure thee to approach and jnm us. So 
he went to them; and Nur-ed-Din titled a cup, and, lcK)king at the 
shcykh* said to him. Drink, that thou mayest know how delicious 
is its fiavour. But the sheykh Ibrahim eKclaimed, 1 seek refuge with 
Allah! Verily, for thirteen years I have done nothing of that kind. — 
And Nur-ed-Dm* feigning to pay no attention to him* drank the 
cup* and threw himself upon the ground, pretending that intoxica- 
tion had overcome him. 

Upon thiS) Enis-cUjelis looked towards the sheykh, and said to 
him, O sheykh ibrjhim, see how this man hath treated me. — O my 
mistress, said he* what aijcth him? She rejoined. Always doth he 
treat me thus: he drinkcih a while, and then slcepeth* and I remain 
alone, and find no one to keep me company over my cup. If I 
drink, who will serve me? And if 1 sing* who will hear me? — The 
sheykh, moved with tenderness and affection for her by her words, 
replied, It is not proper that 3 cup-companinn be thus. The damsel 
then filled a cup* and, looking at the sheykh ibrahim* said to him* 


1 conjure thee by my life that :hou take it and drink it; reject it not, 
but accept ir, and refresh my heart. So he stretched forth his hand, 
and took the cup, ar>d drank it; and she filled for him a second time, 
and handed it to him, saying, O my master, this remaineth for thee. 
He replied, By Allah, 1 cannot drink it: diat which I have drunk is 
enough for me. But she said, By Allah, it is indispensable :^and he 
look the cup, and drank i:. She then gave him the third; and he 
took ic, and was about to drink iE» when lo, Nur-ed-Din, raised him- 
self, and said to him, O sheykh Ibrahimj what is this? Did 1 not 
conjure thee a while ago, and thou refusedsi, and saidst, Verily, for 
thirteen years 1 have not done itP^The sheykh Ibrahim, touched 
with shame, replied, By Allah, T am not in fault; for she pressed me. 
And Nur-ed-Din laughed, and they resumed their carotisal, and 
[he damsel, turning her eyes towards her master, said to him, O my 
master, drink thou, and do not urge the sheykh Ibrahim; that I 
may divert thee with the sight of him. So she began to fill and 
to hand to her master, and her master filled and gave to her, ?nd 
thus ibey continued to do, time after time; till at length the sheykh 
Ibrabim looked towards them and said. What meaneth this? And 
what son of carousal is this? Wherefore do ye not give me to drink, 
since I have become your cup<ompanion ?^At this they both 
laughed until they became almost senseless; and dien drank, and 
gave him to drink; and they continued thus until the expiration of 
a third of the night, when the damsel said, O sheykh Ibrahim, with 
thy permission shall I rise and light one of the candles whieh are 
arranged here?— Rise, he answered; but light not more than one 
candle. But she sprang upon her feet, and, bcginmng with the first 
candle, proceeded until she had lighted eighty. She then sat down 
again; and presently Nur-cd-Din said, O sheykh Ibrahim, in what 
favour am 1 held with thee? Wilt thou not allow me to tight one 
of these lamps? — The sheykh answered, Arise, and light one lamp, 
and be not thou also troublesome. So he arose, and, beginning with 
the first lamp, lighted all the eighty; and the saloon seemed to dance. 
And after this, die sheykh Ibrahim, overcome by intoxication, said 
to them. Ye are more frolicsome than Ii—and he sprang upon his 
feet, and opened all the windows, and sat down again with them. 


and they continued carousing and recidng verses; and the pbce r^ing 
with their merriment. 

Now God, ihc All-sccing and All-knowings who hath appointed ii 
cause CO every event, had decreed ihat the Khalifeh should be sitting 
that night at one of the windows looking towards the Tigris, by 
moonlight; and he looked in that directionj and saw the hght of 
lamps and candles reflected in the river, and, turning his eyes ap 
towards the palace in die garden, he beheld it beaming with those 
candles and lamps^ and exclaimed^ Bring hither to me Ja^far El- 
Barmeki! In the twinkling of an eye, Ja'far stood before the Prince 
of the Faithful; and the Khalifeh said to him^ O dog of Wezirs» 
dost ihon serve me ajid not acquaint me with wliat happeneth in 
the city of Baghdad?— What» asked Ja'far, is the occasion of these 
words? The KJialifeh answered, If the city of liaghdad were not 
taken from me, the Palace of Diversion were not enlivened with the 
Hght of the lamps and candles^ and its windows were not opened. 
Wo to thee! Who could do these things unless the office of Khalifeh 
were taken from me? — Who, said Ja'f.Jr (the muscles of hi^ side 
quivering from fear), informed thee that the lamps and candles 
were lighted in tlse Paiace of Diversion^ and that its ^vindows ivere 
opened? The Khalifeh replied^ Advance hither to me, and look. So 
Ja'far approached tlie Khalifeh, and, looking towards the garden, 
beheld the palace as it were a flame of fire, its hght surpassing that 
of the moon. He desiretl, therefore, to make an excuse for the 
sheykh Ibrahim, the superintendent, thinking, from what he beheld, 
that the event might have occurred through his permission: and ac- 
cordingly he said, O Prince of the Faithful, the sheykh Ibrahim last 
week said to me, O my master Ja'far, I am desirous of entertaining 
my children during my hfe and the life of the Prince of the Paith- 
fuh — And what, said i, is [hy design in saying this? He answered, 
It is my wish that ihou wouldst obtain for me permission from the 
Khalifeh that I mav celebrate the circumcision of my sons in the 
paiace. So I said, Do what thou wik with respect to the entertain- 
ment of ihy sons, and, if God will, I shall have an inLerview with 
the Khalifeli, and will acquaint him wkh it. And he left me thus- 
and 1 forgot to acquaint Uiec.— O Ja^far, said the Khalifchj thou wast 


guilty of oneoJJencengainstmc, nnd then thine ofTence became two: 
for thou hast erred in two points: the first, thy noc acquainting me 
with this affair; and the second^ thy not accomplishing the desire 
of the sheykh Ibrahimj for he did not come to ihee and address thee 
with these words but to hint a request for some money by tlie aid 
of which to effect his dtsign, and thou neither gavest him anything 
nor acquaintedst me that 1 jnight give him. — O Prince of the Faith- 
ful, replied Ja'far, 1 forgot. 

The Khalifeh then said, By my forefathers, I will not pass the 
remainder of my night but with him, for he is a just man, who 
freqtienteth die sheykhs, and attendeth to the poor, and favoureih 
the indigent! and I imagine all his acquaintances are with hinx this 
night: so I must repair to him: perhaps one of them may offer up for 
us a prayer productive of good to us in this world and tlie next; and 
probably some advantage may accrue to him from my presence, and 
he will receive pleasure from this, together with his friends. — O 
Prince of the Faithful, replied Ja'far, the greater part of the night 
hath passed, and they are now about to disperse. But the Khalifeh 
said, We must go to them. And Ja'far was silent, and was per- 
plexed in his mind) not kno^ving what to do. So the Khalifeh rose 
upon his feet, and Ja'far rose and preceded him, and Mesrur the 
eunuch went with them. The three walked on reflecEing, and, de- 
parting from the palace, proceeded through the streets, in the attire 
of merchants, until they arrived at the gate of the garden above 
mentioned; and the Khalifeh, approaching it, found it open; and 
he was surprised, and said, See, O Ja'far, how the sheykh Ibrahim 
hath left the gate open until this hour, which is not his usual custom. 
They then entered, and came to the end of the garden, where they 
stopped beneath ihe palace; and the Khahfeh said, O Ja'far, I desire 
to fake a view of them secretly hchre 1 go up to them, that I may 
see how the sheykhs are occupied in the dispensing of their bless- 
ings and the employment of their miraculous powers; for they have 
qualities which distinguish them both in their private retirements 
and in their public exercises; and now we hear not their voices, nor 
discover any indication of their presence. Having thus said, he looked 
arotmd, and, seeing a tall walnuUree, he said, O Ja'far, I would 
climb this tree (for its branches are near to the windows) and look 


ai them. And accordingly he ascended the tree, and cJlmbed from 
branch to branch until fie tame to chat which was opposite to ojie 
of the windows, and there he saf» and, looking in through this 
window of the palace, beheld a damsel and a young man, hke two 
moons (exiolied be the perfection of Him who created [henil); and 
he saw the sheykh Ibrahim sitting with a cup in his hand, and say- 
ing, O mistress of beauties^ drinking unaccompanied by merry 
sounds is not pleasant. Hast thou not heard the saying of the poer? — 

Cifculaic it in the large cup, and in the small; and receive it hom the 

hnnd of the shining moon;* 
And drmk not without merry sounds; [or I have observed that horses 

drink, to tlie sound of whistling. 

When the Khalifeh witnessed this conduct of the sheykh Ibrahim, 
the vein of anger swelled between his eyes, and he descended, and 
said, O Ja'far, 1 have never seen anything of the miraculous per- 
formances of the just such as I have beheld this night: ascend, there- 
fore, thyself also, into this tree, and look, lest the blessings of the 
just escape thee. — On hearing the words o£ the Prince of the Faith- 
ful, Ja'far was perplexed at his situation; and he climbed up into 
the trecj and looked, and saw Nur-ed-Din and the sheykh Ibrahim 
and the damsel, and the sheykh Ibrahim had the cup in his hand. 
As soon as he beheld this, he made sure oF destruction; and he de- 
scended, and stood before the Prince of the Faithful, and the Khali- 
feh said, O Ja'farj praise be to God who haili made us to be of the 
number of those who follow the e>:ternal ordinances of the holy 
law, and averted from us the sin of disguising ourselves by the 
practice of hypocrisy! But Ja'far was unable to reply, from his eK- 
cessive confusion. The Khalifeh then looked towards him, and said, 
Who can have brought these persons hither, and admitted ihem into 
my palace? But the hkc of this young man and this damsel, in 
beauty and loveliness and symmetry of form, mine eye hath never 
beheld. — Ja'far, now conceiving a hope that the Khalifeh might be 
propitiated, replied, Thou hast spoken truly, O Prince of the Faith- 
ful. And the Khalifeh said, O Ja'far, climb up with us upon this 
branch wliich is opposite them, that we may amuse ourselves by ob- 


serving them. 5o nhey both dimbed up into the tree^ and, looking at 
iliem, hcjrcl the sheykh Ibriihim say^ O my mistress, I have re- 
linquished decorum by the drinking o£ wine; but the pleasure ot 
this is not complete ^vithout the melodious sounds of stringed instru- 
ments.- — O sheykh Ibrahim, replied Enis-el-Jelis, by Allah, if we had 
any musical inscrumeni, our happiness were perfect. And when the 
sheykh Ibriihim heard her words, he rose upon his feet.— The 
Khyhfeh s^id lo Ja'br, What may he be going to do? Ja'far replied, 
1 know not. — And the sheykh Ibrahim went away, and remrned 
wiih a lute; and the Khahfeh^ looking ati:entively at it, saw that it 
was the lute of Tshak the cup-tompanion; and said, By Allah, if 
this damsel sing noi well, I will crucify you all; but if she sing well, 
I will pardon them* and crucify ihee. So Ja'far said, O Allah, let 
her not sing wel!!— Why? asked the Khalifch,— That thou mayesC 
crucify all of us, answered Ja'far; and then we shall cheer one an- 
other by conversation. And the Khalifeh laughed: and the damsel 
took the lute, and tuned its strings, and played upon it in a manner 
that would melt iron, and inspire an idiot with iniellect; after which 
she sang with such sweetness that the Khahfeh e>:daimed, O Ja'far, 
never in my life have I heard so enchanting^a voice as ibis! — Perhaps, 
said Ja'far, the anger of the Khalifeh hath departed from him?^ 
Yea, he answered; it hath departed. Ho then descended with fa'far 
from die tree, and, looking towards him, said, 1 am deslious of going 
up to them, to sit with them, and to hear the damsel sing before 
me.— O Prince of the Faithful, replied Ja'fai", if thou go up to them, 
proiiably they will be troubled by thy presence; and as to the sheykh 
Ibrahim, he will assuredly die of fear. The Kbalifeh therefore said, 
O Ja'far, thou must ac<]u.nint me ^vith some stratagem by means of 
which I may learn the truth of the affair without their knowing 
that I have discovered them. And he and Ja'far walked towards 
the Tigris, reflecting upon this matter; and lo, a fisherman stood be- 
neath the windows of the palace, and he threw his net, hoping to 
catch something by means of which to obtain his subsistence. — Now 
the Khalifeh had, on a former occasion, called to the sheykh Ibrahim, 
and said to him. What was that noise that I heard beneath the win- 
dows of the palace? — ^nd he answered, The voices of the fishermen, 
who are fishin™:— so he said. Go down and forbid them from coming 


to this place. They were therefore £orbidden to come thither; but 
this night there came a fisherman named KeTim, and, seeing the 
garden-gate open, he said within himself, This is ii time of in- 
advertence, and perhaps I may catch some fish on this occasion: — 
so he took his net, and threw it into the river, and then recited some 
verses, comrjsttng the condition of the poor fisherman, toilmg 
throughout the night, with that of the lord of the palace^ who, 
awaking £rom a pleasant slumber, findech liic fawn in his possession; 
and as soon as he had finished his recitation^ Id, the Khaiifch, im- 
atiended, stood at his head. The Khalifeh knew him, and exclaimed, 
O Kerim! — and the fisherman, liearing him call him by his name, 
turned towards him; and when he beheld the Khaiifeh, the muscles 
of his side quivered, and he said. By Allah, O Prince of the Faith- 
ful, 1 did not [his in mockery of the mandate; but poverty and the 
wants of my family impelled nic to the act of which thou art witness. 
The Klulifeh replied, Throw thy tact for my luck. And ihe fisher- 
man advanced, rejoicing exceedingly, and cast the net, and, having 
waited until it had attained its limit and become steady at the 
bottom, drew it in again, and there came up in it a variety of fish 
that could not be numbered. 

The Khalifeh was delighted at this, and said, O Ketim, strip off 
thy clothes:— and he did so. He wus dad in a jtibbch" in which were 
a hundred patches of coarse woollen stulf, containing vermin of 
the most abominable kind, and among them lieas in auch numbers 
that he might almost have been transported by their means over the 
face of the earth; and he took from his head a turban which for 
three years he had never unwound; but when he happened to 
find a piece of rag he twisted it around it: and when he had taken 
off the jubbeh and the turban, the Khalifeh pulled off from his own 
person two vests of silk of Alexandria and Ba'lbekk, and a mel- 
watat^ and a farajiyeh, and said to the fisherman, Take these, and 
put them on. The Khalifeh then put on himsself the fisherman's 
jubbeh and turban, and, having drawn a litham' over his face, said 
to the fisherman. Go about thy business; — and he kissed the feet of 
the Khalifeh^ and dianked him, reciting these two verses; — 

^ A ling nuTer co:it with £lccvc$ [i4:ar!y rcji:hiiiE m ihe ^vfii>[, 

^ A iiibbch or lin-iT, cif •lOiCly TViainTial. 

' ]Tlie Bcdawi munlcr, iiiaJt by the end of lite hc^iJ-kcrthicE.] 


Thou hast granted me favours beyond my power to acknowledge, and 

completely satislit^d all my wants. 
I will th^ink thee* therefore* as long as I live, and ivhen I die my bones 

will thank thee fn iheir grave. 

But scarcely hiid he finished his verses, when ihe vermin overrun 
the person of the Kh.iljfeh, and he began co seizp them with his 
right hand and his tcft from his neck, and to throw them down; 
and he e.'itlaimed, O RshermaOj wo to thee! What are these abund- 
ant vermin in this jubbehP — O my lord, he answered, at present they 
torment thee; but when a week shall have passed over thee, thou 
wilt not feel them, iior think o£ them. The Khalifeh laughedi and 
said to him, How can I sufTer this jubbeh to remain upon me? The 
fisherman replied, 1 wish to [ell thee something; but i am ashamed, 
through my awe of the Kh.ilifeh, — Impart, said the Khalifeh, what 
thou Jiast to tell nic. So he said to him. It barb occurred to my mind, 

Prince of the Faithful, that Ehou desirc^t to learn the art of fishing, 
in order that thou mayest be master of a trade that may profit thee; 
and if such be thy desire, this jubbeh is suitable to thee. And the 
Khahfeh laughed at his words. 

The fisherman Ehen went his way, and the Khalifeh look the 
basket of fish, and, having put upon it a little grass, went with it 
to Ja'far, and stood before him; and Ja'far, thinking that he was 
Kerim the fisherman, feared for him, and said, O Kerim, what 
brought thee hither? Save thyself by llighi; for the Khalifeh is 
here this nii^ht. — And when the Khalifeh heard the words of Ja'far, 
he laughed until he fell down upon his back. So Ja'far said. Perhaps 
thou art otir lord the Prince of the Faithful? — Yes» O Ja'far, an- 
swered the Khalifeh, and thou art my Wezir, and 1 came with thee 
hither, and thou knowest me not. How then should the sheykh 
Ibrahim know me when he is drunk? Remain where thou art until 

1 return to thee. — Ja'far replied, 1 hear and obey: — and ihe Khalifeh 
advanced to the door of the palace, and knocked. The sheykh 
Ibrahim arose, therefore, and said. Who is at the door? He answered, 
I, O sheykh Ibrahim. The sheykh said. Who art thouP—and the 
Khalifeh answered, 1 am Kerim the fisherman: I heard that there 
were guests with thee, and have therefore brought thee some fish; 
for it is excellent.— Now Nur-ed-Dln and the damsel were both 


fond of fish, and when they heard ihe mention of it they rejoiced 
exceedingly^ and said» O my master, open to him, ^nd let him come 
in to us with the fish which he hath brought. So the shcykh Ibrahim 
opened the door, and the Khahfeh, in his fisht^rman's disgitise^ en- 
tered, and began by salutation; and the shcykh Ibrahim said to him, 
Welcome to the robber, the thief, the gambler! Come hither, and 
shew us the fish which thou hast brought,— He therefore shewed it to 
them; and lo, it was alive, and moving; and the damsel e?:claimed, 
By Allah, O my master, this fish is excellent! 1 wish it were friedl — 
By Allah, said the sheykh Ibrahim, thou hast spoken truth. Then, 
addressing the Khalifch, he said, O fisherman, I wish thou hadst 
brought this fish fried. Arise, and fry it for us, and bring it. — On the 
head be thy commands, replied the Khalifeh: 1 will fry it, and bring 
it. — Be quick, said they, in doing it. 

The Khalifeh therefore arose and ran back to Ja'far, and said, O 
Ja'far, they want the fish fried. — O Prince of the Faithful, replied 
he, give it me, and I will fry it. But the Khalifeh said, By the tombs 
of my ancesrors, none shall fry it but myself: with my own hand will 
1 do it! Ho then repaired to the hut of the superintendent, and, 
searching there, found in it everything that he required, the frying- 
pan, and even the sail, and wild marjoram, and odier things. So he 
approached iho fire-place, and ptit on the fryj[]g-pan, and fried it 
nicely; and when it was done, he put it upon a banana-leaf, ancl^ 
having taken from the garden some limes, lie went up ^vith the fish, 
and placed it before them. The young man, therefore, and the 
diimsel and the sheykh Ibrahim advanced and ate; ant! when they 
had finished, ihey washed their hands, and Nur-ed-Din said, By 
Allahj O fisherman, tiiou hast done us a kindness this night. Then 
putting his hand into his pocket, he took forth for him three piece.s 
of goldj of those which Senjer had presented to him when he was 
setting forth on his journey, and said, O fisherman, excuse me; for, 
by Allah, if I had known thee before the events that have lately 
happened to me, I would have extracted the bitterness of poverty 
from thy heart; but take this as accordant wiih my present circum- 
stances. So saying, he threw the pieces of gold lo the Khalifch, who 
took them, and kissed them, and put them in his pocket. The 
object of the Khalifeh in doing this was only diat he might hear die 


damsel sing: sg he said to him^ Thou hast Ereated me with bencfi- 
cente^ and abundantly rt^compensed mej but I beg of thy unbounded 
indulgence that this damsel tnay sing an air» that I may hear her. 
Nur-pd-Diii therefore said» O Enis-cl-Jeiis! She repliedj Yes, — By my 
life, said he, sing to us something far the graiificacion of this fisher- 
mani for he desireth to hear thee. And when she had heard what 
her xnaster said^ she rook the lute^ and tried it with her fingers, 
after she had twisted its pegs, and sang to it the^e two verses: — 

The £ni;4?rs of many a faun-like damsel have played upon the lute, and 

the soul hath been ravished by the touch. 
She hath madi: the deaf to hear her songs; and the dumb hath c:^cTaimed, 

Thou hast excelled in thy singing! 

Then she played again, in an extraordmary manner, so as to charm 

the minds of her hearers, and sang tlie following couplet: — 

We are honoured by your visltinj^ our abode, and your splendour hath 

djspdl^ tht: darkness of die moonless night: 
It is therefore incumbent upon nie to perfume my dwellin^^ \\ith muili 

and rose water and camphor. 

Upon this, the Khalifeh was affected with violent emotion, and 
overcome by ecstasy* so chat he was no longer master of himself 
from excessive delight; and he began to exclaim* Allah approve 
thee! Allah approve thee! Allah approve thee! So Nur-ed-Din said 
to him, O fisherman, have the d:imse] and her art in striking the 
chords pleased thee:— Yea, by AIIah[ exclaimed the Khalifeh. And 
Nur-<^-Din immediately said. She is bestowed upon ihee as a pres- 
ent from me, the present of a generous man who will not revoke his 
gift. And he rose upon his feet, and took a melwatah, and threw it 
upon the Khalifeh in the fisherman^s disguise, ordering him to 
depart with the damsel. But she looked towards him, and said, O 
my master, wik thou part from me without bidding me farewell? 
If we must be separated, pause while 1 take leave of thee. — And she 
recited the following couplet: — 

T£ you depart from me, sriil your abode will he in my heart, in the recess 

. of my hDsom. 
T implore the Compassionate to grant our reunion; and a boon such as 
this, God will grant to whom He pleaseth. 


And when she had finished, Nur-cd-Din thus replied to her:— 

She bade mc farewell on (he day of stparalionT saying, while she \vept 

from ihe pain that it occasioned, 
What wilt thou do after my departure? — Say this, I replied, unto hTm 

who will survive it. 

The Khal]£eh, when he heard this, was distressed at the thought 
o£ separathig diem, and, looking towards the young man, he said 
to him, O my master, art thou in fear on account of any crime, or 
art thou in debt to any one? Nur-ed-Din answered, By Allah, O 
iisherman, a wonderful event, and an exiraordinary adventure, hap- 
pejied to me and this damsel : if it were engraved on the understand- 
ing, it :vDuld be a lesson to liim who ivould be admonished. — Witt 
ihoir not» rejoined the Khalifeh, relate to us thy story, and acquaint 
tis with thy caseF Perhaps thy doing so may be pi'oducii\e of relief: 
for the relief of God is near, — So Nui-ed-Din said, Wilt thou hear 
our story in poetry or in prose? — Prose, answered the Khatifeh, h 
mere talk; and verse, words ptiC together like pearls. And Nur-ed- 
Din hung down his head towards the ground, and then related his 
story in a series of verses; but when he had finished, the Khalifeh 
begged him to explain his case more fully. He therefore acquainted 
him wi[h the :vhoIe of his circumstances from beginning lo end; 
and when the Khalifeh understood the allair, he said to him, 
Whither wouldst thou now repair? He aiisweredj Gods earth is 
wide. The Khalifeh then said to him, 1 will write for thee a letter 
which thou shalt convey to the Suhan Mohammad the son of Suley- 
man Ez-Zeyni, and when he shall have read it, he will do thee no 
injury. — Is there in the worldj said Nur-ed-Din, a fisherman who 
corresponded! with Kings? Verily this is a thing that can never 
be.— Thou hast spoken truly, rejoined the Khalifeh; but I will ac- 
quaint thee with the cause. Know that I read in the same school 
with him, under a master, and I was his monitor; and after that, 
prosperity was his lot, and he became a Sultan, while God made me 
to be a fisherman: yet J have never sent to request anything of him, 
but he hath performed my wish; and if 1 sent to hin^ every day to 
request a thousand things of him, he would do what I asked. When 
Nur-ed'Di% therefore, heard his WDf ds, he said to Iiim, Write, that 


1 may si:c. And he Eook an ink-iiorn and a pen, and wrote (afier 
tlie phrase^ in the name of God, the Compassions Le, ihe Merciful,)— 
To proceed, — This letter h from Harun Er-Rashid the son o{ El- 
Mahdi» to his highness Mohamniad the son ot Suleymun Ez-Zeyni, 
who hath been encompassed by my beneficence, and wliom I con- 
stituted my viceroy o£ a portion of my dominions. I acquaint Ehee 
that the bearer of this letter is Nur-ed-Din die son of El-Fadl the 
son of Khakan the Wezir, and on his arrival in thy presence thou 
shalt divest thyself of the regal authority, and seat him in thy place; 
for I have appointed him to the oHice to which I formerly ap- 
pointed thee: so disobey not my commands: and peace be on thee.— ' 
He then gave che letter to 'Ali Nurn^d-Din, who took it and 
kissed it and put k In his turban, and immiidiately set forth on his 

The sheykh Ibrahim now looked towards the Khalifeh in. his 
fisherman's disguise, and said to him, O most contemptible of fish- 
ermen, thou hast brought us two fish worth twenty half-dirhems, 
and received three pieces of ^^oldj and desircst to take the slave also. 
But when the Khaliftli heard these words, he cried out at him, and 
made a sign to Mesriir, who immediately discovered himself, and 
rushed in upon him. Ja'far, meanwhile, had sent one of the aitcndams 
of the garden to the porter of the palace to demand a suit of clothing 
of him for the Prince ot the Faithful; and the man went, and 
brought the dress, and kissed the ground before the Khalifeh^ who 
took oH and gave to him that with which he was then clad, and put 
on this suit. Thesheykh Ibrahim was sitting on a chair; the Khalifch 
paused to see the result: and the sheykh was astounded, and began 
to bite the ends of his fingers through his confusion, saying. Am 
I asleep or awake? The Klialifeh then looked at him, and said, O 
sheykh Ibrahim, what is this predicament in which thou art placed ? 
And u[jon this, the sheykh recovered from his intoxication, and, 
throwing himself upon the ground, implored forgiveness: and the 
Khalifeh pardoned him; after which he g:iyG orders tliat the damsel 
should be conveyed to the palace where he resided; and when she 
had arrived there, he appropriated to her a separate lodging, and 
appointed persons to wait upon her, and said to her. Know that I 
have sent thy master as Sultan of El-Basrah, and, if God please, I 


will (despatch to him a. dress tji honour, and send dice siso to him 
with it. 

As to Nur-ed-Din, he continued his journey until he entered El- 
Basrah, and went up to the palace of the Sultan, when he uirered 
ji loud cry, whereupon the Sultan desired him to approach^ and 
when he came into the presence o£ the King, he kissed the ground 
before him, and produced the letter, and handed it to him. And as 
soon as the Sultan saw the superscription in ihe handwriting o£ the 
Prince of the Faithful, he rose upon his feetj and, having kissed it 
three times, said, I hear and pay obedience to God {whose name be 
exalted!) and to the Prince of the Faithful, He then summoned 
before him the four Kadis,* and the Emirs, and was about to divest 
himself of the regal oiiice: but, lo, the Wezir El-Mo'ia the son of 
Sawi was before him, and the Sukan gave him the letter of the 
Prince of the faithful, and when he saw it, he rent it in pieces, and 
put it into his mouth, and chewed it, and threw it down. The 
Sultan^ enraged, cried. Wo to thee! What hath induced thee to 
act thus? — He answered. This man hath had no Interview with the 
Khalifeh nor with his Wezir; but is a young wrecch, an artftd devil, 
who, having met with a paper containing the handwrhing of the 
Khiitifeh, hath counterfeited it, and written what he desired: where- 
fore then shouldst thou abdicate the sovereignty, when the Khalifeh 
hath not sent to thee an envoy with a royal autographical mandate; 
for if this affair were true, he had sent with him a Chamberlain or a 
Wezir; but he came alone. — What then is to be done? said the Sul- 
tan. The Wezir answered. Send away this young man with me, and 
T will take charge of him, and despatch him in company with a 
Chamberlain to the city of Baghdad; and if his words be true, he 
will bring us a royal autographical mandate and diploma of in- 
vestiture; and if not true, they will send him back to us with the 
Chamberlain, and I will take my revenge upon my offender. 

When the Sultan heard what the Wezir said, it pleased him; and 
the Wezir took him away, and cried out to the pages, who threw 
down Nur-ed-Din, and beat Him until he became insensible. He 
then ordered to put a chain upon his feet, and called to the jailer; 
and when he came, he kissed the ground before him. This jailer 

*0f iTie four onfu^lo:^ sfcls. 


was named Kut<?yi; and che Wezir said to him, O Kuieyt, I desire 
that thou lake this person, and casi him into one o£ the subter- 
ranean cells which are in thy prison, and torture him night and day. 
The jailer replied, I hear and obey: — and he put Nur-ed-Din inio 
the prison, and locked the door upon him; bat after having done 
this, he gave orders to sweep a mastabah :virhin the door, a^nd 
furnished it with a prayer-carpet and a pillow, and seated Nur-ed- 
Din upon it, and loosed his chain, and treated him with kindness. 
The Wezir every day sent to himj commanding him to beat him; 
and the jailer pretended that he tortured him, while, on the con- 
trary, he treated him with benignity. 

Thus he coniimied to do for forty days; and on the foriy-firsi flay, 
there came a present from the Khalifeh, and when the Sultan saw it, 
it pleased him, and he conferred with the Wezirs upon the subject; 
hut one said, Perhaps this present was designed for the new Sultan. 
Upon this, [he Wc-^ir El-Mo'in the son of Sawi remarked. It were 
proper to have slain him on his arrival: — and the Sultan exclaimed. 
Now thou hast reminded mc of him, go down and brin^ him, and 1 
ivill strike off his head. The Wezir replied, 1 hear and obey:— and 
arose, saying, I desire to proclaim throughout ihe city, He who 
wisJieih to witness the decapitation of Nur-ed-Din 'Ali the son o£ 
El-Fadl the son of Khakan, let him come to the palace: — so that all 
the people may come to behold it, and 1 may gratify my heart, and 
mortify my enviers. The Sultan said, Do what thou wilt. So the 
Wezir descended, full of joy and happiness, and ivent to the Wall, 
and ordered him to make this proclamation; and when the people 
heard ihe crier, they all grieved and wept, even the boys in the 
schools, and the tradesmen in dieir shop; and numbers of the people 
strove together to Take for themselves places where they might 
behold the spectacle, while others repaired to the prison, to accom- 
pany him thence- The Wezir then went forth, attended by ten mem- 
iuks, to the prison: and Kuteyt the jailer said to him, What dost 
thou desire, O our lord the Wezir?— Bring forth to me, said the 
Wezir, this young wretch- The jailer replied, He is En a most 
miserable state from the ejiccssive beadng [hat 1 have inflicted upon 
him. And he entered, and found him reciting some verses, com- 
mencing thus: — 


Who is there Co aid me in my aifliction? For my pain liach become in- 
lense, and my icmcdy is scarce procurable! 

And the jailer pulled otT from him his dean clotheST and, having 
clad him in two dirty garments, brought him out to the Wezir. 
Nur-ed-Din then looked at him, and saw that he was his enemy who 
had incessantly desired his destruction; and when he beheld him, 
he wepr, and said to him. Art thou secure £rom misforiime? H^st 
thou not heard the saying of the poet? — 

TTiey made use of iheir power, and used it tyrannically; and soon it 
became as though ic never had existed. 

O Wezir, know that God (whose perfection be e>:tolled, and whose 
name be exalted!) is the doer of whatsoever He willetL— O *Ali, 
replied the Wezir, wouldsr rhou frighten me by these words? I am 
now going to strike oFf thy head, in spite of the people of El-Basrah; 
and I will pay no regard to thy counsel; but 1 will rather attend to 
the saying of the poet; — 

Let fortune do whatever it willeih, and bear with cheerful mind the 
effects of fate. 

How e^fcellent also is the saying of another poet:— 

He who liveth afser his enemy a single day, hath attained his desire. 

The Wezir then ordered his pages to convey hjm on the back of 
a mule; whereupon they said to him (being distressed to obey), 
Sufier us to stone him and cut him in pieces, though our lives should 
be sacrificed in consequence. But he replied^ Never do it. Have ye 
not heard what die poet hath said: — 

A decreed teim is my inevitable lot; and as soon as its days have expired, 

I die. 
If ihe lions dragged me into their forest, they could not close it while 

aught of il remained. 

So they proceeded to proclaim before Nur-ed-Din, This is the 
smallest recompense of him who forgeth a letter from the Khalifeh 
to the Sultan. And they continued to parade him throughout El- 
Basrah until they stationed him beneath ihe window of the palace, 


and in the place o£ hiood, when the e>;i?cutioner approached him, 
And S't'id to him, I am a^ slave under command^ and if ihou hast 
any want, acquaini me with it, thyt 1 may perform U for thee; for 
there remaiiieih not of thy life any more ihaii the period until the 
Suhan shall put forth his face from the window. And upon this^ 
Nitr-ed-Din looked to the right and left, and reciced these verses: — 

Is thcreaniong you a merciful friend, who will aid nie: I conjurt: you 

by Alhih to aniu'or mel 
My life hath passetJ, anti my death is at handf Is Ehcre any who will 

picy me, lo obiain my recami^H^n&e, 
And consider my stale, and relieve my anguish, by 2 draught of water 

that my torment may be ir^huned? 

And the people were excised to tears for him; find the execntioner 
rook some water to hand it :o him; but the Wezir arose from his 
place, and struck the kuilch* oE water with his hand, and broke it, 
and called to the executioner, commanding him to strike ofl his 
head; whereupon he bound Nur-ed-Din*5 eyes. The people, how- 
ever, called out against the Wezir, and raised a tumultuous cry 
agaiost him, and many words p.issed between them; and while they 
were in ihis stale, lo, a dasi rose, and Jillod the sky and the open 
tracts; and when the Sultan beheld it, as he sat in the palace, he 
said to his attendants, See what is the news. The Wezir s.tid, After 
thou shalt first have beheaded this jnan. But the Sultan replied, 
Wait thou until we see what is the news. 

Now this dust was the dust of Ja'far, the Wezir of the Khalifeh, 
and of his attendants; and the cause of their coming was this:^The 
Khahfeh had passed thirty days without rememhcring the affair of 
'All the son of El-Fadl the son of Khakan, and no one mentioned 
it ED hrm, until he came one night to the private apartment of Enis- 
el-JeliSj and heard her lamenting, as she recited, with a soft voice, 
the saying of the poet: — 

Thine im^ge \h before me] whether distant or near, and my Tongile 
never ceaseth to mention thee. 

Her lamentation increased, and lo, the KhalifcK opened the door, 

and entered the chamber, and saw Enis-el-Jchs weeping. On. be- 

"A iinall poroui eanhen l>oiiJc with a wide -maucb. 


holding the KhaJifeh, sKe fell at his feel, andj having kissed them 
three limes, recited these two verses:— 

thou of pure origin, and of excellent birth; o£ ripe-fruitful branch, and 

of unsulhcd race! 

1 remind diee o£ the promise thy beneficence granted, and far be it fcoin 

;hcc that thou shouldst forget iu 

The Khalrfch said to her. Who art thou? She answered, I am the 
present given to thee by 'Ah the son oi! El-Fadl the son of Khakan; 
and I request the fulfilment of the promise whicli thou gavest me, 
that thou wouldsE send me to him with the honorary gift; for 1 
have now been here thirty days and have not tasted sleep. And upoti 
this, the Khaiifeh summoned Ja'far El-Barmeki, and said to him, 
For thirty days I have heard no news of 'Ali the son of El-Fadl the 
SOI] of Khakan, and I imagine nothing less than that the Sultan 
hath killed him: bnt^ by my head! by the tombs of my ancestors! 
if any evil event have happened to him, 1 will destroy him who hath 
been the cause of it^ though he be the dearest of men in my estima- 
tion! I desire, therefore, that thou journey immediately to El- 
Basrah, and bring me an account of the conduct of the King Mo- 
hammad the son of Suleyman Ez-Zeyni to 'Ali the son of El-Fadl 
the son of Khakan. 

So Ja'far obeyed his commands, and set forth on his journey, an.d 
when he approached, and saw this tumult and crowd, he said. What 
is the occasion of this crowd? They related to him, therefore, the 
situation in which they were with regard to Nur-ed-Din; and when 
he heard their words, he hastened to go up to the Sultan, and, 
having saluted him, acquainted him with the cause of his coming, 
and told him, that if any evil event had happened to 'Ali Nur-ed- 
Din, the Khalifeh would destroy him who was the cause of it. He 
then arrested the Sultan, and the Wezir El-Mo'in the son of Sawi, 
and gave orders to liberate 'AU Nur-ed-Din, and enthroned him as 
Sultan in the place of the Sultan Mohammad the son of Suleyman 
Ez-Zeyni; after which he remained in El-Basrah three days, the 
usual period of entertainment; and on the morning of the fourth 
day, *Ali Nur-ed-Din said to Ja'far, I have a longing desire to see 
the Prince of the Faithful. So Ja*far said to the King Mohammad 
the son of Suleyman, Prepare thyself for travelling; for we will per- 


form the morning-prayers, and depart to Baghdad. He repliedj I 
hear and obey: — and they performed the morning-prayers^ and 
mounted all together, with the We7,ir El-Mo*in Lhe son of Sawi, 
who now repented of what he had done. As to 'Ali Nur-ed-Din, he 
rode by the side of Ja*far: and they continued their journey until 
they arrived at Baghd^d^ the Abode of Peace, 

They then presented themselves before the Khalifeh and related 
to him the case of Nur-cd-Din; whereupon the Khalifeh addressed 
him, sayingi Take this sword^ and strike oH with it the head of 
thine enemy. And he took it, and approached El-Mo^in the j^on of 
Sawl; but he looked at him, and said to him, I did according to my 
nature, and do thou according to thine. And Nur-ed-Din threw 
down [he sword from hh hand, and» looking towards the Khalifeh, 
said, O Prince of the Faithful, lie haih beguiled me- So the Khahfeh 
said. Do thou leave liim: — and he said to Mesrur, O Me^rur, ad- 
vance thou, and strike oH his he;id. Mesrnr, therefore, did so: and 
upon this, the Khalifeh said to 'Ah the son of El-Fadl the son of 
Khakan, Request of me what thou wilt. He replied, O my lord, 
I have no want of the sovereignty of El-i3asrah, and desire nothing 
but to have the honour of serving ihee. — Most willingly ! assent, 
said the Khahfeh: — and he summoned the damsei, and when she 
had come before him, he bestowed favours upon ihem bcLh : he gave 
to them one of the palaces of I^aghdad, and assigned to them regular 
allowances, and made Nur-cd-Din one of his companions at the 
table; and he remained with him until death overtook him. 

TifE Storv of Es-Sindibad or ttie Sea and Es-Sindibad op the L.\ki> 

THERE was, in the time of Khalifehj the Prmce of the 
Faithful, Ha run Er-Rashid, in the city of Baghdad, a man 
called Es-Sindibad ilie Porrer. He was a man in poor cir- 
cumstances, who bore burdens for hire upon his head. And it hap- 
pened to him ihac he hore one day ^ heavy burden^ and that day was 
cKeesiively hot; io lie was wearied by the ioad^ and perspired pro- 
fuselyj the heat violently oppressiiig him. in this state he passed by 
the door of a merchant, the ground before which was swept and 
sprinkled, and there the air was temiierate; and by the side of the 
door was a wide mastabah. The porter therefore put down his 
burden upon that mastabah, to rest himself, and to scent the air; and 
when he liad done so, there came forth upon him, from the door, a 
pleasant, gentle gale, and an exquisite odour, wherewith the porter 
was delighted. He seated himself upon the edge of the mastabah, 
and heard in that place the melodious sounds of stringed instruments, 
with the lute among them, and mirth-exciting voices, and varieties 
of distinct recitations. He heard also the voices of birds, warbling, 
and praising God (whose name be exalted!) with diverse tones and 
with all dialects; consisting of turtle-doves and he^ars and blackbirds 
and nightingales and ring-doves and kirawans;' whereupon he 
wondered in his mind, and was moved with great delight. He 
ihen advanced co that door, and found within the house a great 
garden, wherein he beheld pages and slaves and servants and other 
dependants, and such things as existed not elsewhere save in the 
abodes of Kings and Sultans; and after tliat, there blew upon him 
the odour of deliciousj ext^uisite viandsj of all diiTerent kinds, and 
of delicious wine. 

Upon this he raised his eyes towards heaven, and said^ Extolled 
he thy perfection, O X-ordI O Creator! O Supplier of the con- 

'Or kajJwan: stoni?<iirltw, 


veiiii^nces of life! Thou suppiiest whom Thou wil: withour reckon- 
ing! O Aikh, 1 implore thy iorgivciitss of all oElcnccSj and turn to 
Thcfi repenting o£ all fauiisl O Lord, there is no animadverting 
upon Thi:<: with respect to thy judgment* and thy powers tor Thou 
art not to be questioned regarding that which Tiiou doest, and Thou 
art able to do whatsoever Thou wiltT Ex:oUf:d be thy perfection! 
Thou enrichcst whom Thou wilt* and whom Thou wilt Thou 
impoverishes! ! Thou m^gniiiest whom Thou wilt* and whom Thou 
wilt Thou abasestl There is no deity but Thou! How great is thy 
dignity! and how mighty is thy dominion! and how cxcellcnc is thy 
government! Thou hast bestowed favours upon him whom Thou 
chooseaE among thy servants, and the owner of this place is in the 
utmost aJHucncc, delighting himself with pleasant odours and de- 
licious meats and exquisite beverages of all deseriptions. And Tliou 
has appointed tinio thy creatures what Thou wilt, and what Thou 
hast predestined for them; so that among (hem one is weary, and 
another is at ease; and one of them is prosperous, and another is like 
me* in the extreme ot fadgue and abjection! — And he recited thus: — 

How many wretched persons are destituie of case! and how many are in 

luxury* reposing in the shade! 
r find myself afflicted by trouble heyond mca^urci and sirangc rs my 

condition, and heavy is my load! 
Others are in prosj^rity* and h<tm wretchedness are free, and never for 

a single day have borne a load like mine; 
Incessantly and amply ble^t, diroughom the course of life, with happiness 

and grandeur^ as well as drink and meat. 
All men whom God haih made are in origin alike; and I resemble this 

man, and he resembleth mc; 
But otherwise, between us is a difference as great as the difference thai 

we find between wine and vinej^ar. 
Yet in saying this, I utter no falsehood against Tliee, [O my Lordj] art 

wise, and wiih justice Thou hast judged. 

And when Es-Sindibad the Porter had finished the recitation o£ 
his verses, lie desired to take up his bnrden and to depart. But, lo, 
there eame forth to him from that door a young pa^e, handsome in 
coimtcnance, comely in stature, magnificent in apparel; and he laid 
hold upon the porter^s hand, saying to him, Enter: answer the sum- 
mons of my master; for he calleth for thee. And the porter would 


have refused to enler with llie page; but he coi-ild not. He there- 
fore depc&lied his burdeii with the doorkeeper jn the entrance- 
passage, and» entering the house with the page, he found it 10 be 
a h-indsome mansion, presenting an appearance of joy and majesty. 
And he looked towards a grand clumber^ in which he beheld noble- 
men and great lords; and in it were ail kinds of flowers^ and aii 
kinds of sweet scents^ and viirieiies of dried and fresh fruits, to- 
gether with abundance of various kinds of exquisite viands, and 
beverage prepared from the fruit of the choicest grape-vines. In it 
were also instruments of music and mirth, and varieties oi beautiful 
slave-girlsj all ranged in proper order. And at the upper end of that 
chamber was a great and venerable man, in the sides of whose beard 
grey hairs had begun to appear. He was of handsome form» comely 
in conntenance, with an aspect of gravity and dignity and majesty 
and siateliness. So, upon this* Es-Sindibad the Porter was con- 
founded, and he said \^'Lthin himself* By Allah* this place is a portion 
of Paradise, or it is the palace of a King or Sultan! Then, putting 
himself in a respectful posture, he saluted the assembly* prayed for 
them* and kissed the ground before them; after which he stood, 
hanging down his head in humihty, liut the master of the house 
gave him permission to seat himself. He therefore sal. And the 
master of the house had caused him ro draw near unto him, and 
now began to cheer him with convcrj^ation* and to welcome him; 
and he put before him some of the various excelleni, delicious, 
exquisite viands. So Es-Sindibad the Porter advanced, and, having 
said, In the name of God* the Compassionate, the Merciful* — ate 
uniil he was satisfied and satiatetl, when he sjid, Praise be tO God 
in every case! — and washed his hands, and thanked them for this. 
The master of the house then said* Thou art welcome, and thy 
day is blessed. What is thy name, nd what trade dost thou fol- 
low?— O my master, he answered, my name is Es-Sindibad the 
Porter, and 1 bear upon my head men's merchandise for hjre. And 
at this* the master of the house smiled, and he said to him, Know* 
O porter* that thy name is hke mine; for I am Es-Sindibad of the 
Sea: but, O porter, I desire that thou let me hear the verses that 
thou wast reciting when thou wast at the door. The porter therefore 
was ashamed, and said to him, I cojijure thee by Allah that thou 


be not yngry with me; for faligiic and trouble, and pauciry of what 
the hynd posscsbcthT teach a man ill manners^ and nil perii nonce. His 
hosi» however, replied, Be not ashnmed; for thou hast become my 
brorher; recite then the verses, since ihey pleaded me when I he^rd 
them from thee as thou rccitedst them at the door. So upon this 
the porter reeiied to him chose verses, and they pleased him, and 
he was moved with deUght on hearing them. He then said to him, 
O porter, know that my story is wonderful, and I will inform thee 
of all that happcjied to me and befell me before I aLtained this 
prosperity and sat in this place wherein thou seest me. For I at- 
tained not this prosperity and this place save after severe fatigue and 
great trouble and many terrors- How often have I endured fatigue 
and toil in my early years! I have performed seven voyages, and 
connected with each voyage is a wonderful tale, that would con- 
found the mind. All that which I endured happened by fate and 
destiny, and from that which is written there is no escape nor flighr. 

The First Voyage of Es-Sindibad of the Sea 

Know, O masters, O noble persons, that I had a father; a mer- 
chant, who was one of the first in rank among the people and the 
merchants, and who possessed abundant wc;ihh and ample fortune. 
He died when 1 was a young child, leaving to me wealth and 
buildings and fields; and when I grew up, I put my hand upon the 
whole of the property, ate well and drank well, associated with the 
yoimg men, wore handsome apparel, and passed my life with my 
friends and companions, feeling confident that this course would 
continue and profit: me; and I ceased not to live in this manner for 
a length ot time. I then returned to my reason, and recovered from 
my heedlessness, and found ti it my wealth had passed away, and 
my condition had changed, and all [the money | that I had possessed 
had gone. 1 recovered not to see my situation but in a state of fear 
and confusion of mind, and remembered a tale that I had heard 
before, the tale of our lord Suleyman the son of Da'ud (on both 
of whom be peace!), respecting his s:iying, Three things are better 
than three: the day of death is better than the day of birth; and a 
living dog is better than a dead lion; and the grave is better than the 


palcice,^ Then 1 arose, :ind collected what 1 had, of effects and ap- 
parel, and sold themi after which i sold my buildings and all that 
my hand possessed, and amassed three thousand pieces o£ silver; 
and it occurred to my mind to travel to the countries of other people; 
and I remembered one of the sayings of the poets» which was this: — 

Jn proportion to one's labour, emmences are gained^ and Ke who seeketh 

eminence pa^seth sleepless nights. 
He diveih in [he sea who seekeih for pearls, and su(:tee(:!i.'i.h in acquiring 

lordship ^lui ^ood fortune. 
Whoso sccketh eminence without labourijie for it loscih his life in ihc 

search of vanity. 

Upon this, I resolved, and arose, and bought for mjselr goods 
and cominodicies and merchandise, with such other things as were 
required for travel; and my mind had consented to my performing 
a sea-voyage. So I embarked in a ship, and it descended to the city 
of El-Basrah, with a company of merchants; and we traversed fhe 
sea for many days and nights. We had passed by island after island, 
and from sea to sea, and from hind to land, an<:l in every place bv 
which we passed we sold and bought, and exchanged merchandise. 
We continued our voyage until we arrived at an island hke one 
of the gardens o£ Paradise, and at that island the master of the ship 
brought her to anchor with us. He cast the anchor, and put foiEh 
the landing-plank, and all who were in the ship landed upon that 
island. They had prepared for themselves tire-pots, and they lighted 
the fires in them; and their occupations were various: some cooked; 
others washed; and others amused themselves. I was among those 
who were amusing themselves upon the siiores of the island, and the 
passengers were assembled to eat and drink and play and sport. But 
while we were thus engaged, !o» the master of the ship, standing upon 
its side^ called out with his loudest voice, O ye passengers, whom 
may God preserve! come up quickly in to the ship, hasten to em- 
bark, and leave your merchandise, and flee with your lives, and 
save yourselves from destruction; for this apparent island, upon 
which ye are, is not really an island^ but it is a great fish that hath 
become stationary in the midst of the sea, and the sand hath accumu- 
lated upon it, so that it hath become like an island, and trees have 


grown upon it iince times of old; itiid when ye lighted the fire upon 
itT the fiih fek [he heat, and put itself in motion, and now it will 
descend with you into the sea, and ye will all be drowned: then 
seek for 5'ourselves escape before destrncdon, and leave tlie mer- 
chandise. — The passengerSi therefore, hearing the words of tlie 
master of the ship, h^istened to go up into the vessel, leaving the 
merchandise, and their other goods, and their copper cooking-pots, 
and their hre-pots; and some reached the ship, and others reached it 
not. The island had moved, and descended to the boLtom of the 
sea, \\-\i\\ all tliat were upon it, and the roaring sea, agitated widi 
waves, closed over it. 

1 was among the number of ihose who remained behind upon the 
island; so I sank in the sea with the rest who sank. Bur. God (whose 
name be e:ia][edlj delivered me and saved me from drowning and 
supplietl me with a great wooden bowl, of the bowls in which the 
passengers had been washing, and I laid hold upon it and got into it, 
ii^duced by the sweetness of Life, and beat the water with my feet as 
\^■ith oars, while the waves sported with me, tossing me to the right 
and left. The master of the vessel had caused her sails to be spread, 
and pursued his voyage with those who had embarked, not regard- 
ing such as had been submerged; and I ceased not to look at that 
vessel uncil it was concealed from my eye, I made sure of de- 
SEruction, and night came upon me while I was in chis state; but 
1 remained so a day and a night, and the wind and the waves aided 
me until the bowl came to a stoppage with me under a high island, 
whereon were trees overhanging the sea. So I laid hold upon a 
branch of a lofty tree, and clang to it, after I had been at the point 
of desirucrion; and I kept hold upon it until I Linded on the island, 
when I found my legs benumbed, and saw marks of the nibbling of 
fish upon their liams, of which I had been Insensible by reason of 
the violence of the anguish and faEigae that I ^vas suffering. 

I threw myself upon the island like one dead, and was uncon- 
scious of my existence, and drowned in my stupefaction; and I 
ceased not to remain in this condition until the next day. The sun 
having then risen upon me, T awoke upon the island, and found 
that my [eet were swollen, and that 1 had become reduced to the 
state in which I then was. Awhile 1 dragged myself along in a 


sitting posture, JXnd ihcn I crawled upon my knees. And there were 
in the island fruits in abundance, nnd springs of sweet wacer: there- 
fore 1 ate of those fruits; and I ceased not to continue in this state 
for many d^ys and nights. My spirit had then revived, my soul bad 
returned to me^ and my power of motion ^vas renewed; and I began 
to meditate, and to walk along the shote of the island, amusing 
myself among the trees with the sight of the things that God (whose 
name be exalted!) had created; and I had made for myself a staJ? 
from those trees, to lean upon it. Thus I remained until I walked, 
one day, upon the shore of the island, and there appeared unto me 
an indistinct object tn the distance. I imagined that it was a wild 
beast, or one of the beasts of the seaj and I walked towards it, ceas- 
ing not to gaze at it; and, lo, it was a mare, of superb appearance, 
tethered in a part nf the island by the sea-shore. I approached her; 
but she cried out against me with a great cry, and I trembled with 
fear of her, and was about to return, when, behold, a man came 
forth from beneath the earth, and he called to me and pursued me> 
saying to me, Who art thou, and whence hast thou come, and 
what is the cause of thine arrival in this place? So I answered him, 

my master, know that I am a stranger, and I was in a ship, and 
was submerged in the sea with certain others of the passengers; but 
God supplied me with a wooden bowl, and I got into it, and it bore 
me along until the waves cast me upon this island. And when he 
heard my ^vords, he laid hold of my hand and said to me. Come 
with me. I therefore went with liim, and he descended with me 
into a grotto beneath the earth, and conducted me into 3 large sub- 
terranean chamber, and, having seated me at the upper end of that 
chamber^ brought me some food. I was hungry; so I ate until I was 
satiated and contented, and my soul became at ease. Then he asked 
me respecting my case, and what had happened to me; wherefore 

1 acquainted him with my whole affair from beginning to end- and 
he wondered a: my story. 

And when I had finished my talc, T said, T conjure thee by Allah, 
O my master, that thou be not displeased with me: I have acquainted 
thee with the truth of my case and of what hath happened to me, 
and I desire of thee that thou inform me who thou art, and what 
is the cause of diy dwelling in this chamber that is beneath the 


earth, and what is the rc:ison. of thy tethering this marc by the 
sen-side. So he replied^ Know tli^t we are a party dispersed in this 
island, upon its shorci, and we are the grooms o£ the King El- 
Mihraj, having under our tare all his horses i and every moiiih, when 
moonhght coinmenceth, we bring the swifr mares^ and techer them 
in this island^ every mare that has not foaled, and conceal our- 
selves in this chamber beneath the earth, that they may attract the 
sea-horses. This h the time of the coming forth of the sea-horse; 
and afterwards, if it be the will of God (whose name be exalted!), 
I will take ihee with mc to the King El-Mihra], and-divert thee with 
the sight of our country. Know, moreover, that if thou hadst not 
met with us, thou hadst not seen any one in this place, and wouldsc 
have died in misery, none knowing of chee. Bat 1 will be the means 
of the preservation of thy life, and of thy return to thy country. — I 
therefore prayed for him, and thanked him for his kindness and 
beneficence; and while we were thus talking, the horse came forth 
from the sea, as he had said. And shortly after, his companions came 
each leading a inyre; and, seeing me with him, they inquired of me 
my story, and I told them what I had related to him. They then 
drew near to me, and spread the table, and ate, and invited me: so 
I ate with them; after which, they arose, and mounted the horses, 
taking me with them, having mounted me on a mare. 

We commenced our journey, and proceeded without ceasing until 
we arrived at the city of the King El-Mihraj, and they went in to 
him and acquainted him with my slofy. He therefore desired my 
presence, and they took me in to him, and stationed me before him; 
whereupon I saluted him, and he returned my salutation, and wel- 
comed me, greeting me in an honourable manner, and inquired of 
me respecring my case. So I informed him of all that had happened 
to me, and of all that I had seen, from beginning to end; and he 
wondered at that which had befallen me and happened to me, and 
said to me, O my son, by Allah thou hast experienced an extraor- 
dinary preservation, and had it not been for the predestined length 
of thy life, thou hadst not escaped from these difliculties; but praise 
be to God for thy safety! Then he treated me with beneficence and 
honour, caused me to draw near to him, and began to cheer me with 
conversation and courtesy; and he made me his superintendent of 


the sea-port, and registrar of every vessel that came to the coast. I 
stood in his presence to transact his affairs, and he favoured me and 
benefited me in every respect; he invested me \vich a liaiid^ome and 
co&tly dress^ and I became a person high in credit with him in inter- 
cessions* and in accompUshing the alTairs o£ the people. 1 ceased not 
to remain in his service for a long time; and whenever I went to 
the shore of the sea, 1 used to inquire of the merchants and ttaveliers 
and sailors respecting the direction of the city of Baghdad, that per- 
chance some one might inform me of it, and I might go with him 
thither and return to my country; but none knew it, nor knew any 
one who went to it. At this I ^vas perplexed, and 1 was ^\'eary of 
the length oi my absence from home; and in this state I con- 
tinued for a length of time, until 1 went in one day to the King 
El-Mihraj, and found with him a party of Indians. I SLiliited them, 
and they returned my salutation, and welcomed me, and asked me 
respecting my country; after which, 1 questioned them as to their 
country, and [hey told me that they consisted of various races. Among 
them are the Shakiriych, who are the most noble of dieir races, who 
oppress no one, nor offer violence to any. And among them are a 
class called the BrahmanSj a people who never drink wine; but 
they are persons of pleasure and joy and sport and merriment, and 
possessed of camels and horses and cattle. They informed me also 
that the Indians are divided into seventy-two classes; and I won- 
dered at this extremely. And 1 saw, in the dominions of the King 
EUMihraj, an island, among others, which is called K;3sil, in ^\hich 
is heard the beating of tambourines and drums throughout the night, 
and the islanders and travellers informed us that Ed-Dcjjal^ is in it. 
I saw too, in the sea m which is that island, a fish two hundred 
cubits long, and the fishermen fear it; wherefore they knock some 
pieces of wood, and it fleeth from them; and I saw a fish whose 
face was like [hat of the owL 1 likewise saw during that voyage 
many wonderful and strange things, such that, if I related them to 
you, the description would be too long- 

I continued to amuse myself with the sight of those islands and 
the things that they contained, until I stood one day upon the shore 
of the sea, with a staff in my hand, as ^vas my custom, and lo, a 


great vessel appfoacJied^ wherdn were many merchants; and when 
it arrived at the harbour of the city and its place of anchoring, the 
masEer furled its saJlrj, brought it to an anchor hy ihe shore, and 
put forth the landing-plank; and the sailors brought out every thing 
that was in that vessel to the shore. They were slow m taking forth 
the goods, while I stood writing their account, and 1 said to the 
master of the ship, Doth aught remain in thy vessel? He answered, 
Yes, O my master; 1 have some goods in the hold of the ship; but 
their owner was drowned in the sea at one of the islands during 
our voyage hither, and his goods are in our charge; so we desire to 
sell them, and to take a note of their price, in order to convey it to 
his family in the city o£ Baghdad, the Abode of Peace. I therefore 
said to the m.ister, What was the lume of that m^n, the owner of 
the goods? He answered, His nomc was Es-Sindibad of the Sea, 
ant! he ^vas drowned on his voyage \^'ith us in the sea. And when 
I heard his words, 1 looked at him vvith a scrutinizing eye, and 
recognized him; and 1 cried out at him with a great cry, and said, 
O master, know that I am the owner of the goods which thon hast 
mentioned, ai^d I am Es-Sindibad of the Sea, who descended upon 
the island from the ship, with the other merchants who descended; 
:jnd when the Jish that wo were upon moved, and thou calledst out 
10 us, some got into the vessel, and tlie rest sank, and I was among 
ihose who sank. But God (whose name be exaltedf) preserved me 
and saved me from drowning by means of a large xvooden howl, 
of tho^e in which passengers were washing, and I got into it, and 
began to beat the water with my feet, and the wind and the waves 
aided me until I arrived at this island, when I landed on it, and God 
(whose name he exalted!) assisted me, and [ met the grooms of the 
King El-Mihraj, who took me with them and brought me to this 
city. They then led me in to the King EI-Mihraj, and I acquainted 
him with my story; whereupon he bestowed benefits upon me, and 
appointed me clerk of the harbour of this city, and I obtained profit 
in his service, and favour with him- Therefore these goods that 
thou hast arc my goods and my portion. 

But the master said, There is no strength i:K>r power but in God, 
the High, the Great! There is no longer faich nor conscience in any 
one! — Wherefore, O master, said I, when thou hast heard me tell 


iKce my story? He answered^ Beciiuse ihou heardest me say that I 

hat] goods whose owner was drowned: therefore thou desirest to 

t,ike them without pricp; and this is unlawful to thee; for we saw 

him when he S^nk, and [here were ^vith him many of the passengers, 

not one of whom escaped. How then dost thou pretend that thou 

art the owner of the goods? — So I said to him, O master, hear my 

story, and understand my words, and my veraeity will become 

manifest 10 thee; for falsehood is a characteristic of the hypocrites. 

Then 1 related to him all that I had done from the time ihjt I went 

forth with him from the city of Baghdad until we arrived at that 

island upon which we \vere submerged in the sea, and I men- 
tioned to him some circumstances that had occurred between me 

and him. Upon this, therefore, the master and the merchants were 
convinced of my veracity, and recognized me; and they congratu- 
lated me on my safety, all of them saying, By Aibh, we believed not 
that thou hadst escaped drowning; hut God hath granted thee a new 
life. They then gave me the goods» and I found my name written 
upon them, and nought of them was missing. So I opened them, 
and took forth from them something precious and costly; the 
sailors of the ship carried it with me, and I went np with it to the 
King to oUgi it as a present, and inform him that this ship was the 
one in which I was a passenger. I told him also that my goods had 
arrived all entire, and that this present was a part oi them. And the 
King wondered at this affair extremely; my veracity in all that I 
had said became manifest to him, and he loved me greatly, and 
treated me with exceeding honour, giving me a large present in 
return for mine. 

Then. 1 sold my bales, as ^vell as the other goods that I had, and 
gained upon them abundantly; and i purchased other goods and 
merchandise and commodities o£ that city. And when the merchants 
of the ship desired to set forth on their voyage, I sto^ved all that f 
had in the vessel, and, >>oing in to the King, thanked him for his 
beneficence and kindness; after which 1 begged him to grant me 
permission to depart on my voyage to my country and my family. 
So he bade me farewell^ and gave me an abundance of things at 
my departure, of the commodities of that city; and when I had 
taken leave of him, I embarked in the ship, and we set sail by the 


permission of God, whose name be exakedl ForLuiic served us, and 
desiiny aided us, and wc ceased not lo prosecute our voy:ige night 
and dciy until we arrived in safely 3t the city of El-Basrah. There 
we landed, and remained a short lime; and 1 rejoiced at my safety, 
and my return to my country; and after that, 1 repaired to the 
city of Baghdad, the Abode of Peace, with abundance o£ bales and 
goods and merchandise of great value. Then I wen: to my quarter, 
and entered my house, and all my family and companions came to 
me. I procured for myself servanis and other dependants, and mem- 
luks and concubines jmd male black slaves, so that I had a large 
establishment; and I ptirchascd houses and other Immovable posses- 
sions, more than I had at first, I enjoyed the society of my com- 
panions and friends, exceeding my former habiis, and forgot all 
that I had suffered from fatigue, and absence from my native 
country, and dilliculty, and the terrors of travel. I occupied myself 
with delights and pleasures, and delicious meats and exquisite 
drinks, and continued in this state. Such were the events of the first 
of my voyages; and to-morrow, if it be the will of God (whose name 
be exalted!), 1 will relate to you the tale of the second of the seven 

Es-Sindibad of the Sea then made Es-Sindibad of the Land to sup 
with him; after which he gave orders to present him with a hundred 
pieces of gold, and said to him. Thou hast cheered us by thy com- 
pany this day. So the porter thanked him, and took from him what 
he had given him, and went his way, meditating upon the events 
that befell and happened to mankind^ and wondering eKtremcly, He 
slept that night in his abode; and when the morning came, he re- 
paired to the house of Es-Sindibad of the Sea, and went in to him; 
and he welcomed him, and treated him wiih honour, seating him by 
him. And after the rest of his companions had come, the food and 
drink were set before them, and the time was pleasant to them, and 
ibey were merry. Then Es-Sindibad of the Sea began his narrative 
thus:— ^ 

* {A paragraph similar to the preceding occurs st the end o£ the naridiive of each 
of Es'Sindibnd'^ vDyagc5> bul, as ia ihc case oi Stiiiuaz^d's repeticium each ni^lii. 
it is PQt here repeated,] 

es-sindibad of the sea 243 

The Second Voyacz op Es-Sindibad of the Sea 

Know, O my brothers, that 1 wiis enjoying ei mosr comfortable 
life, and the most pure happiness, as ye were lold yesrerda/, until 
ir occurred to my mind, one day, to travel again to the lands o£ other 
people, cind I felt a longing for the occupation of trallic, and the 
pleasure of seeing the countries and islands of the world, and gaining 
my subsistence. 1 resolved upon that affair, and, having taken forth 
from my money a large sum, I purchased with If goods and mer- 
chandise suitable for travel, and packed them up. Then I went to 
the bunk of the river, and found a handsome, new vessel, with sails 
of comely canvas, and it had a numerous crew, and was super^ 
fluously equipped. So I embarked my bales in it, as did also a 
parly of merchants besides, and we set sail day. The voyage was 
ple^Lsant to usj and we ceased not to pass from sea to sea, and from 
island to island; and at every place where we cast anchor, we met the 
merchants and the grande&s, and the sellers and buyers, and we sold 
and bought, and exchanged goods. Thus we continued to do until 
destiny conveyed us to a beautiful island, abounding with trees bear- 
ing ripe fruits, where flowers di/Tused their fragrance, with birds 
warbUng, and pure rivers: but there was not in it an inhabitant, nor 
a blower of a fire. The master anchored our vessel at that island and 
ihe merchants with the other passengers landed there, to amuse 
ihemselves with the sight of its trees, and to extol the perfection of 
God, the One, the Omnipotent, and to wonder at the power of the 
Almighty King. 1 also landed upon the island with the rest, and 
sat by a spring of pure water among the trees, t had with me some 
food, and 1 sat in that place eiiling what God (whose name be 
exalted!) had allotted mc. The zephyr was sweet to us in that 
place, and the time was pleasant to mej so slumber overcame me, 
and I reposed there, and became immersed in sleep, enjoying that 
sweet zephyr, and the fragrant gales- I then arose, and found not 
m the place a human being nor a Jinni. The vessel had gone with 
the passengers, and not one of them remembered me, neither any 
of the merdiants nor any of the sailors: so they left me in the island. 

I looked about it to the right and left, and found not in it any 
one save myself. I was therefore a/Tected with violent vexation, not 


to be exceeded, i3nd my gjlUbladder olmosi: burse by reason of the 
severity of my gric£ and mourning and fanigue. I hud not with me 
aught of worldly goods, iioiiher food nor drink, and 1 had become 
desolate, wciiry i\\ my soul, and despairing of Ufe; and 1 said, Not 
every time doth the jar escape unbroken; and if 1 esciipcd the first 
time, and found him who took me with him from the shore of the 
islatid to the inhahited part, far, far from me this time is the prospect 
of my finding him who will convey me to inhabited lands! Then 
J began lo weep and wail for myself until vexation overpowered me; 
and 1 blamed myself for that which I had done, and for my having 
undertaken this voyage and fatigue after 1 had been reposing at 
ease in my abode and my country, in ample happiness, and enjoying 
good food and good drink and good apparel, and had not been ui 
wane of any thing, either of money or goods or merchandise. I 
repented of my having gone forth from the city of Baghdad, and 
set out on a voyage over the sea, after the fatigue that I had suffered 
during my first voyage, and 1 felt at the point of destruction, and 
said. Verily to God we belong, and verily unto Him we return! 
And 1 was in the predicament of the mad. After that, I rose and 
stood up) and walked about the island to the right and left, unable 
to sit in one place- Then 1 climbed up a lofty tree; and began to 
look from it to the right and left; but saw nought save^ sky and 
water, and trees and birds, and islands and sands. Looking, how- 
ever, with a scrutinizing eye, there appeared to me on the island 
a while object, indistinctly seen in the distance, of enormous size: 
so I descended from the tree, and went towards it, and proceeded 
in that direciron without slopping irntil I .irrived at it; and lo, it 
was a huge white dome, of great height and large crrcumfcrcnce. 
I drew near to it, and walked round it; but perceived no door to it; 
and I found that J had not strength nor activity to climb it, on 
account of its exceeding smoothness. I made a mark at the place 
where I stood, and went round the dome measuring its circum- 
ference; and, lo, if was fifty full paces; and 1 meditated upon some 
means of gaining an entrance into it. 

The close of the day, and the setting of the sun, had now drawn 
near- and, behold, the sun was hidden, and the sky became dark, 
and the sun was veiled from me. T therefore imagined that a cloud 


had come over k; but this was in the season of summer: so I won- 
dered; and I raised my head, and, conccmplating that objecE atien- 
uvely, I saw that it was a bird, of enormous size, bulky body, and 
wide wings, fiying in the air; and this it was that eoncealed the 
body of the sun, and veiled it from view upon the island. At this 
my wonder increased, and 1 remembered a story which travellers 
and voyagers had lold me long before, that there is, in certain of the 
islands, a bird of enormous size, called the rukh, that feedeth its 
young ones with elephants, I was convinced, therefore, that the dome 
which 1 had seen was one of the eggs of the rukh. 1 wondered at 
the works of God (whose name be exalted'); and while I wa^ in 
this state, lo, that bird alighted upon die dome, and brooded over 
if with its wings, stretching out its legs behind upon the ground; 
and it slept over it. — Esiolled be tlie perfeciion of Him who sleepeth 
notf — Thereupon 1 arose, and unwound my turban from my head, 
and folded it and twisted it so that it became like a rope; and I 
girded myself with it, binding it tightly round my waist, and tied 
myself by it to one of the feet of that bird, and made the knot fast, 
saying within myself, Perhaps this bird wili convey mc to a land 
of cities and inhabitants, and that will be better than my remaining 
in this island, 1 passed the night sleepless, fearing thai if I slept, 
the bird would fly away v^ith me when I was not aware, and when 
the dawn came, and morn appeared, the bird rose from its egg, and 
uttered a great cry, and drew me up into the sky. It ascended and 
soared up so high that I imagined it had reached the highest region 
of the sky, and after that, it descended with me graduaQy until it 
alighted with me upon the earth, and rested upon a lofiy spot. So 
when I reached the earth, I hastily untied the bond from its foot, 
fearing it, though it knew not of me nor was sensible of me; and 
after I had loosed my turban from it, and disengaged ft from its 
foot, shaking as 1 did so, I walked away. Then it look something 
from the face of the earth in its talons, and soared to the upper 
region of the sky; and 1 looked attentively at that thing, and, lo, it 
was a serpent, of enormous size, of great body, which it had taken 
and carried off towards the sea; and I wondered at that event. 

After this I walked about that place, and found myselE upon an 
eminence, beneath which was a large, wide, deep valley; and by 


its side, a great mountain, very higli; no one could see its summit 
by reason of its excessive heiglit, jnd 00 one had power to ascend it. 
J therefore bbnied myself for that which 1 had done, and sjid» 
Would that I had remained in the island, since it is better than this 
desert place; for in the island are found, among various fruits, what 
I might have eaten, and 1 might have drunk of its rivers; but in this 
place ate neither trees nor fruits nor rivers: and there is no strength 
nor power but in God, the High, the Greail Verily every time that 
1 escape from a calamity, I fail into ano[her that is greater and more 
severe! — Then I arose, and emboldened myself, and walked in diat 
valley; and 1 beheld its ground to be composed of diamonds, with 
which ihcy perforate minerals and jewels, and with which also they 
perforaie porcelain and the onyx; and it is a. stone so hard that 
neither iron nor rock have any elTect upon it, nor can any one cut 
olT aught from it, or bre,"ik it, unless by means o£ the lead-stone. 
All that valley was likewise occupied by serpents and venomous 
snakes, every one of them like a palm-tree; and by reason of its 
enormous size, if an elephant came to it, it would swallow it. Those 
serpents appeared in the night, and hid themselves in the day, fear- 
ing lest [he rukh and the vulture should carry them off, and after 
that tear them in pieces; and the cause of that I know not, I re- 
mained in that valley, repenting of what I had done, and said 
within myself, By Allah, 1 have hastened my own destructionf I'he 
day departed from me, and 1 began to ^valk along that valley, look- 
ing for a place in which to pass the night, fearing those serpents, and 
forgetting my food and drink and subsistence, occupied only by 
care for my life. And there appeared to me a cave near by; so I 
walked thither, and I found its entrance narrow, i therefore entered 
it and, seeing a large stone by its motith, 1 pushed it, and stopped 
with it the mouih of the cave while I was within it; and I said 
within myself, 1 am safe now that I have entered this place; and 
when daylight shineih upon me, I will go forth, and see what 
destiny will do. Then I looked within the c-^vGy and beheld a huge 
serpent sleeping at the upper end of it over its eggs. At this my 
flesh quaked, and I raised my head, and committed my case to fate 
and destiny; and I passed all the night sleepless, until the dawn 
rose and shone, when T removed the stone with which 1 had closed 


ihe entrance of the cave, and went forth from iE> like one intoxicated, 
giddy from excessive sleeplessness and hnngi:r a^nd fear. 

1 then walked along the valley; and while 1 was thus occupied, lo, 
■3 great slaughtered animal fell before me, and I found no one. So I 
wondered thereat cxtremdy; and 1 remembered a story that 1 heard 
long before from certain of ihe merchants and tcaveUcrs, and persons 
in the habit of journeying abouti— that in the mountains o£ the dia- 
monds are experienced great tprrors, and that no one can gain access 
to the diamonds, but that the merchants who import them know 
a stratagem by means oi which to obtain them: that they take a 
sheep, and slaughter it, and skin it, and cut up its flesh, which they 
thj'ow down from the mountain to the bottom of the vaUcy: so, 
tlcsccnding fresh and moist, some of these stones stick to it. Then 
the mercliants leave it until midday, and birds of the large kind of 
vulture and the aquiline vulture descend to that meal, and, taking it 
in their talons, fly up to the top of the mountain; whereupon tlie 
merchants come to them, and cry out at them, and they fly ^vay 
from the meat. The merchants then advance to that meat, and take 
from it the stones sticking to it; after which they leave the meat for 
the birds and the wild beasts, and carry the stones lo their countries. 
And no one can procure the diamonds but by means of this strat- 
agem. — Therefore when I beheld that slaughtered animal, and re- 
membered this story, 1 arose and went to the slaughtered beast, I 
then selected a great ULimber of these stones, and put them into my 
pocket, and within my clothes; and I proceeded to select, and put 
into my pockets and my girdle and my turban, and within my 
clothes. And while I was doing thus, lo, another great slaughtered 
animaL So l bound myself to it with my turban, and, laying myself 
down on my back, placed it upon my bosom, and grasped it firmly. 
Thus it was raised high above the ground; and, behold, a vulture 
descended upon it, seized it with its talons, and flew up with it 
into the air, ^vith me attaclied to it; and it ceased not to soar up until 
it had ascended with it to the summit of the mountain, when it 
alighted with it, and was about to tear off some of it. And there- 
upon a great and loud cry arose from beliind that vulture, and some' 
thing made a clattering with a piece of wood upon the mountain; 
whereat the vulture flew away in fear, and soared info the sky, 


I therefore disengaged myself from ihe slaughtered animal^ wich 
rhe blood of wliich my cloches were polluted; and I stood by its 
side. And, lo, ihe merchant who hjd cried out at the vuUure 
advanced 10 die slaughtered animali and saw me standing there. 
He spoke not to me; for he was frightened at me» and terrified; 
but he came to the slaughtered beast, and turned it over^ and, not 
finding any thing upon it, he uttered a loud cry, and said» Oh» my 
disappointment! There is no strength nor power but in Godl We 
seek refuge with God from Saian the accursed! — He repented, and 
struck hand upon hand, and said, Oh, my grief! What is this affair? 
-^o I advanced to him, and he said to mo, Who art thou, and what 
is the reason of thy coming {o this place? I answered him. Fear not, 
nor be alarmed; for I am a human being, of the best of mankind; 
and I was a merchantj and my rale is marvclloirs, and my siory 
extraordinary, and the cause of my coming to this mountain and 
this valley is wondrous to relate- Fear not; for diou shalt receive of 
me what will rejoice thee; I have wiih me abundance of diamonds, 
of which I will give thee as much as will suiTice thee, and every 
piece that I have is better than all that would come to rhee by other 
means: therefore be not [imorous nor afraid. — And upon this the 
man thanked me, and prayed for me, and conversed with mej and, 
lo, the other merchants heard me talking with ihcir companion; so 
they came to me. Each merchant had thrown down a slaughtered 
animal; and when they came to us, they saluted me, and con- 
gratulated me on my safely, and took me with them; and I ac- 
quainted chem with my whole story, relating to them what I had 
sufTercd on my voyage, and telling them the cause of my arrival in 
this valley- Then 1 gave to the owner of the slaughtered animal to 
which I liad attached myself an abundance of what I had brought 
with me; and he was delighted with me, and prayed for nie, and 
thanked me for that; and the other merchants said to me, Ry Allah, 
a new life hath been decreed thee; for no one ever arrived at rjiis 
place before thee and escaped from it; but praise be to God for thy 
safety — They passed the next night in a pleasant and safe place^ and 
I passed the night with them, full of rhe utmost joy at my safety and 
my escape from the valley of serpents, and my arrival in an inhabited 


And when day camc^ we arose and journeyed over ttai great 
mountjin, beholding in that valley numerous serpentsj and we con- 
rintied to advance until we arrived ar a garden in a great and beau- 
tiful isbnd, wherein were camphor-irces, under each of which trees 
a hundred men might shade themselves. When any one desireth to 
obtain some camphor from one of these trees, he maki^th a perfora- 
tion in the upper part of it wiili something long» and catcheth what 
descendeLh from it. The liquid camphor lloweth from it^ and con- 
creteth Uke gum. It is the juice of that tree; and after this opera- 
tion, the tree drieth^ and becometh firewood. In that island too is a 
kind of wild beast called the rhinoceros which pastureth there like 
oxen and buffaloes in our country; but the bulk of that wild beast is 
greater than the bulk of the camels and it eateth the tender leaves 
of trees. It is a huge beasts with a single horn, thick, in the middle 
of its head, a cubit in length, wherein is the figure of a man. And 
in that island are some animals of the oii^-kind. Moreover, the sailors, 
and travellers, and persons in the habit of journeying about in the 
mountains and the !ands» have told us, that this wild beast which 
is named the rhinoceros lifteth the great elephant upon its horn, and 
pasturcth with it upon the island and the shores, without being 
sensible of it; and the elephant dielh upon its hotn; and its fat^ 
melting by the heat of the sun, and flowing upon its head entereth 
its eyes» so [hat it becometh blind. Then it licth down upon the 
shore^ and the rukh cometh to it, and carrieih it oH [with the ele- 
phant] in its tiilons to its young ones, and feedeth them with it and 
with that which ii upon its horn, [namely the elephant], I saw also 
in that island abundance of the bulfalo-kind, the like of which 
existeth not among us. 

The valley before mentioned containeth a great quantity of dia- 
monds such as I carried off and bid in my pockets. For these the 
people gave me in exchange goods and commodities belonging to 
(hem; and they conveyed them for me, giving me likewise pieces 
of silver and pieces of gold- and I ceased not to proceed wiih ihem, 
amusing myself with the sight of ditTerent countries, and of what 
God hath created, from valley to valley and from city to city, we, in 
our way, selling and buying, until we arrived at the city of El- 
Basrah. We remained there a few days, and then I came to the 


City of Baghdird^ the Abode o£ Pcice^ and came lo my qu.nrter, and 
entered my house^ bringing witli me a great quitntiEy of diamonds, 
and money and eommodities and goods in abundLincc, [ met my 
family and relations, bestowed alms and gifis^ mside prL'&L'iiis to all 
my family and companions, and began to eat well and drink well 
and wear handsome apparel. 1 associated with friends, and com- 
panions, forgot all that 1 had suffered, and ceased not to enjoy a 
pleasant life and joyful heart and dilated bosom, with sport and 
merriment. Every one who he^ird of my arrival came to mc, and 
inquired of me respecting my voyage, and the siatj?s of the different 
countries: so I informed him, relating to him what I had experienced 
and stiiTcred; and he wondered at the severity of my 5ulferings, and 
congratulated me on my safety. — This is the end of the account of 
the Gvenis that befell me and happened to me during the second 
voyage; and to-morrow, if it be the will of God (^vhose name be 
exalted)^ I will relate to yoti the events of the third voyage. 

The Third Voyagi; ot Es-SiNUifiAD 01; roE ^ea 

Kxow, O my brothers (and hear from me the story of the third 
voyage, for it is more wonderful than ihe preceding stories, hitherto 
related — and G*>d is all-knowing \v[d\ respect to the things which 
He hidcih, and omniscient), that, in the limci past, when 1 returned 
from [he second voyage, and was in a state of the tumosi joy and 
happiness, rejoicing in my sntety, having gained great i\eaiih, as I 
related to you yesterday, GoU having c^:^mpcnsated me for all that 
I had lost, I resided in the city of Baghdad for a length of time in 
the most perfect prosperity and delight, and joy and happiness. 
Then my sou! became desirous of travel and diversion, and I longed 
for commerce and gain and profits; the soul being prone to evil. So 
I meditatedi and bought an abundance of goods suited for a sea- 
voyage, and j>acked them tip, and departed with ibem from [he city 
of Baghdad to [he city of El-Basrah. There, coming to the bank of 
the river, I beheld a great vessel, in which ^verc many merchants 
and other passengers, people of worth, and comely and good per- 
sons, people of religion and kindness and probity. 1 therefore em- 
barked with them in that vessel, and we departed in reliance on the 
blessing of God (whose name be exaliedf), and his aid and favour, 


rejoicing in expectation of good-fortune and safety. We ceased not 
to proceed Erom sea to sea» and from island to island, and from city 
to city; at every place by which we passed diverting ourselves, and 
selling and buying, in the ulmost joy and happiness. Thus we did 
until we were, one day, pursuing our course in the raidsr of the 
roaring Sea, agitated with waves, when, lo, the master standing at the 
side of the vessel, looked at the different quarters of the sea, and 
then slapped his face, ftirled the sails of the ship, cast its anchors, 
plucked his beard, rent his clothes, and uttered a great cry. So we 
said to him, O master, what is the news? And ho answered, Know, 
O passengers, whom may God preserve! that the wind hath pre- 
vailed against us, and driven us out of our course in the midst of 
the sea, and destiny hath cast us, through our evil fortune, towards 
the Mountain of Apes. No one hath ever arrived at this place and 
escaped, and my heart is impressed with the conviction of the de- 
struction of us all. — And the words of the master were not ended 
before the apes had come 10 us and surrounded the vessel on every 
side, numerous as locusts, dispersed about the vessel and on the 
shore. We feared that, if we killed one of them, or struck him, or 
drove him away, they would kill us, on account of their excessive 
numheri for numbers prevail against courage; and we feared them 
lest they should plunder our goods and our commodities. They 
are the most hideous of beasts^ and covered with hair like black felt, 
their aspect striking terror. No one undcrstandcth ihcir language 
or their state, they shun the society of men, have yellow eyes, and 
black faces, and are of small size, the height of eacli one of them 
being four sp,"ins. They climbed up the cables, and severed them 
with their teeth, and ihey severed all the ropes of the vessel in every 
part: so the vessel inclined with the wind, and stopped at their 
mouncainj and 00 their coast. Then, having seized all the mer- 
chants and the other passengers^ and landed upon the island, they 
took the vessel with the whole of its contents, and went their way 
with it. 

They loft us upon the island, the vessel became concealed from 
us, and we knew not whither they went with it. And while we 
were upon that island, eating of its fruits and its herbs, and drinking 
of the rivers that were dicrcj lo, there appeared to us an inliabited 


house in the midsi of the island. We therefore went towards it, ;iiid 
walked 10 it; and» behold, n was a pavilion, with lofty angles, with 
high walls, having an entrance v^'ith folding doors, which were open; 
and the doors were of ebony- We entered Lhis pavilion, :uid found 
in il a wide, open space, like a wide^ large courCi around which were 
many lofty doors^ and at its upper end was a high and great mai^ta- 
bah. There were also in it utensils for cooking, hung over the fire- 
pots, and around [hem were many bones, liui we saw not there any 
person; and we wondered at ttiat e-xtremely. We sat in the open 
space m that pavilion a little while, after which we slept; and Ave 
ceased tioc to sleep from near the mid-time between sunrise and 
moon until sunset. And, lo, the earth trembled beneath us, and we 
heard a confused noise from the upper air, and there descended 
upon us, from the summit of the pavilion^ a person of enormotis 
size, in human form, and he was of black comple:;ion, of lofty 
stature, like a great pa!m-[ree: he hijd two eyes like two bla/.es of fire, 
and tusks Hke the tusks of swine, and a mouth of prodigious si::e, 
like the mouth of a well, and lips hke the lips of a camel, hanging 
down upon his bosom, and he had ears like two mortars, hanging 
doAvn upon his shoulders, and the nails of his hands were like the 
claws of the lion. So \vhen we beheld him thus, we became uncon- 
scious of our existence, our fear was vehement, and our terror was 
viofent, and through the violence of our fear and dread and terror 
we became as dead men. And after he had descended ujxin the 
ground, he sat a little while upon the mastabah. Then he nrose and 
came to us, and, seizing me by my hands from among my com- 
panions the merchants, hfted me up from the ground in his hand, 
and fell me and turned me over; and I was in his hand like a little 
moutliful. He continued to feel me as the butcher feelech the sheep 
that he is about to slaughter; bur he found me infirm from excessive 
affliction, and lean from excessive fatigue and from the voyage; hav- 
ing no flesh. He therefore let me go from his hand, and took 
another, from among my companions; and he turned him over, as 
he had turned me over, and felt him as he had feir me, and let him 
go- He ceased not to feel us and turn us over, one after another, 
imtil he came to the master of our ship, who was a fat, stout, broad- 
shouldered man; a person of strength and vigour: so he pleased him^ 


and he seised him as ihe butcher seizech the animai that he is abour 
to slaughter, and, hiiving thrown him on the groundi put his foot 
upon his ntck, which he thus broke. Then he brought a long spit, 
and thrust it into his throiit, and spitted him; after which he lighted 
a fierce fire, and placed o^er it that spit upon which tlic master was 
spitted, and ceased not to turn him round over the burning coals 
until his flesh was Ehoroughly roasted; when he took him ol^ from 
the fire» put him before him> and separated his joints as a man sep- 
arates the joints of a chicken, and proceeded to tear in pieces his 
flesh with his nails, and to eat of it. Thus he continued to do until 
he had eaten his flesh, and gnawed his bones^ and there remained 
of him nothing hut some bones, which he threw by the side of ihc 
pavilion. He then sat a little, and threw himself down, and slept 
upon that mastabab, making a noise with his throat hke chat which 
is made by a lamb or other be^ist when slaughtered; and he slept 
unimerrupEedly until the morning, when he went his way. 

As soon, therefore, as we were sure that be was far from us, we 
conversed together, and wept for ourselves^ saying. Would that we 
had been drowned in the sea^ or that the apes h;jd eaien usi for it 
were better than the roasting of a man upon hurning coalsl By 
Allah, this death is a vile one! But what God willeth cometh to 
pass, and there is no strength nor power but in God, the High, the 
Great! We die in sorrow, and no one knowcth of us; und there is 
no escape for us from this place! — We then aro^e and went forth 
upon the island, to see for us a place in which to hide ourselves, or 
:o flee; and it had become a light matter to us to die, rather than 
that our flesh should he roasted with fire. But we found not for us 
a place in which to hide ourselves; and the evening overtook us. 
So we returned to die pavilion, by reason of the violence of our fear, 
and sat there a little while; and, lo, the earth trembled beneath us. 
and that black approached us, and, coming among us, began to turn 
us over, one after another, as on the former occasion. Lind to feel us, 
until one pleased him; whereupon he scizcci him, and did with him 
as he did with the master of the ship the day before. He roaj^ted 
him, and ate him upon that mastabah, and ceased not to sleep that 
night, making a noise with his throat hke a slaughtered animal; 
and when the day camej he arose and went his way, leaving us as 


usical. Upon this we assembled together and conversed, and said^ 
one to another* By Allah* if we cast ourselves mio the sea and die 
drowned, it will be better than our dying burnt; for this mode of 
being put to death is abominable] And one o£ us said. Hear my 
words. Verily we :vill eontrivc a 5tr;iEagcm against him and kill 
him* and be at ease from apprehension of his purpose, and relieve 
the Muslims from his oppression and tyramiy. — So I said to them, 
Hear, O my brothers. If we must kill him, we will transport this 
wood, and remove some of this iirewood, and make for ourselves 
rafts, each to hear three men, after which we will contrive a strat- 
agem lo kill him, and embark on the nifts, and proceed over the 
sea to whatsoever place God shall desire. Or we will remain, in 
this plaee until a ship shall pass by, when we will embark in it. And 
it we be not able to kill him* wc will embark [on our raffs], and 
put out to sea; and if we be drowned, we shall bt: preserved from 
being roasted over the fire* and i^rom being slaughtered. If we escape* 
we escape; and i£ we he drowned* we die martyrs. — To this they all 
repliedj By Allah* this is a right opinion and a wise proceedingn And 
we agreed upon this matter, and commenced the work. We removed 
the pieces of wood out of the pavilion, and constructed rafts, attached 
them to the sea-shore, and slowed upon thcna some provisions; after 
which we returned to the pavilion. 

And when it was evening, lo* the earth trembled with us, and the 
black came in to us, like the biting dog. He turned us over and felt 
us, one after aiioiher* and* having taken one of us, did with him as 
he had done with the others before him. He ate him, and slept upon 
the masiabah, and the noise from his throat was like thunder. So 
thereupon we arose, and look two iron spits* of those which were 
set up* and put them in ihe fierce fire until they were red-hot, and 
became like burning coals; when we grasped them firmly, and 
went with them to that black while he lay asleep snoring* and we 
thrust ihem into his eyes* all of us pressing upoa ihem with our 
united strength and force. Thus wc pushed them into his eyes as 
he sleptj and his eyes were destroyed, and he uttered a great cry* 
whereat our hearts were terrified. Then he arose resolutely from 
that mastabah* and began to search for us, while we fled from him 
to l)ie right aiid lef^ and he saw us not; for liis sight was blinded; 


but we feared him wiih a violent fear, and made sure, in rliat time. 
of destruction^ and despaired of safety. And tipon this he sought tha 
doofj feeling for it, and went forth from it, crying out, while ^ve 
were in the utmost fear of him; and lo, the earth shook beneath U!S, 
by reason of the vehemence of his try. So when he went forth from 
the pavilion, we followed him, and he went bis way, searching for 
us. Then he returned* accompanied by a female, greater than he, 
and more hideous in form; and when we beheld him, and her who 
was with him, more horrible than he in appearance, we were in 
the utmost fear. As soon as the female saw lis» we hastily looked 
the rafts that we had constructed, and embiirked on liiem, and 
pushed thorn forth into the sea. Bui each of the two blacks had a 
mass of rock* and they cast at us until the greater number oi us 
died from the casting, there remaining of us only three persons, 1 
and two others; and the raft conveyed us to antuher inland. 

We walked forward upon that island until the close of the day, 
and the night overtook tis in this state; so we slept a little; and we 
awoke from our sleep* and*lo, a serpent of enormous size, of large 
body and wide belly* had surrounded us. It approached one o£ us, 
and swallowed him to his shoulders: then it swallowed the rest of 
him, and we heard his ribs break in pieces in its belly; after which 
it went its way. At this we wondered extremely, and ive mourned 
for our companion, and were in the upmost fear for ourselves^ say- 
ing, I5y Allah, [his is a wonderful thing! Every death that we wit- 
ness is more horrible than the preceding one! We were rejoiced at 
our escape from the black; but our joy is not completel There is no 
strength nor power but in God! Uy Allah, we have escaped from 
the black and from drowning; but how ihall we escape from this 
unlucky serpent? — Then we arose and walked on over the island, 
eating of its fruits, and drinking of its rivers, and we ceased not to 
proceed til! morning, when we found a great, lofty rree. So we 
climbed up it, and slept upon it; 1 having ascended tn the highest 
of its branches. But when the night arrived, and ic was dark, the 
serpent came, looking to the right and left, and, advancing to the 
tree upon which we were, came up to my compai^ion, and swalloss'ed 
him to his shoulders; and it wound itself round the tree wTih him, 
and 1 heard his bones break in pieces in its belly: then it s\^'alloived 


him entirely, while J looked on; after which ic descended from the 
ircc, yntl wen: its way. — I rcmaincJ upon that tree the rest of the 
night; and when the dity c^tne, and the hghl appeared^ ^ descended 
from the tree^ like one de:idj by reason of excessive fear and terror, 
and desired to cztsi myself into the sea^ that 1 might be at resE from 
the world; but it was not a light matter to me to do so; for life is 
dear. So I tied a wide piece of wood upon the soles of my feet, 
crosswise, and I tied one like it upon my left side, and 3 similar 
one upon mv right side, and a similar one u^x>n the front o£ my 
body, and I Lied one long and ^vide u|>on the lop of my head, cross- 
wise, like that which was under the soles o£ my feet- Thus I was 
in the midst of ihcse pieces of wood, and iliey enclosed me on every 
side. 1 bound [hem tightly, and throw myself with the whole upon 
the ground; so I lay in the midst of the pieces o£ wood, which 
enclosed me like a closet. And when the evening arrived, the ser- 
pent approached as it was wont, and saw me, and drew to^vards me; 
but it could not swallow me when I was in that state^ with the pieces 
of wood round me on every side. It went round me; but could not 
come at me: and 1 looked at it, being like a dead man, by reason of 
the violence of my fear and terror. The serpent rctiretl from me, and 
returned to me; and thus it ceased not lo do: every time that it 
desired to get at mc to swallow me, the pieces of wood lied upon 
me on every side prevented it. It continued to do thus from sunset 
until daybreak arrived and the light appeared and the sun rose, when 
it went its way, in the utmost vexation and rage. Upon this, there- 
fore, 1 stretched forth my hands and loosed myself from those pieces 
of wood, in a state like ihat of the dead, through the severity of that 
which J had suffered from that serpent. 

I then arose, and walked along the island until I came to the 
extremity of it; when 1 cast a glance towards the s^^, and beheld a 
ship at a distance, in the midst of the deep. So I took a great branch 
of a tree, and made a sign with it to the passengers, calling out to 
them; and when they saw me, they said, We must see what this is. 
Perhaps it is a man. — Then they approached me, and heard my cries 
to them. They therefore came to me, and took me with them in 
the ship, and asked me rest>ec[ing my state; so I informed them of 
all that had happened to me from beginning to end, and of the 


troubles 1 had suffered; whereat ihcy wondered e:ttremcly. 
They clad me with some oi their clothes, attiring me decently; and 
after that, they put before me some provisions^ and I ate until 1 was 
satisfied. Tliey also gave me to drink some cool and sweet water, 
and my heart was revived, my soul became at ease» and 1 experienced 
great comfort. God (whose name be exalted!) had raised me to Ufe 
after my death: so I praised Him (exalted be his name!) for His 
abundant favours, and thanked Him. My courage was strengthened 
after I had made sure of destruction, so that it seemed to me that all 
which I then experienced was a dream,— We proceeded on our 
voyage, and the wind was fair to us by the permission of God (whose 
name be eKaited!) iinti! we came in sight of an island called the 
Island of Es-Selahit^ where sand^rlwood is abandanij and there the 
master anchored the ship, and the merchants and other passengers 
landed, and took forth their goods to sell and buy. The owner of 
the ship then looked towards me, and said to me. Hear my words, 
Thou art a stranger and poor, and hast informed us that thou hast 
suffered many horrors: 1 therefore desire to benefit thee with some- 
thing that will aid thee to reach thy country, and thou wilt pray for 
me. — I replied, So be it, and thou shak have my prayers. And he 
rejoined* Know that there was with ua a man voyaging, whom we 
lost> and we kno^v not whether he be living or dead, having heard 
no ridings of him, I desire to commit to thee his bales that thou may- 
est sell them in this island. Thou shalt take charge of them, and we 
will give thee something proportionate to thy trouble and thy serv- 
ice; and what temaineih of them we will take and keep until we 
return to the city of Baghdad^ when we will inquire for the owner^s 
family, and give to them the remainder, together with the price of 
that which shall be sold of them. Wjit thou then take charge of 
rhcm, and land with them upon this island, and sell (hem as do the 
merchants? — 1 answered, I hear and obey thee, O my master; and 
thou art beneficent and kind. And I prayed for liim and thanked 
him for that. 

He thereupon ordered the porters and sailors to land those goods 
upon the island, and to deliver them to me. And the clerk of the 
ship said, O master, what are these bales which the sailors and porters 
have brought out, and with the name of \vhich of the merchants 


shiill I m,ifk them? He answered, Write upon them the name of 
Es-Sindibad of the Ses, who was with us, and was drowned [or left 
behind] 3t the island [of the rukh], and o£ whom no tidings have 
come to us; wherefore we desire that this sir.inger sell them^ and 
talie charge of the price of them, and we will give him somev\fhai 
of it in requital of his troifble and his sale of ihem. What shjll 
remjin we will take witli us imril we return to the erty of Baghdad, 
wlicii, if we fmd him, we will give it ro him; and i£ we find liim 
not, we will give it to his family in — So the clerk replied. 
Thy words are good, and thy notion is e^^cellcnt. And when I 
heard the words of the master, mentioning that the bales were to 
be inscribed with my name, I said withrn myself, By Allah, 1 am 
Es'Sindibad of the Sea. Then I fortified myself, and waited till the 
merchants had landed and had assembled conversing ^ind consult- 
ing upon affairs of selling and buying, when I advanced to die oxiner 
of the ship, and safd to him, O my master, dost thou know what 
manner of man was the owner of the bales ^\iiich diou liasr com- 
mitted to me that 1 may sell them? He answered me, 1 know not 
his condition; but he was a man of the city of Baghdad, called Es- 
Sindibad of the Sea; and we had cast anchor at one o£ the islands, 
where he was lost, and we have had no tidings of him to the present 
time. So upon this I uttered a great cry, and said to him, O master 
(whom may God preserve!), know that I am Es-Sindibad of the 
Sea. I was not drowned; but when thou anchoredst at the island, 
and the merchants and other passengers landed^ I also landed with 
the party, taking with me something to eat on the shore of the island. 
Then I enjoyed myself in sitdng in that place, and slumber over- 
taking me, I slept, and became immersed in sleep; after which I 
arose and found not the ship, nor found I any one with me. I'here- 
fore this wealth is my wealth, and these goods are my goods. All 
the merchants also who transport diamonds saw me when 1 was 
upon the mountain of the diamonds^ and they will bear witness for 
me that I am Es-Sindibad of the Sea, as I informed them of my story 
and of the events that befell me with you in the ship. I informed 
them that ye had forgotten me upon the island, asleep, and that I 
arose and found not any one, and that what had befallen me befell 


And when ihe mercha[its and other passengtirs heard my words, 
they assembled around me; and some of ihem believed me^ and 
others disbeUeved me. But while we were ihas talking^ lo» one o£ 
ihe merchants, on his hearing me mention the vahey of diamonds 
arose and advanced to me, and said to them» Hear, O company, my 
words. When 1 related lo you tlie most wonderful ihmg that I had 
seen in my travels, I told you ih^t, when we cast down chc slaugh- 
tered animals into the valley of diamonds, I casting down mine with 
the rest, as I was accustomed to do, there came up with my slaugh- 
tered beast 3 man attached 10 it, and ye believed me not, but accused 
me o£ falsehood-— They replied. Yes; thou didst relate to us this 
diing, and we believed thee not. And the merchant said to them, 
This is the man who attached himself to my slaughtered animal, 
and he gave me some diamonds of high price, the like of which exist 
not, rewarding me with more than would have come up with my 
slaughtered animal; and I rook him as my companion until we 
arrived at the city of El-Basrah, whence he proceeded to his coun- 
try, having bidden us farewell, and we returned to our own coun- 
tries. This is he, and he informed us that his name was Es-Sindibad 
of the Sea: he told us likewise of the departure of the ship, and of 
his sitting in that island. And know ye that this man came not to 
us here but in order that ye might believe my words respecting the 
matter which I told you; and all these goods are his property; for 
he informed us of them at the time of his meeting with us, and the 
truth of his assertion hath become manifest, — So when the master 
heard the words of that merchant, he arose and came to me, and, 
having looked at me awhile wiih a scrutinizing eye, said. What is 
the mark of thy goods? I answered him, Know that the mark of 
my goods is of such and such a kind. And I related to him a cir- 
cumstance that had occurred between mc and him when I embarked 
t\'ith him in the vessel fron^ El-Basrah. He therefore was convinced 
that I was Es-Sindibad of the Sea, and he embraced me and salutetl 
me, and congratulated me on my safety, saying to me. By Allah, O 
my master, thy story is wonderful and ihy case is extraordinary! But 
praise be to God who hath brought us together, and restored thy 
goods and thy wealth to diee! 

Upon this, 1 disposed of my goods according to the knowledge 1 


possessed and they prixured me, during that voyage^ great gain, 
whereat I rejoiced exceedingly^ congratulating myself on my snfetyj 
and on the restoration of my wejUh lo me. And we ceased not to 
sell and buy at the islands until we arrived at the country of Es- 
Sind/' where likewise we sold and bought. And I beheld in that 
sea [which we navigated^ namely the Sea of India,] many wonders 
and strange things thac cannon be numbered nor cakiilaied. Among 
the things that I saw tliere were a iis.h in die form of ihc cow^ and a 
creature in the form of the ass; and I saw a bird that cometh forth 
from a sea-shell, and layeth its eggs and hatcheth thom upon the 
surface of the water, and never cometh forili from the sea upon the 
face of the earth- — After this we continued our voyage, by permis- 
sion of God (whose name be exakedS), and the wind and voyage 
were pleasant to us, until we arrived at El-liasrah, where 1 remained 
a few days. Then 1 came to the city of Baghdad, and repaired to 
my quarter, entered my house, and saluted my family and com- 
panions and friends. I rejoiced at my safety and my return to my 
country and my family and city and district, and I gave alms and 
presents, and dad the widows and the orphans, and collected my 
companions and friends- And 1 ceased not to live thus, eating and 
drinking, and sporting and making merry, eating well and drinking 
well, associating familiarly and mingling in sotieiy; and I forgot 
all that had happened to me, and tlie distresses and horrors that 1 
had sulTeFed. And I gained during that voyage what could not be 
numbered nor calculated. — Such ^vere the most wonderful of the 
things that I beheld during that voyage; and to rnorrow, if it be the 
will of God (whose name be exalted!), thou shalt come. [O Sindi- 
bad of the Land,] and I will relate to thee the story of the fourth 
voyage; for it is more wonderful than the stories of the preceding 

The Fourth Voyage of Es-SixoniAD or the Sea 

Know, O my brothers, that when T returned to the city of Bagh- 
dad, and met my companions and my [amily and my friends, and 
was enjoying the utmost pleasure and happiness and ease, and had 

^Wcitcm India. 


forgotten all that I had experienced, by reason of the abundance of 
my gains, and had become immersed in sport and mirth, and the 
society of friends and companions, leading the most delightful life, 
my wicked soul suggested to me to travel ag-iin to the countries of 
other people, and I felt a longing for associating with the diilerent 
races of men, and for selling and gains. Su I resolved upon this, 
and purchased precious goods, suitable to a sea-voyage, and, having 
packed up many bales, more than usual, I went from the city of 
Baghdad to the city of El-Basrah, where I embarked my bales in a 
ship, and joined myself to a party of the chief men of El-Basrah, 
and we set forth on our voyagen The vessel proceeded with ns, con- 
fiding in the blessing of God (whose name be exiiltedf), over the 
roaring sea agitated with waves, and the voyage was pleasant to us; 
and we ceased not to proceed in this manner for a period of nights 
and days, from island to island and from sea to sea, until a con- 
trary wind rose against us one day. The master therefore cast the 
anchors^ and stayed the ship in the midst of the sea» fearing that she 
wotrld sink in the midst of die deep- And while we were in this 
Slate, supplicating, and humbhng ourselves to God (whose name 
be exalted,'), there rose against us a great tempest, which rent the 
sails in strips, and the people were submerged with all their bales 
and their commodities and wealth. I was submerged among the rest, 
and I swam in the sea for half a day, after which I abandoned my- 
self; but God (whose name be exalted!) aided me to lay hold upon 
a piece of one of the planks of the ship, and I and a party of the 
merchants got upon ir. We continued sitting upon this plankj 
striking the sea with our feet, and the waves and the wind helping 
ns; and we remained in this state a day and a night. And on the 
following day, shortly before the mid-lime between sunrise and 
noon, a wind rose against us, the sea became boisterous, the waves 
and the wind were violent, and the water cast us upon an island; 
and we were like dead men, from excess of sleeplessness and fatigue, 
and cold and hunger, and fear and thirst. 

We walked along the shores of that island, and found upon h 
abundant herbsi so we ate some of them to stay our departing 
spirits, and to sustain us; and passed the next night upon the shore 
of the island. And when the morning came, and dil^used its light 


and shone, we rose and walked abouc the island to the right and 
left, and there appeared to us a building in the distance. We there- 
fore proceeded over the island in tbe direction of that building which 
we had seen (iom a distance^ and ceased not to proceed until we 
Stood at its door. And while we were standing there, lo, there cime 
forth to us from ihjt door a parly of naked men, who, without 
speaking to us, seized us, and took us to their King, and he com- 
manded us to sit. So we sat; and they brought to us some food, 
such as we knew not, nor in our lives had we seen the like of it; 
wherefore my stomach consented not to it, and 1 ate none of it in 
comparison with my companions^ and my earing so little of it was 
owing to the grace of God (whose name be exaltedl), in conse- 
quence of which I have lived to the present time. For when my 
compianions ate of that food, their minds became stupefied, and they 
ate hke madmen, and their states became changed. Then the people 
brought to them cocoa-nut-oil» and gave them to drink of it, and 
anointed them with it; and when my companions drank of that oil, 
their eyes became turned in their faces, and they proceeded to eat 
of that food contrary to their usual manner. Upon this, therefore, 1 
was confounded respecting their case, and grieved for them, and 
became extremely anxious by reason of the violence of my fear for 
myself with regard to these naked men. I observed ihem atten- 
ti^'eiy, and, to, they were a Magian people^ ^id the King of ttieir 
city was a ghul; and every one who arrived at their country, or 
whom they saw or met in the valley or the ro;jds, they brought to 
their King^ and they fed him with that food, and anointed him with 
thar oil, in consequence of whkh his body became expanded, in 
order ihar he might eat largely; and his mind was sEupefied, his 
faculty of reflection was destroyed, and he became like an idiot. 
Then they gave him to cat and drink in abundance of that food and 
oil, until he became fat and stout, when they slaughtered him and 
roasted him, and served him as meat to their King- But as to the 
companions of the King, they ate the Jlesh of men ^vithout roasting 
or otherwise cooking it. So when 1 saw them do thus, I was in the 
utmost angnish on my own account and on account of my com- 
panions- The latter, by reason of the excessive stupefaction of their 
minds^ knew not what was done unto them, and the people com- 


mined them 10 a person who took ihem every day and went fortli 
to pasture ihem on thitt island like caitie. 

But as for myself, I became^ through the vfolcnce oif fear arid 
hunger, inlirni and wasted in body» and my flesh dried upon my 
booes. So when ihey saw me in this state, they left me and Eorgor 
me, and not one o£ them remembered me, nor did I occur to their 
minds, until i contrived a stratagem one day, and, going forth from 
th;iC place, walked along the i&hand Lo a distance. And I saw a herds- 
man sitting upon something elevated in the midst o£ the sea^ and 
1 certified myself of him, and, lo, he was the man to whom they 
had committed my compaoions that he might pasture them; and 
he had wiih him many like them. As soon, therefore, as that man 
beheld me, he knew th;it i was in possession of my reason, and that 
nought of that which hatl aEllicted my companions had alHicted me. 
So he made S. sign to me from a distance, and said to me^ Turn 
back, and go along the road that is on thy right hand; thoa wilt so 
reach the King's highway. Accordingly 1 turned back, as this man 
directed me, and, seeing a road on my right hand, 1 proceeded along 
it, and ceased not to go on, sometimes running by reason o£ fear, 
and sometimes ivatking at my leisure until I hiid taken rest. Thus 
I continued to do until I was hidden from the eyes of the man who 
directed me to the way, and I saw him not nor did he see me. The 
sun had disappeared from me, and darkness approached; where- 
fore I sat to rest, and desired to sleep; but sleep came not to me chat 
night on account of the violence of my fear and hunger and fatigue. 
And when it was midnight, 1 arose and walked oji over the island, 
and I ceased not to proceed until day arrived, and the morning came 
and diffused its hght and shone, antl the sun rose over the tops of 
the liigh bills and over the low gravelly plains. I was tired and 
hungry and thirsty: SO I began to eat of the herbs and vegetables 
that were upon die island, and continued to eat of them till I was 
satiated, and my departing spirit was stayed; after which I arose 
and walked on again over the island; and thus I ceased not to do 
aU the day and the next night; whenever 1 was hungry, eating of 
the vegetables. 

In this manner 1 proceeded for the space of seven days witii their 
nights: and on the morning of the eighth day, I cast a glancCj and 


beheld a faint object in ibe distance. So I went towards it, :ind 
ceased not to proceed until I came up to it, aiiQi sunset; .ind 1 looked 
at it with a scrutinizing eye, while 1 was yet diitant from it, and 
with a fe;irful heart in consequence of what I had suffered first 
and after, and, loj it :vas a party of men gathering pepper. And 
when 1 approached them, and chey saw me, they hastened to nie, 
and came to me and surrountled ine on every side, saying to me. 
Who art ihouiand whence hast thou come? 1 answered them, Know 
ye, O people, that I am a poor foreigner. And 1 informed them of 
my whole case, and of the horrors and distresses that had befallen 
me, and what 1 had sulfered; whereupon they Siiid, By Allah, this 
is a wonderful thing! But how didijt ihoii escape from the blacks, 
and how didst ihou pass by them in this island, when they are a 
numerous people, and eat men, and no one is safe from them, nor 
can any pass by them? — So I acc^uaintcd them with that which had 
befallen me among them, and with the manner in which ihey had 
taken my companions, and fed ihem with food of which I did not 
eat. And ihcy congratulated me on my safety, and wondered at 
that which had befallen me. Then they jnadc me sit among them 
undl they had Jinished their ^vork, and rhcy brought me some nice 
food, i therefore ate of it, being hungry, and rested with them a 
while; after which they took me and embarked with me in a vessel, 
and went to their island and their abodes. They then took me to 
their King, and I saluted him, and he welcomed me and treated me 
with honour, and inquired of me my story. So I related to him what 
I had experienced, and what had befallen me and happened to me 
from the day of my going forth from the city of Baghdad until 1 
had come unto him. And the King wondered extremely at my 
story, and at the events that had happened to me; he, and all who 
were present in his assembly. After that, he ordered me to sit with 
him. Therefore I sat; and he gave orders to bring the food, which 
accordingly they brought, and 1 ate of it as much as sufficed me, and 
washed my hands, and oilered up thanks for the favour of God 
(whose name be exakcdl), praising Him and glorifying Him. T 
then rose from the presence of the King, and diverted myself with 
a sight of his city; and, lo, it was a flourishing city, abounding with 
inhabitants and wealth, and with food and markets and goods, and 
wllcrs and buyers. 


So I rejoiced at my arrival at that cify^ and my heart was at case; 
1 became fiimillar with its inhabitaois, and was magnified and 
honoured by them and by theif King above ihc people of his 
dominiuna and the great men o£ his city. And I saw that all its 
great men and its small rode excellent and fine horses without sad- 
dles; whercjt I wondered; and 1 said to the King, Wherefore, O 
my lojd, diiii thou not ride on a saddle; [or therein is ease to the 
ridcr> and additional power? He said. What kind oi thing is a 
saddle? This is a thing that in our lives we have never seen, nor 
have we ever ridden upon ic^And 1 said to him, Wilt thon permit 
me to make for thee a saddle to ride upon and to ej:pericnte the 
pleasure of it? He answered me, Do so. I therefore said to him, 
Furnish me ^vkh some wood. And he gave orders to bring me all 
ihat 1 required. Then I asked for a clever carpenter, and sat 
with him, and laught him the construction of the saddle, and how 
he shoultC make it. Afterwards 1 took some wool, and teased it, and 
made felt of it; and 1 caused some leather to be brought, and covered 
the saddle with it, and polished it. I then attached its straps, and 
its girth: after which I brought the blacksmith, and described to 
him the form of the stirrups^ and he forged an excellent pair of 
stirrups; and I filed them, and tinned them. Then I attached fringes 
of silk. Having done this, 1 arose and brought one of the best of the 
King*s horses, girded upon him that saddle, attached to it the stir- 
rups, bridled him, and brought him forward to the King; and it 
plenscd him, and xvas agreeable to him* He thanked me, and seated 
himself upon it, and was greatly delighted with thiit saddle; and he 
gave mc a large present as a reward for that which I had done for 
him. And when his We^ir saw that I had made that saddle, he 
desired of me one like it. So I made for him a saddle like it. The 
grandees and dignitaries likewise desired of me saddles, and I made 
for them, I taught the carpenter the consirnction of the saddle; and 
the blacksmith, the mode of making stirrups; and we employed our- 
selves in making these things, and sold them to the great men and 
masters. Thus 1 collected abundant weakh, and became in high 
estimation with [hem, and they loved me exceedingly. 

1 continued to enjoy a high rank with [he King and his attendants 
and tbe great men of the country and the lords of the state, until I 
sat one day with the King, in the utmost happiness and honour; 


jnd while I was sJLEing, ihc King said to m^. Know, O thou, th^t 
ihou hjit become magnified and honoured among us, and liasr 
becoine one of us, ;ind wc cannoi pari widi thee, nor can we sutler 
thee to dep,trt from our city; and I desire of thee thyi: thoii obey me 
in an afTiiir, and reject not chat which 1 shall say- So 1 s:iid to him, 
And what dost thou desire of me, O King? For I will not reject 
ihat which thou shalt say, since ihou hast shewn favour and kind- 
ness and beneficence to me, and (praise be to God!) I have become 
one of ihy servants. — And he answered, I desire to marry thee among 
lis to a beauiiftil, (o^efy, eiegjnt wife, possessed of weahh and love- 
hness, and thou .shah become a dweller with us, and 1 will lodge 
thee by me in my palace: therefore oppose me not, nor reject what 
1 say. And when 1 heard the words of the King, I was abashed at 
him, and was silent, returning him no answer, by reason of the ex- 
ceeding bashfulness with whicli I regarded him. ^o he said. Where- 
fore dosi thoEi not reply to me, O my son? And I answered him, O 
my master, it is thine to command, O King of the age! And U[]on 
this he sent immediately and caused the Kadi and the witnesses to 
come, and married me fordiwith to a woman of noble rank, of high 
hneage, possessing abundant wealth and fortune, of great origin, of 
surprisiug loveliness and beauty, owner of dwelhngs and possessions 
and buildings. Then he gave me a great, handsome house, standing 
alone, and he gave me servants and other dependents, and assigned 
me supplies and salaries. Thus I became in a state of the utmost 
ease and joy and happiness, forgetiing all the fatigue and affliction 
and adversity ihat had happened to me; and I said within myself. 
When I set forth on my voyage to my country, I will take her with 
me. But every event that is predestined to happen to man must 
inevitably take place, and no one knoweth wliat will befall him. 
1 loved her and she loved me with a great affection, concord existed 
between me and her, and we lived in a most delightful manner, and 
most comfortable abode^ and ceased not to enjoy this state for a 
length of rime. 

Then God (whose name be exaked[) caused to die the wife of 
my neighbour, and he was a companion of mine. So I went in to 
him to console him for the loss of his wife, and beheld him in a 
most evil state* anxious, weary in soul and heart; and upon this I 


consoled him ^nd comforced him» saying to him» Mourn not for 
thy wife. God will happily compensiHe ihee by giving ihee one 
betLcr than she, and thy lite will be bng if it be ihe will oi God* 
whose name be exalied! — But he wept violently, and said to me, O 
my compiinion, how can 1 marry another after her, or how can God 
compensate me by giving me a better than she, when but one day 
remaineth of my life? So 1 replied, O my brodier, return to thy 
reason, and do not announce thine own denth; for thou art well, in 
prosperity and health. But he said to me, O my companion, by thy 
life, to-morrow thou wik lose me, and never in ihy life wilt thou 
see me again. — And how so? said 1. He answered me, This day 
ihcy will bury my wife, and they will bury me with her in the 
sepulchre; for it is onr custom in our country, when the wife dieih. 
to bury with her her husband alive; and when the husband dieth, 
they bury with him hrs wife alive; that neither of them may enjoy 
life after the other. 1 therefore said to him. By Allah, this custom 
is exceedingly vile, and none can endure it! — And while we were 
thus conversing, lo, most of the people of the city came, and pro- 
ceeded to console my companion for the loss of his wife and for 
himself. They began to prepare her body for burial according to 
their custom, brought a bier, and carried the woman in it, with ail 
her apparel and ornaments and wciilth, taking the husband with 
ihem; Land ihey went forth with them to the outside of the city, and 
came to a place in the side of a mountain by the sea. They advanced 
to a spot [here, and lifted up ftom it a great stone, and there ap- 
peajed, beneath the place of this, a margin of stone, like ihe margin 
of a well. Into this they threw down that woman; and, lo, it was 
a great pit beneath the mountain. Then they brought the man, tied 
him beneath his bosom by a rope of fibres of the palm-tree, and 
lef him down into the pit. They also let down to him a great jug 
of sweet water, and seven cakes of breads and when they had let 
him down, he loosed himself from the rope, and they drew ic op* 
and covered ilie mouth of the pit with that great sione as it was 
before, and went their ways, leaving my companion with his ^vife in 
the pit.— 5o 1 said within myself. By Allah, this death is more 
grievous than the first death] 1 then went to their King, and said 
to him, O my lord, how is it that ye bury the Uving with the dead 


iu your couiiLry? Ajid he ajiswered me, Know thac this b our cus- 
tom in our coLiiicry: when die husband dieth, we bury with him his 
wife; und when the wife dieih, wc bury wiih her her huabLind :dive; 
ihat we luity iioi scpar^ite ihctn in life nor in dejih; and this ci:sLom 
we have received from our forefathers. And 1 said, O King of the 
age^ 0nd in like manner the foreigner hke nie* when his wife dieth 
among you do ye with him as ye hiive done with this man? He 
imswercd inc, Yes: we bury him with hcr^ and do with him ;is thou 
hast seen. And \s'hen I heard these words from him» my gLilI-biadder 
almost burst by r&Jsoii of the violence of my grief and mourning 
for myself; my mind was stupefied^ J^nd 1 beciime fejrful lest my 
wife should die before me and they shouid bury me alive with her. 
Afterwards^ ho^vever, I comforted myself, and said, Perhaps I shall 
ilic before her: ^nd no one knoweih which will precede and which 
w'iU follow. And 1 proceeded to beguile mysself with occupations. 

And but a short time had elapsed after that when my wife fell 
sick, and she remained so a few days, and died. So the greater num- 
ber of the people assembled to console me, and to console her f;imily 
for her death; and the King also came to console me for the loss of 
her, as was their custom. Then they brought for her a woman to 
:vash her, and ihey ^^'ashed her» and decked her with the richest of 
her apparel, and ornaments of gold, and necklaces and jewels. And 
when they had attired my wife, and put her in the bier, and carried 
her and gone with her to dial mountain, and lifted up the atone 
from the mouth of the pit, aiid cast her into it, all my companions, 
and the family of my wife, advanced to bid me farewell and to con- 
sole me for the loss of my life. I was crying out among them, I am 
a foreigner, and am unable to endure yonr cttstoml But they would 
not hear what I said, nor pay any regard to my words. They laid 
hold u^Ton me and bound me by force, tying wiih me .seven cakes 
of bread and a jug of sweet water» according to their custom, and 
let me dowii into tliat pit. And, lo, it was a great cavern beneath 
that mountain. They said to me, Loose thyself from the ropes. But 
I would not loose myself- So they thre^v ihc ropes down upon me, 
and covered the mouth of the pit with the great stone that was upon 
it, and went their ways- I beheld in that cavern many dead bodies, 
and their smell was putrid and abominable; and I blamed myself 


for that which I had done, s;!yiog, By Allah^ 1 deserve all that hap' 
peneth to me and befallerh me! I knew not night from day; ;ind 1 
sustained myself with little food^ not eating until hunger almost 
killed me, nor drinking until my thirst became violent, fearing the 
exhaustion of the food iind water that I had with me. 1 said, There 
is no strength nor power but in God, the High, the Great! What 
tempted me to marry in this city ? And every time that I say, I have 
escaped from a calamity, 1 fall into a calamity that is more mighty 
than the preceding one! By Allah, my dying this death is unfor- 
tunate! Would that 1 had been drowned in the sea, or had died 
upon the mountains! It had been better for me than this evil death] 
— And I continued in this manner, blaming myself. I laid myself 
down upon the bones ot the dead, begging aid of God (who^e name 
be esaltcdl), and wished for death, but I found it not, by reason of 
the severity of my suiTerings. Thus 1 remained until hunger burned 
my stomach, and thirst inflamed me; when I sat, and £elt for the 
bread, and ate a little of it, and I swallowed after it a little water. 
Then I rose and stood up, and walked about the sides of the cavern, 
and I found that it was spacious sideways, and with vacant cavities; 
but upon its bottom were numerous dead bodies, and rotten bones, 
that had lain there from old times. And upon this I made for myself 
a place in the side of the cavern, remote from the fresh corpses, and 
there I slept. 

At length my provision became greatly diminiihed, little remain- 
ing with me. During each day, or in more than a day, 1 had eaten 
but once, and drunk one draught, fearing the exhaustion of the 
water and food that was with me before my death; and 1 ceased not 
to do this until I was sitting one day, and while I sat, meditating 
upon my case, thinking what I should do when my food and water 
were exhausted, lo, the mass of rock was removed from its place, and 
the light beamed down upon me- So I said. What can be the matter? 
And, behold, the people were standing at the top of the pit, and they 
let down a dead man with his wife with bim alive, and she was 
weeping and crying out for herself; and they let down with her a 
large quantity of food and water. T saw the woman; but she saw 
not me; and ihey covered the mouth of the pit with the stone, and 
went their ways. Then I arose, and, taking in my hand a long bone 


of a dead mSDj I went to the woman» and scruck her upon the middle 
o£ the head; whereupon she fell down senseless; and 1 struck her a 
second and a third time, iind she died. So 1 look her bread and wh;3: 
else she h:id, and I found upon her abundance of ornaments and 
apparel, necklaces and jewels and minerals. And having taken the 
water and food thai was with her, J sal in a place that I had pre- 
pared in a side of the cavern^ wherein to ilecp, and proceeded lo eat 
a liide of that food, as much only as would sustain me^ lesE it should 
be e>:hausEed quickly^ and 1 should die of hunger and thirst. 

1 remained in iliai cavern a length of time^ and whenever they 
buried a corpse, I killed the person who was buried widi ii alive, 
and took ihai person's food and drink* to subsist upon it, until 1 
was sleeping one day, and I awoke from my sleep, and heard some- 
thing make a noise in a side of the cavern. So I said, What can this 
be? I then arose and walked towards if, taliing ivith me a long bone 
of a dead manj and when it was sensible of my presence, it ran away, 
and fled from me; and, lo, it was a wild beast- Bui I followed it to 
the upper pan of ihe cavern, and thereupon a light appeared 10 me 
from a small spoi, like a star. Sometimes it appeared to me, and 
sometimes it was concealed from me. Therefore when I saw it, I 
advanced towards h; and the nearer I approached to it, the larger 
did the light from ii appear to me. So upon this I was convinced 
that if was a hole in ihai cavern, communicating wlih the open 
country; and 1 said within myself, There mnst be some cause for 
this: either i: is a second mouth, like that from which they let me 
down, or it is a fissure in this place. I meditated in my mind a while, 
and advanced towards the light; and, lo, it was a perforation in the 
back of thai mountain, which the wild beasts had made, and 
through which they entered this place; and they ale of the dead 
bodies until they were satiated, and went forth through ihis per- 
foration. When 1 saw if, therefore, my mind was quieted, my soul 
was tranquillized, and my heart was at ease; I made sure of life 
after death, and became as in a dream. Then I managed to force 
my way through that perforation, and found myself on ihe shore of 
the sea, upon a great mountain, which formed a barrier between the 
sea on the one side, and the island and city on the other^ and to 
which no one could gain access. So I praised God (whose name be 


exalted!), and thanked Him^ and rejoiced exccediiigly» and my heari 
was SErengihened. 1 then returned through that perforation into the 
cavernj and removed all the food and water that was in it, that I 
had spared, I also look the clothes of r.he dead^ and dad myselE in 
some of them, in addition to those I had on me; and I took abun- 
dance of the things that were on the dead, consisting of varieties o£ 
DGcklates and jewels, long necklaces of pearls, ornaments of silver 
and gold set with various minerals, and rarities; and, having lied 
up some clothes o£ the dead in apparel of my own, I went forEh 
from the perforation lo the back of the mountain, and stood upon 
the shore of the sea. Every day i entered the cavern, and explored 
it; and whenever they buried a person alive, I rook the food and 
water, and killed that person, whether male or female; after which 
I wenc forth from the perforation, and sal upon the shore o£ the sea, 
to wait for relief from God (whose name be exalted!), by means 
of a ship passing by me. And I removed from that cavern all 
the ornaments dwt I found, and tied them up la ihe clothes of 
the dead, 

I ceased non to remain in this state for a length of time; and afcer- 
wards, as I was sitting one day, upon the shore of the sea, meditating 
upon my case, lo, a vessel passed along in the midst of the roaring 
sea agitated with waves. So I look in my hand a white garment, of 
the clothes of ihe dead, and tied it to a staff, and ran with it along 
the sea-shore, making a sign to the people with that garment, until 
they happened to look, and saw me upon the summit of the moun- 
tain. They therefore approached me, and heard my voice, and fient 
to me a boat in which :vas a parly of men from the ship; and when 
they drew near to me ihey said to me, Who art thou, and what is 
the reason of thy sitting in this place, and how didst thou arrive at 
this mountain; for in our lives we have never seen any one who hath 
come unio it? So I answered diem, I am a merchant. The vessel 
that I was in was wrecked, and 1 goi upon a plank, together with my 
things, and God facilitated my landing at this place, with my tilings, 
by means of my eKerlion and my skill, after severe toil. They there- 
fore took me with them in the boat, and embarked all that I had 
taken from the cavern, tied up in the garments and grave-clothes, 
and they proceeded with me until they took me up into the ship. 


to the master^ and all my things with me. And the master said to 
mej O maoj how didsi thoa arrive at this pbce, which is a great 
mountain, with a great city behind it P All my life I have been iicctis- 
tomcd to navigate this sea, and to pass by this mountain; but hjve 
never seen any thing tlicre except the wild beasts and the birds. — I 
answered him, I am a mprchant. 1 was in a groat ship, and it was 
wrecked, and all my merchandise, consisting oi these stuffs and 
clothes which tliou seest, was snbmcrpi^d; but 1 placed it upon a 
great phnk, one of the planks of the ship, and destiny and fortune 
aided me, so that I landed upon diis mountain, where 1 waited for 
some one to pass by and take me with him. 

And 1 acquainted thern not with the events that had befallen me 
in the city, or in [he cavern; fearing that there might be with them 
in the ship some one from that city. Then I took forth and pre- 
sented to the o^vner of the ship a considerable portion of my prop- 
erty, saying to him, O my master, thou hast been the means of my 
escape from this mountain: therefore receive from me this as a rec- 
ompense for the favour which thou hast done to me. But he would 
not accept it from mc; aiid he said to me. We take nothing from 
any one; and when we behold a shipwrecked person on the shore of 
the sea or on an island, we take him with us, and feed him and give 
him to drink; and JE he be naked, we clothe him; and when we 
arrive at the port of safety, we give him something o£ our properly 
as a present^ and act towards him with kindness and favour for the 
sake of God, whose name be exalted! — So upon this I offered up 
prayers for the prolongation of his life. 

We ceased not to proceed on oiir voyage from Island to island 
and from sea to sea. I hoped to escape, and was rejoiced at my 
safety; but every time that I reflected upon my abode in the cavern 
with my wife, my reason left me. We pursued our course until we 
arrived at the Island of the Bell, when we proceeded to the island of 
Kela in six days. Then we came to the kingdom of Kela, which is 
adjacent to India, and in it are a mine of lead, and places where the 
Indian cane groweih, and e^^cellent camphor; and its King is a King 
of great dignity, whose dominion extendeth over the Island of ihe 
Belh In it is a city called the City of the Bell, which is two days' 
journey in extent. — ^At length, by the providence of God, we arrived 
in safety at the city of El-Basrah, where I landed, and remained a 


few days; after which I came to the city of Baghdad, and to my 
quarter, and entered my hou^e, met my family and my companions, 
and made Enquiries respecting ihcm; and diey rejoiced at my safety, 
and congratulated me. I stored all the commodiiics that 1 had 
brought with me in my magazines^ gave alms and presents, and clad 
the orphans and the widows; and I became in a state of the utmost 
joy and happiness, and returned to my former habit of associating 
With familiars and companions and brothers, and indulging in spore 
and merriment. — Such were the most wonderful of the events that 
happened to me in the course of the fourth voyage. But, O my 
brother, [O Sindibad of the LandJ sup thou with me, and observe 
ihy custom by coming to me to-morrow, when I will inform thee 
what happened to me and what bctcll mc during the fifth voyage; 
for it was more wonderful and extraordinary than the preceding 

The Fn-Tii Voyace of Es-Sinoibad of the Sea 

Kxowj O my brothers, that when I returned from die fourth 
voyage, and became immersed in sport and merriment and joy, 
and had forgotten all that I had experienced, and what had befallen 
me, and what 1 had suffered, by reason oE my excessive joy at the 
gain and profit and benefits that 1 had obtained, my mind again 
suggested lo me to travel, and to divert myself ^vith the sight of the 
countries of other people, and the islands. So I arose and meditated 
upon that subject, and bought precious goods, suited for a sea- 
voyage. 1 packed up the bales^ and departed from the city of Bagh- 
dad to the city of El-Basrah^ and, walking along the bank of the 
river, I saw a great, handsome, lofty vessel, and it pleased me; where- 
fore I purchased it. Its apparatus was new, and I hired for it a 
master and sailors, over whom I set my black slaves and my pages as 
superintendents, and I embarked in it my bales- And there came to 
me a company of merchants, who also embarked their bales in it, 
and paid me hire. We set sail in the utmost joy and happiness, and 
rejoicing in the prospect of safety and gain, and ceased not to pursue 
our voyage from island to island and from sea to ses, diverting our- 
selves with viewing the islands and towns, and landing at them and 
selhng and buying. Thus we continued to do until we arrived one 
day at a large island, destitute of inhabitants. There was no persoQ 


upon it: it was de&erLecl ynd desolnEe; but on ir weis an enormous 
white dome, of great bulk; and we landed to amuse ourselves with 
a sigliE of itj and, lo, it was a great egg of a rukb. Now when ihe 
mertiianEs lud landed, and were diverting ihemseWes with viewing 
it, not knowing that it was the egg of a rukh, they struck it with 
stones; whereupon it broke, and there poured down from it a great 
quantity of liquid, and the young rukh appeared within it. So they 
pulled it and drew it forth from the shell, antl killed it» and took 
from it abundance of meat. I was then in the ship, and knew not 
of it, and they acquainted me not with that which they did. I3ut in 
the mean time one oJ: the passengers said to me, O my master, arise 
and divert tliyself with the sight of this egg which we imagined to 
be a dome. I therefore arose to take a view of it, and found the 
merchants striking the egg. f called out to them, Do not this deed; 
for the rukh will come and demolish our ship, and destroy us. But 
they would not hear my words. 

And whila they were doing as above related, behold, the sun 
became concealed from us, and the day grew dark, and there came 
over us a cloud by which the sky was obscured. So we raised our 
heads to see what had intervened between us and the sun, and savv 
that the wings of the rukh were what veiled from us the sun's light, 
so that the sky was darkened. And when the rukh came, and beheld 
its egg broken, it cried out at us; whereupon its mate, the female 
bird, came to it, and they flew in circles over the ship, crying out at 
us with a voice more vehement than thunder. So J called out to the 
master and the sailors, and said to them. Push olT the vessel, and 
seek safely before we perish. The mailer therefore hastened, and, 
die merchants having embarked, he loosed the ship, and we de- 
parted from diat island. And when die rukhs saw that we had put 
forth to sea, they absented themselves from us for a while. We 
proceeded, and made speed, desiring to escape from them, and to 
quit their country; bur, lo, diey had followed us, and they now 
approached us, each of them having in its ciaws a huge mass of 
rock from a mountain; and the male bird threw the rock that he 
had brought upon us. The master, however^ steered away the ship, 
and the mass of rock missed her by a little space. If descended into 
the sea by the ship, and the ship went up with us, and down, by 


reason of the mighty plunging oi the rock» and we beheld the bot- 
tom of the sea in consequence of its vehement force. Then the 
mate of the male rukh threw upon us the rock thai she had brought, 
which was smaller ihc former one, and, as destiny had ordained, 
it fell upon the stern of the ship, and crushed it, making the rudder 
fly into twenty pieces, and all that was ia the sliip became sub- 
merged in the sea. 

I strove to siive myself, impelled by the sweetness of hfe, and God 
(whose name be exalted!) placed within my reach one of the planks 
of the ship; so 1 caught hold of it, and, having got upon it, began 
to row upon it with my feet, and the wind and the waves helped 
me forward. The vessel had sunk near an island in the midst of the 
sea, and destiny cast me, by permission of God (whose name be 
cxaltcdf), to that island. 1 therefore landed upon it; hut I was at 
my lasc breath, and in the state pf the dead, from the violence o£ 
the fatigue and distress and hunger and thirst that I had suffered. I 
then threw myself down upon the shore of the sea, and remained 
lying there a while, until my soul felt at ease, and my heart was 
trancjuilUsed, when 1 walked along the island, and saw that it 
resembled one of the gardens of Paradise. Its trees bore ripe fruits, 
its rivers were flowing, and its birds were warbling the praises of 
Him to whom belongeth might and permanence. Upon that island 
was an abundance of trees and fruits, with varieties of flowers. So ] 
ate of the fruits until 1 was sadatcd, and 1 drank of those rivers until 
I was satisfied with drink; and i praised God (whose name be 
exalted!) for this, and glorified Him, I then remained sitting upon 
the island till evening came, and night approached" whereupon 1 
rose; but I was like a slain man, by reason of the fatigue and fear 
that 1 had experienced; and 1 heard not in that island a voice, nor 
did 1 see in it any person, 

I slept there without interruption until the mornings and then 
rose and stood up, and walked among the trees; and 1 saw a stream- 
letj by which sat an old man, a comely person, who was clad from 
the waist downwards with a covering made of the leaves of trees. 
So I said within myself, Perhaps this old man hath landed upon this 
island and is one of the shipwrecked persons with whom the vessel 
fell to pieces. I then approached him and saluted him, and he 


returned the saiutacion by a dgi\y without speaking; ynd I said to 
him» O shcykh^ what is the reason of iliy sitiing in this place? 
WhcTFupuH he shook hjs head, and sighed^ and made a sign to me 
with his hand» as though he would sjy, Carry me upon ihy ntok, 
and transport me from tliis phice to the other side of the screanilet* I 
therefore said witiiin myselfj 1 will act kindly with this person, and 
irans^xtrt him to this place to which he desireth to go: perhaps I 
shall obtain for it a reward [in heaven]. Accordingly 1 advanced 
to him, and took him upon my shoulders^ and conveyed him to the 
place that he had indicated to mc; when I said to him. Descend at 
thine ease. But he descended not from my shoulders. He had 
twisted his legs round my neck, and I looked at them» and I saw 
that they were like the hide of the buffalo in blackness and rough- 
ness. So I was frightened at him, and desired to throw him down 
from my shoulders; bui: ho pressed upon, my neck with his feet, 
and squeezed my diroat, so that the world became black before my 
face, and I was unconscious of my existence, falling upon the ground 
in a fit, like one dead. He then raised his legs, and beat me upon 
my back and my shoulders; and 1 suffered violent pain; wherefore 
I rose with him. He stilt kept his seat upon my shoulders, and 1 had 
become fatigued with bearing him; and he made a sign to me that 
I should go in among the trees, lo the best of the fruits. When I 
disobeyed him, he inllicted upon me, with his feel, blows more 
violent than those of whips; and he ceased not to direct me with 
his hand to every place to which he desired to go, and to that place 
I went with him. If 1 loitered, or went leisurely, he beat me- and 
I was as a captive to him. We went into the midst of the island, 
among the trees, and he descended not from my shoulders by night 
nor by day: when he desired to sleep, he would wind his legs round 
my neck, and sleep a little, and then he would arise and beat me, 
whereupon I would arise with him quickly, unable to disobey him, 
by reason of the severity of that which I suffered from him; and 
I blamed myself for having taken him up, and having had pity on 
him. I continued with him in this condition, enduring the most 
violent fatigue, and said within myself, I did a good act unto this 
person, and it hath become an evil to myself! By Allah, I will never 
more do good unto any one as long as I live! — I begged of God 


(whose n.ime be cxaltedl), at every period and in every hoiir^ that 
I might die, Iq consequence oi the csttssive fatigue and distress 
that I suHered. 

Thus I remained for a length of time, until I carried him one 
day 10 a place in the island where I found an abundance of pump- 
kins, many o£ which were dry. Upon this 1 cook a large one that 
was dry, and, having opened its upper extremity, and cleansed it, 
J went wiih it to a grape-vine, and filled it with the juice of the 
grapes. I then stopped up the aperture, and put it in the sun, and 
lefE ir for some days^ until it had become pure wine; and every day 
I used to drink of il, to help myself to endure the fatigue that 1 
underwent witli ihat obstinaie devil; for whenever 1 was intoxicated 
by it, my energy was strengthened. So» seeing me one day drinking, 
he made a sign to me with his hand, as though he would say. What 
is this? And I answered him. This is something agreeable, that 
invigorateth the heart, and dilateth the mind. Then 1 ran with him, 
and danced among the freest I was exhilarated by intoxication, and 
clapped my hands, and sang, and was joyful. Therefore when he 
beheld me in this state, he made a sign to me to hand him the 
pumpkin, that he might drink from it; and I feared him, and gave 
it to him; whereupon he drank what remained in ir, and threw it 
upon the ground, and, being moved with merrimentt began to shake 
upon my shoulders. He then became intoxicated, and drowned in 
intoxication; all his limbs, and the muscles of his sides, became re- 
laxed, and he began to lean from side 10 side upon my shoulders. 
So when I knew that he Tvas drunk, and that he was unconscious 
of exisience, I put my hand to bis feet, and loosed them from my 
neck, Theii 1 stooped with him, and sat down^ and threw him upon 
the ground. ] scarcely believed that i had liberated myself and 
escaped from the state in \vhich 1 had been; but I feared him, lest 
he should arise from his intoxication, and torment me. I therefore 
took a great mass of stone from among the trees, and, coming to 
him, struck him upon his head as be lay asleep, so that his flesh 
became mingled with his blood, and he was killed. May no mercy 
of God be on him! 

After that, I walked about the island, wiih a happy mind, and 
came to the place where I was before, on the shore of the sea. And 


I remained upon that island eating o£ its fruits, and drinking of the 
water of its rivers, for a length o£ time, and wiitehing to see some 
vessel passing by me, until 1 was sitting one day, reflecting upon 
the events that had befallen me and happened to me, and I said 
within myself, i wonder if God will preserve me in safety, and if I 
shall return to my country^ and meet my family and my compan- 
ions. And, lo, a vessel approached from the midst of the roaring sea 
agitated with waves, and it ceased not in its course until it anchored 
at that island; whereupon the passengers landed there. So I walked 
towards them; and when they beheld me, they ail quickly ap- 
proached me and assembled around me, inquiring respecting my 
state, and the cause of my coming to that island. 1 therefore ac- 
quainted them with my case, and with the events tliat had befallen 
me; whereat they wondered extremely- And they said to me, This 
man who rode upon thy shoulders is called the Old Man of the Sea, 
and no one ever was beneath his limbs and escaped from him except 
thee; and praise be to God for thy safetyl Then they brought me 
some food, and I ate until I was satisEed; and they gave me some 
clothings which I put on, covering myself decently. After this, they 
took me with them in the ship; and when we had proceeded days 
and nights, destiny drove us to a city of lofty buildings, all the 
houses of which overlooked the sea. That city is called the City of 
the Apes; and when the night conielh^ the people who reside in it 
go forth from the doors that open upon the sea, and, embarking in 
boats and ships^ pass the night upon the sea, in their fear of the apes, 
lest they should come down upon them in the night from the 

i landed to divert myself in this city, and the ship set sail with- 
out my knowledge. So I repented of my having landed there, re- 
membering my companions, and what had befallen them from the 
apes, first and afterwards; and I sat weeping and mourning. And 
thereupon a man of the inhabitants of the city advanced to me and 
said to me, O my master, ic seemeth that thou art a stranger in this 
country. I therefore replied. Yes: I am a stranger, and a poor man. 
I was m a ship which anchored at this city, and I landed from it to 
divert myself in the city, and returned, but saw not the ship,— And 
he said. Arise and come with us, and embark in the boat; for if 


thou remain in the dty during ihe nighty the apes will destroy thee. 
So 1 replied^ I hear and obey. I arose immediatelyT and embarked 
with the pcttple in the boat^ and they pushed it off from the land 
until they had propelled it from the shore of the sea to ihe distance 
of a mile. They passed the night, and 1 with them; and \vhen the 
morning cnmej they returned in the boat to the city, and landed, and 
each of them went to his occupation. Such liath been always their 
custom, every night; and to every one of them who remaineth be- 
hind in the city during the night, the apes come, and tbey destroy 
him* In the day, the apes go forth from the city, and eat of the 
fruits in the gardens, and sleep in the mountains until the evening, 
when they return to the city. And this city is in the furthest parts 
of the country of the blacks. — Among the most wonderful of the 
events that happened to me in the treatment that I met with from 
its inhabitants, was this. A person of the party with whom I passed 
the night said to me, O my master, thou art a stranger in this coun- 
try. Art thoir skilled in any art with which thou mayest occupy thy- 
self?— And 1 answered him, No, by Allah, O my brother: I am 
acquainted with no art, nor do I know how to make any thing. 1 
was a merchant, a person of wealth and fortune, and I had a ship, 
my own property, laden with abundant wealth and goods; but it 
was wrecked in the sea, and all that was in it sank, and 1 escaped not 
drowning but by the permission of God; for He provided me with 
a piece of a plank, upon which I placed myself; and it was the 
means of my escape from drowning. — And upon this the man arose 
and brought me a cotton bag, and said to me, Take tliis bag, and 
fill it with pebbles from this city, and go forth ^v^Ih a party of the 
inhabitants. 1 will associate thee with them, and give them a charge 
respecting thee, and do thou as they shall do. Perhaps thou wilt 
accomplish that by means of which thou wilt be assisted to make 
thy voyage, and to return to thy country. 

Th<^n that man took me and led me forth from the city, and I 
picked up small pebbles, with which 1 filled that bag. And, lo, a 
party of men came out from the city, and he associated me with 
them, giving them a charge respecting me, and saying to them. This 
is a stranger; so take him with you, and teach him the mode of 
gathering. Perhaps he may gain the means of subsistence^ and ye 


Will obtain [from God] a reward and recompense. — And they 
replied, We hcyr snd obey. They welcomed me, and took me wich 
ihciri, and proceeded, each of ihem having a bag like mine, filled 
with pebbles; and we ceased not to pursue our way until we arrived 
at a wide valley, wherein were many lofty trees, wliich no one could 
climb, in that valley were also many apes, which, when they saw 
uSj Hed from us, and ascended [hose trees. Then the men began to 
pelt the apes with the stones that they had with them in the bags; 
upon which the apes began to pluck oi? the fruits of those trees, and 
to throw them at the men; and 1 looked at the fruits which the apes 
threw down, and, lo, they were cocoa-nuts. Therefore when i beheld 
the party do thus, I chose a great tree, upon which were many apes, 
andj advancing to it, proceeded lo pelt ihose apes with stones; and 
they broke off nuts from the tree and [hrew them at me. So 1 col- 
lected them as the rest of the party did, and the stones were not 
exhausted from my bag until 1 had collected a great quanitiy. And 
when the party had ended this work, they gathered together all 
that was with them, and each of them carried oil as many o£ the 
nuts as he could. We then reiorncd to the city during the remainder 
of the day, and I went to the man, my companion^ who had asso- 
ciated me with the party, and gave him all that I had collected, 
Ranking him for his kindness. But he said to me, Take these and 
sell them, and make use of the price. And afterwards he gave me 
the key of a place in his house, and said to me, Put here these nuts 
that thou hasr remaining with thee, and go forth every day with 
the party as thou hast done this day; and of what thou bringest, 
separate the bad, and seU them, and make use of their price; and 
the rest keep in thy possession in this place. Perhaps thou wik 
accumulate of them what will aid thee to make thy voyage-— So I 
replied. Thy reward is due from God, whose name be exalted! 1 
did as he told me, and continued every day to fill the bag with 
stones, and to go forth with the people, and do as they did. They 
used to commend me, one to another, and 10 guide me to the tree 
upon which was abundance of fruit; and I ceased not to lead this 
life for a length of time, so that 1 collected a great quantity of good 
cocoa-nuts, and I sold a great quantity, the price of which became a 
large sum in my possession, I bought every thing that 1 saw and 


that pleased me, my time was pleasant, and my good fortune in- 
creased throughout the whole city, 
I remained in this slate for some time; after which, as T was 

standing by the seaside, [0, a vessel arrived at that city, and cast 
anchor by the shore. In it were merchants, with their goods, and 
they proceeded to sell and buy, and to exchange their goods for 
cocoa-nuts and other things. So 1 went to nay companion, informed 
him of the ship that had arrived, and told him that I desired to 
make the voyage to my country. And he replied, It is thine to deter- 
mine- I therefore bade him farewell, and thanked him for his kind- 
ness to me. Then 1 wen: to the ship, and, accosting the master, 
engaged with him for my passage, and embarked in that ship ihe 
cocoa-nuts and other things that 1 had with me, after which they 
set sail that same day. We continued our course from island to 
island and from sea to sea, and at every island at which we cast 
anchor I sold some of those cocoa-nuts, and exchanged; and God 
compensated me with more than 1 had before possessed and lost. 
We passed by an island in which are cinnamon and pepper, and 
some persons told us that they had seen, upon every bunch of pepper, 
a large leaf that shadeth it and wardeth from it the rain whenever 
it raineth; and when the rain ceaseih to fall upon it, the leaf turneth 
over from the bunch, and hangeth down by its side. From that 
island I took with me a large quantity of pepper and cinnamon, in 
exchange for cocoa-nuts. We passed also by the Island of Ei-'Aslr,it, 
which is that wherein is the Kamari aloes-wood. And after that, 
we passed by another island, the extent of which is five days' jour- 
ney, and in it is the Sanfi. aloes-wood, which is superior to the 
Kamari; but the inhabitants of this island arc worse in condition 
and religion than the inhabitants of the island of the Kamari aloes- 
wood; for they love depravity and the druiking of wines, and know 
not the call to prayer, nor the act of prayer. And we came after 
that to the pearl-fisheries; whereupon I gave to the divers some 
cocoa-nuts, and said to them, Dive for my luck and lot. Accordingly 
they dived in the bay there, and brought up a great number of large 
and valuable pearls; and they said to me, O my master, by Allah, 
thy fortune is goodi So I took up into the ship what they had 
brought up for me, and we proceeded, relying on the blessing of 


God (whose name be ex,iltedl)» and cojitmucd our voy^g& until we 
arrived :it El-Bjsrah, where 1 landed, and remjined a shocE time, 
1 then went ihciice lo the city of fiaghdad, entered my quarter, eame 
10 my hoiEie, and saluted my family and compiinions^ who con- 
gratulated me on my safety. I stored all the goods and commodities 
that I had brought wiih me, clothed the orphans and the widows^ 
bestowed alms and gifts, and made presents to my family and my 
companions and my friends, God had compensated me with four 
limes as much as I had lost, and I forgot what had happened to mej 
and the fatigue that 1 had suHered, by reason of ihe abundance of 
my gain and proftts, and resumed my first habits of familiar inter- 
course and fellowship. — Such were the most wonderful things that 
happened to me in the course of the fifth voyage; but sup ye^ and 
to-morrow come agiiin, and I will relate to you the events of the 
sixth voyaee; for it was more wonderful than this, 

Tttc Sixth Voyage of Es-Siniiibat> of the Sea 

K^'ow, O my brothers and my friends and my ctJmpanions^ that 
when I returned frorrr that fifth voyage, and forgot \vh3t I had 
sullered, by reason of sport and merriment and enjoyment and 
gaycty, and was in a state of the utmost joy and happiness, i con- 
tinued thus until I was sitting one day in exceeding delight and hap- 
piness and gayety; and while I sal, lo, a party of merchants came to 
me, bearing the marks of traveL And upon this I remembered the 
days of my return from travel, and my joy at meeting my family and 
companions and friends, and at entering my country; and my soul 
longed again for travel and commerce. So I determined to set forth, 
i bought for myself precious, sumptuous goods, suitable for the sea, 
packed up my bales, and went from the city of Baghdad to the city 
of El-Basrah, where I beheld a large vessel, in which were mer- 
chants and great men, and with them were precious goods, I there- 
fore embarked my bales with them in this ship, and we departed in 
safety from the city of El-Basrah- We continued our voyage from 
place lo place and from city to city, selling and buying, and divert- 
ing ourselves with viewing different countries. Fortune and the 
voyage were pleasant to us, and we gained our subsistence, until we 


were proceeding one day, and, lo, the master of the ship vociferated 
and called out, threw down his turban, slapped his face, plucked 
his beard, and fcil down in che hold of the ship by reason of the 
violence of his grief and rage. So all the merchants and other 
passengers came together to him and said to him» O master, what 
is the matter? And he answered them. Know, O company, that we 
have wandered from our course, having passed forth from the sea 
in. which we were, and entered a sea of which we know not the 
routes; and ii God appoint not for us some means of etTecting our 
escape from this sea, we all perish: therefore pray to God (whose 
name be exalted!) cliat He may save us from this case. Then nhe 
master arose and ascended the mast, and desired to loose the sails; 
but the wind became violent upon the ship, and drove her back, and 
her rudder broke near a lofty mountain; whereupon the master de- 
scended from the mast, and said. There is no strength nor power 
but in God, the High, the Great! No one is able to prevent what is 
predestined! By Allah, we have fallen info a great peril, and there 
remaineth to us no way of safety or escape from itl^So all the 
passengers wept for themselves: they bade one another farewell, be- 
cause of the expiration of their hves, and their hope was cut oJl. The 
vessel drove upon that mountainjand went to pieces; its planks were 
scattered, and all that was in it was submerged; tlie merchants fell 
into the sea, and some of them were drowned, and some caught 
hold upon that mountain, and landed upon it. 

1 was of the number of those who landed upon the mountain; 
and, lo, within it was a large island. By it were many vessels broken 
in pieces, and upon it were numerous goods, on the shora of the 
sea, of the the things thrown up by the sea from the ships that had 
been wrecked, and the passengers of which had been drowned. 
Upon it was an abundance, that confounded the reason and the 
mind, of commodities and wealth that the sea cast upon its shores. 
I jscendcd to the upper part of the inland, and walked about it, and 
I beheld in the midst of it a stream ot sweet water, flowing forth 
from beneath the nearest part of the mountain, and entering at the 
furthest part of it, on the opposite side [of the valley] . Then all the 
other passengers went over that mountain to [the inferior of] the 
island, and dispersed themselves about it, and their reason was con- 


founded at diat which they beheld. They becaine Hke madmen in 
consequence of what they saw upon the island, of commodities and 
wealth lying on the shore oE the sea. I beheld also in the midst of 
the jbove-meiitioned stream an abundance of various kinds of 
jewels ^ind minenilsT with jacinths and large pearls, suitable to 
Kings- They were like gravel in the channels of the water which 
Howed through the fields; and all the bed o[ that stream glittered by 
reason of the great number o£ minerals and other things that it 
contained. We likewise saw on that island an abundance of the 
best kind of Sanfi aloes-wood» and Kamari aloes-wood- And in that 
island is a gushing spring of crude ambergris^ which floweth like 
wax over the side of that spring through the violence of the heat of 
the sun, and spreadeth upon the sea-shore, and the monsters of the 
deep come up from [he sea and swallow it, and descend with it into 
the sea; but it becomeEh hot in their stomachs, therefore they eject 
it from their mouths into the sea, and it congealeth on the surface 
of the water. Upon this, its colour and its qualities become changed, 
and the waves cast it up on the shore of the sea : so the travellers and 
merchai^ts who know it take it and smell it. But as to the crude 
ambergris that is not swallowed, it floweth over the side of that 
mouiitaiui and congealeth upon the ground; and when the sun 
shineth upon it, it mefteth, and from it the odour of the whole of 
that valley becometh like the odour of musk. Then, when the sun 
ivithdraweth from it, it congealeth again. The pkice wherein is this 
crude ambergris no one can enter; no one can gain access to it: for 
the mountain surroundeth that island. 

We continued to wander about the island, diverting ourselves ivith 
the view of the good tilings which God (whose name be exaltedl) 
had created upon it, and perplexed at our case, and at the things 
that we beheld, and alTecEed with violent fear. We had collected 
upon the shore of the sea a small quantity of provisions, and we used 
it sparingly, eating of it every day, or two days, only one meal, 
dreading the eshausdon of our stock, and our dying in sorrow, from 
the violence of hunger and fear. Each one of us (hat died we washed, 
and shrouded in some of the clothes and Hnen which the sea cast 
upon the shore of the island; and thus we did until a great number 
of us had died, and there remained of us but a small party, who 


were weakened by a colic occasioned by the sea. After this> we 
remained a short period, and all my associates and companions 
diedj one after another, and each of them who died we buried. Then 
1 was alone on that island, and there remained with me but httle 
of the provisions, after there had been much. So I wept for myself, 
and said* Would that I had died before my eompanioQS, and that 
they had washed me and buried me! There is no strength nor power 
but in God, the High, [he Great! — And I remained a sliort time 
longer; after which 1 arose and dug for myself a deep grave on the 
shore of the island, and said within myself, When I fall sick, and 
know diat death haih come to me, I will lie down in this grave, and 
die in it, and the wind will blow the sand upon me, and cover me; 
so 1 shall become buried in it* I blamed myself for my hide sense, 
and my going forth from my country and my city, and my voyaging 
to foreign countries, after what i had suffered in the first instance, 
and the second and the third and the fourth and the fifth; and when 
I had not performed one of my voyages without sul7ering in it 
horrors and distresses more Lroublesome and more diiTicult than the 
horrors preceding. 1 believed not ihar 1 could escape and save my- 
self, and repcnied of undertaking sea-voyagesj and of my returning 
to ihis life when 1 was not in want of wealth, but had abundance, 
so that I could not consume what I had, nor spend half of it during 
the rest of my life; having enough for me* and more than enough. 

Then 1 medicated in my mind, and said. This river must have a 
beginning and an end, and it must have a place of ogress into an 
inhabited country. The right plan in my opinion will be for me to 
construct for myself a small raft, of suElicient si^e for me to sit upon 
it, and I will go down and cast it upon this river, and depart on it. 
If I find safety, 1 am safe, and escape, by permission of God (whose 
name be exalted!); and if 1 find no way of saving myself, it will 
be better for me to die in this rJver than in this place. — And 1 sighed 
for myself. Then I arose and went and collected pieces of wood 
that were upon that island, of Sanfi and Kamari aloes-wood, and 
bound ihem upon the shore of the sea with some of die ropes of 
the ships that had been wrecked; and I brought some straight planks, 
of the planks of the ships, and placed ihem upon those pieces of 
wood. 1 made the raft to suit the width of the river, less wide than 


the latter^ and bound it well and firmly; and having taken with me 
some of those minerjls and jewels and goods, and of the large pearls 
that were like gravel, as well as other things that were upon the 
island, and some o£ the crude, pure, excellent ambergris^ I put them 
upon chat raft, with all that I had collected upon the island, and 
took with me what remained of the provisions. I then launched the 
caff irpon the river, made for it two pieces of wood like oars, and 
acted in accordance with the following saying o£ one of the poets:— 

Depart from a place wherein is oppression, and leave the house to Tell 

its builder's fate; 
For ihou vvih find, far the land ihat tliou quittcst^ another; but no soul 

wilt ihou find to replace ih[ne own. 
Grieve not on accotint of nocturnal calaniities; since every aiHiction will 

have its end; 
And he whose death is decreed to take place in one land will not die in 

any land but ihat. 
Send not thy messenger on an errand of importance; for the soul Kath 

no faithful minister save itself- 

I departed upon the raft along the river, meditating upon what 
might be the result of my case, and proceeded ro the place where 
the river entered beneath the mountain. I propelled the raft into 
that place^ and became in intense darkness within it, and the raft 
coniinued to carry me in with the current to a narrow place beneath 
ihe mountain, where the sides of the raft rubbed against the sides 
of the channel of the river, and my head rubbed against the roof 
of the channel. 1 was unahle to return thence, and 1 blamed myself 
for that which I had done, and said, If this place become narrower 
to the raft, it will scarcely pass through it, and it cannot return: so 
I shall perish in this place in sorrow, inevitably! I threw myself 
upon my face on the raft, on account of the narrowness of the chan- 
nel of the river, and ceased not to proceed, without knowing night 
from day, by reason of the darkness in which I was involved be- 
neath that mountain, together with my terror and fear for myself lest 
I should perish. In this state I continued my course along the river, 
which sometimes widened and at other times contracted; but the 
intensity of the darkness wearied me excessively, and slumber over- 
came me in conseqi-ience of the violence of my distress. So I lay 


upon my face on rJie rafc» which ceased not to bear me along while 
I slepc, and knew nor whether ihe lime was long or short. 

At length 1 awoke, and found myselF in the light; and, opening 
my eyes, 1 beheld an extensive tract, and the raft tied to the shore vi 
an isEaiicI, and around me a company of Indians, and [people like] 
Abyssinians. When they siiw that I had risen, xhey rose and came 
to me, and spoke to me in their language; but I knew not what 
ihey said, and imagined thaE it was a dream, and that this occurred 
in sleep, by reason of the violeo<:e of my distress and vexation. And 
when they spoke to me and 1 understood not their speech, and 
returned them not an answer, a man amonp them advanced to me, 
and said to me, in the Arabic language. Peace be on thee, O our 
brother! What art thou, and whence hast thou come, and whiit is 
the cause of thy coming to this place? We are people of the sown 
lands and the fields, and we came to irrigate our fields and our sown 
lands, imd found ihee asleep on the raft: so we bid hold upon it, 
and tied it here by us, waiting for iliee to rise at thy leisure. Tell 
us then what is the cause of thy coming to this place. — I rephed^ 
I conjure thee by Allah, O my master, that thou bring me some 
food; for I am hungry; and after that, ask of me concerning what 
thou will. And thereupon he hastened, and brought me food, and 
1 ate until I was satiated and was at ease, and my fear subsided, my 
sadely was abundant, and my soul returned to me. I therefore 
praised God (whose name be exalted!) for all that had occurred, 
rejoiced at my having passed forth from that river, and having 
come to these people; and 1 told them o£ all tkit had happened 
to me from beginning to end, and of what I had experienced upon 
that river, and of its narrowness. They then talked together, and 
said. We must take him with us and present him to our King, that 
he may acquaint him with what hath happened to him. Accord- 
ingly they took me with them, and conveyed with me the raft, to- 
gether with all that was upon it, of riches and goods, and jewels and 
minerals^ and ornaments of gold, and they look me in to their King, 
who was the King of Sarandib,*' and acquainted him with what hai:l 
happened; whereupon he saluted me and welcomed me, and asked 
me respecting my statCj and respecting the events that had liappened 

^ Ceylon. 


to me. 1 therefore acquainted him with ill! my story, and whm I had 
experienced, from the first to List; and the King wondered at this 
narrative extremely^ and congratulated me on my safety. Then I 
arose and took forth from the raft a quantity of the minerals and 
jewels, and alocs-wood and crude ambergris, and gave it to the 
King; and he accepted it frorn me, and treated me with exceeding 
honour, lodging me in a place in his abode. I associated with the 
best and the greatcsE of the people, who paid me great respect, and 
J quitted not the abode of the King. 

The island of Sarandib is under the equinoctial line; ifs night 
being always twehe hours, and its day also twelve hours. Its length 
is eighty leagues; and iis breadth, thirty; and it extendeih largely 
between a lofty mountain and a deep valley. This mountain is seen 
from a distance of three days, and it coijtaincth varieties of jacinths, 
and diiferent kinds of minerals, and trees of all sorts of spices, and 
its surface is covered with emery, wherewith jewels are cut into 
shape: in its rivers also are diamonds, and pearls are in its valleys. 
J ascended to the summit of the motmtain, and diverted myself with 
a view of its wonders, which are not to be described; and afterwards 
I went back to the King, and begged him to give me permission to 
return to my country. He gave me permission after great pressing, 
and bestowed upon me an abundant present from hfs treasuries; and 
he gave me a present and a sealed letter, saying to me, Convey these 
to the Khalifch Harun Er-Rashid, and give him many s.ilutations 
from us. So I replied, I hear and obey. Then he wrote for me a letter 
on skin of the khawi, which is finer than parchment, of yellowish 
colour; and the writing was in ultrymarine. And the form of what 
he wrote to the Khalifeh was this:— Peace be on thee, from the 
King o£ India, before whom are a thousand elephants, and on the 
battlements of whose palace are a thousand jewels. To proceed: we 
have sent to thee a trifling present: accept it then from us. Thou 
art to us a brother and sincere friend, and the affection for you that 
is in our hearts is great: therefore favour us by a reply. The present 
is not suited to thy dignity; but we beg of thee. O brother, to accept 
it graciously. And peace be on thee! — And the present was a cup 
of ruby, a span high, the inside of which was embellished with 
precious pearls: and a bed covered with the skin of the serpent that 


swalloweth the elephant^ which skin hath spots^ eiich like a piece 
of gold» and whosoever sittei;h upon ir never becometh diseased, and 
a hundred thousand mithkals of Indian aloes-wood; and a slave-girl 
like the shining full moon. Then he bade me farewell, and gave 
a charge respecting me 10 die merchants and the master o£ the ship. 
So I departed thence, and we continued our voyage from island 
to island and from country to country until we arrived at Baghdiid, 
whereupon I entered my house^ and met my family and my brethren; 
afcer which I took the present, with a token of service from myself 
for the Khalifeh. On entering his presence, I kissed his hand, and 
placed before him the whole, giving him the letter; and he read 
itj and took the present, with which he was greatly rejoiced, and 
he treated me wkh the uimosc honour. He then said to me^ O 
Sindibad, is that true which this King hath stated in his letter? 
And 1 kissed the ground, and ans^vered, O my lord, 1 witnessed in 
his kingdom much more than he hath mentioned in his letter. On 
the day of his public appearance, a throne is set for him upon a huge 
elephant, eleven cubits high, and he sitreth upon it, having with him 
his chief olhcers and pages and guests^ standing in tivo ranks, on his 
right and on his left. At his head standeth. a man having in his 
hand a golden javelin, and behind him a man in whose haiid is a 
great mace of gold, at the top of which is an emerald a span in 
length, and of the thickness of a thumb. And when he mounteth, 
there mount at the same time with him a thousand horsemen clad 
in gold and silk; and as the King proceedeth, a man before him pro- 
daimcth, s;iying, This is the King of great dignity, o£ high authority] 
And he proceedeth to repeat his praises in terms that 1 remember 
not, af the end of his panegyric saying. This is the King the owner 
of the crown the like of which neither Su ley man nor the Mihraj 
possessedl Then he is silent; and one behind him proclaimeth, say- 
ing, He will die! Again I siiy, He will diel Again 1 say, He will diel 
— And the other s;iifh, Extolled be the perfection of the Living who 
dieth not! — Moreover, by reason of his justice and good government 
and intelligence, there is no Kadi in his city; and all the people of 
his country distinguish the truth from falsity. — And the Khalifeh 
wondered at my words, and said, How great is this King! His letter 
hath shewn me this: ^nd as to the greatness of his dominion, thou 


hast told us what tbou hasi witnessed. By Alhh, he hath becxi 
endo^ved with wisdom and dominion.!— Then the Khahfch con- 
ferred favours upon mc, and commiinded me to depart to my abode. 
So 1 came to my house, and gjve the legal and other alms, and 
continued to hve in the same pleasant circumstances as at present. 
1 forgot the arduous troubles that I hiid experienced, discarded from 
my heart the anxieties o£ travel, rejected from my mind distress, an<i 
betook myself to eating and drinking, and pleasures and joy. 

The Sevekih Vovacje of Es-SiNnniAD of the Sea 

WheN" T rehnquished voyaging, and the alfairs of commerce, I said 
within myself, What hath happened to me sufiieeLh me. And my 
lime was spent in joy and pleasures. But while I was silting one day^ 
the door was knocked: so the door-keeper opeiied, and a page of the 
Khalifeh entered and said, The Khahfeli summoneth thee. 1 there- 
fore went with him to his majestyj and kissed the ground before him 
and saluted him, whereupon he welcomed me and treated me with 
honour; and he said to me, O Sindibad, I have an affair for thee to 
perform. Wilt thou do hr — So 1 kissed his hand, and said to him, 

my lord, what affair haib the master for the ?i!ave to perform? 
And he answered me, 1 desire that thou go to the King of Sarandih, 
and convey to him our letter and our present; for he sent to us a 
present and a letter. And 1 [renibled thereat, and replied. By Allah 
the Great, O my lord, 1 ha\e taken a hatred to voyaging; and when 
a voyage on the sea, or any other travel, is mentioned to me, my 
joints tremble, in consequence of what hath befallen me and what 

1 have experienced of troubles and horrors, and I liave no desire 
for that whatever. Moreover I have bound myself by an oath not 
to go forth from Baghdad.— Then I informed the Khalifeh of all 
that had befallen me from the first to last; and he \i'Ondered ex- 
ceedingly, and said, By Allah the Great, O Sindibad, it hath not 
been heard from times of old that such events have befallen any 
one as have befallen thee, and it is incumbent on thee that thou 
never mention the subject of travel. But for my sake ihoir wik go 
this time, and convey our present and ouP letter lo the King of 
Sarandib; and thou shalt return quickly i£ it be the will of God 


(whose name be exaltcdl)^ thaf we may no longer have a debt of 
favour and courtesy 10 the King, — So I replied that I heard and 
obeyed, being unable to oppose his command. He Lhen gave me the 
present and the leiiter, with money for my expenses, and 1 kissed [As 
hand and departed from him. 

I went from Baghdad to the sea, and embaiked in a sliip, and we 
proceeded days and nights, by the aid of God (whose name be 
e^aitedf}, until we arrived ar the island of Sarandib, and with us 
were many merchants. As soon as we arrived, we landed at the 
city, and 1 took the present and the letter, and went in with them 
Ui the King, and kissed the ground before him. And when he saw 
me, he said, A friendly welcome to thee, O Sindibad! By Allah 
[he Great, we have longed to see thee, and praise be to God who 
hath shewn us thy face a second time! — Then he took me by the 
hand, and seated me by his side, welcoming me, and treating me 
with familiar kindness, and he rejoiced greatly. He began to con- 
verse with me, and addressed me with courtesy, and said, What was 
the cause of thy coming to us, O Sindibad P So I kissed his hand, 
and thanked him, and answered him, O my lord, 1 have brought 
thee a present and a letter from my master the Khalifeh Harun 
Er-Rashid. I then ofl^ered to hin> the present and the letter, and he 
read the letter, and rejoiced at it greatly. The present was a hor^e 
worth ten thousand pieces of gold, with its saddle adorned with 
gold set with jewels; and a book, and a sumptuous dress, and a 
hundred different kinds of white cloths of Egypt, and silks of Es- 
Suweys' and El-Kufeh and Alexandria, and Greek carpers, and a 
hundred menns of silk and flax, and a wonderful extraordinary cup 
of crystalj in the midst of which was represented the figure of a 
lion with a man kneeling before him and having drawn an arrow 
in his bow with his utmost force, and also the table of Suleyman 
the son of Da'ud, on whoni be peace! And the contents of the 
letter were as follows: — Peace from the King Er-Rashid, strength- 
ened by God (who hath given to him and to his ancestors the rank 
of the noble, and wide-spread glory), on the fortunate Sultan. To 
proceed: thy letter hath reached us, and we rejoiced at it; and we 
have sent rhe book [entitled] the Delight of the Intelligent, and 



ihe Riire Present for Friends; cogether willi v:inedcs of roy^i rarities; 
iherefore do us the Eavour to Ciccepi them: nnd peace he on ihcel 
— Theo the King confcrrcJ upon me abundant presents, and treated 
me with the utmosT honour; so I prayed for him, jind thanked him 
for his bcnericence; and some days after ihar, I begged his per- 
mission to depart; but lie permitted me not save after great pressing. 
Thereupon I tiK>k leave of him, and went forth from hi a city, with 
merchants and other companions^ to return to my couniryj without 
any desire for travel or commerce. 

We continued our voyage until we had passed m^ny islands; but 
in the midst of our course over the sea, there appeared to us a number 
of boats, which surrounded us, and in ihem were men hke devils, 
having) in their hands, sivords and daggers, and equipfied ^vith 
coats of mail, and arms and bows. They smote us, and wounded and 
slew those of us who opposed them, and, having taken the ship with 
its contents, conveyed us to an island, where they sold us as slaves, 
for the smallest price. But a rich man purchased me, and took me 
into his house, fed me and gave me to drink, and clad me and 
treated me in a friendly manner. So my soul was tranquillized, and 
I rested a little. Then, one day, he said to me, Dost thou not know 
any art or trade? I answered him, O my lord, I am a merchant: I 
know nothing but irailic. And he said. Dost ihou know the art of 
shooting with the bow and arrow?^ — Yes, 1 answered: I know ihat. 
And thereupon he brought me a bow and arrows, and mounted me 
behind him upon an elephant: then he departed ac the dose of night, 
and, conveying me among some great trees, came to a lofty and firm 
tree, upon which he made me chmb; and he gave me the bow and 
arrows, saying to me, Sit here now, and when the elephants come 
in the daytime to this place, shoot at [hem with the arrows; perhaps 
thou wilt strike one of them; and if one of them fall, come to me and 
inform me. He then left me and departed; and 1 was terrified and 
frightened. 1 remained concerted in the tree until the sun rose; 
when the elephants came forth wandering about among the trees, 
and 1 ceased not to discharge my arrows till I shot one of them. I 
therefore went in the evening to my master, and informed him; and 
he was delighted wiih mc, and treated me with honour; and he went 
and removed the slain elephant. 


In this manner I concinued, every day shooting one, and my 
maicer coming and removing iE^ undl one day, I was sicdog in the 
itee, concealed, and suddenly elephants innumerable came forth, 
and I heard the sounds of their roaring and growling^ which were 
such that I imagined the eaich trembled beneath them. They all 
surrounded the tree in which I was sitting, their circuit being fitty 
cubits, and a huge elephant, enormously great, advanced and came 
10 the tree, and, having wound his trunk around it, pulled it up by 
the roots, and cast it upon the ground. I fell down senseless among 
the elephants, and ihc great elephant, approaching me, wound hi? 
trunk around me, raised me on his back, and went away with mc, 
the other elephants accompanying. And he ceased not to proceed 
with me, while I was absent from the world, until he had taken me 
into a place, and thrown me from his back, when he departed, and 
the other elephants followed him. So I rested a little, and my terror 
subsided; and I found myself among the bones of elephants. I knew 
therefore that this was the burial-place of the elephants, and that 
that elephant had conducted me to it on account of the teeth. 

I then arose, and journeyed a day and a night untU I arrived at 
the house of my master, who saw me changed in complexion by 
fright and hunger. And he was rejoiced at my return, and said. By 
Allah, ihou hast pained our heart; for I went and found the tree 
torn up, and 1 imagined that the elephants had destroyed thee. Tell 
me, then, how it happened with thee. — So I informed him of that 
which had befallen me; whereat he wondered greatly, and rejoiced; 
and he said to me. Dost thou know that place? 1 answered, Yes, O 
my master. And he took me, and we went out, mounted on an 
elephant, and proceeded until we came to that place; and when my 
master beheld those numerous teeth, he rejoiced greatly at the sight 
of them; and he carried away as much as he desired, and we re- 
turned to the house. He then treated me with increased favour, 
and said to me, O my son, thou hast directed us to a means of very 
great gain. May God then recompense thee well! Thou art freed 
for the sake of God, whose name be exalted! These elephants used 
to destroy many of us on account of [our seeking] these teeth; but 
God hath preserved thee from them, and thou hast profited us by 
these teeth to which thou hast directed us.— I replied, O my master, 


may God free ihy neck from ilie fire [of HcU] ! And I request of 
ihec, O my m^scer^ that thou give me permission to depart to my 
iiouniry, — Yes^ said he: thou shak have that permission: but we have 
a fairj on the ocaision of which the merchants come to us and pur- 
chase the teeth of these elephants o£ us. The lime of the fair is now 
neari and when they have come to us^ I will send thee with them, 
and will give thee what will convey thee to thy country. — So I 
prayed for him and thanked him; and 1 remained with him treated 
with respect and honour. 

Then, some days after this* the merchants came as he had said, 
and bought and sold and cJichanged; and when they were about to 
depart, my master came to me, and said* The merchants are going; 
therefore arise that thou mayest depart with them to thy country. 
Accordingly I arose, determined to go with them. They had bought 
a great quantity of those teeth, and packed up their loads, and em- 
barked them in the ship; and my master sent me with them. He 
paid for me the money for my passage in the ship, together with 
all ihat was required of me, and gave me a large quantity of goods. 
And we pursued our voyage from island to island until we had 
crossed the sea and landed on the shore, when the merchants took 
forth what was with them, and sold. I also sold whjt 1 had at an 
excellent ratej and 1 purchased some of the most elegant of things 
suited for presents, and beautiful rarities, with every thing iliat I 
desired. I likewise bought for myself a beast to ride, and we went 
forthj and crossed the deserts from country to cotmtry until I 
arrived at Baghdad; when 1 went in to the Khahfeh, and, having 
given the salutation, and kissed his hand, I informed him of what 
had happened and what had befallen me; whereupon he rejoiced 
at my safety, and thanked God (whose name be exalted!); and he 
caused my story to be written in letters of gold, 1 then entered my 
house, and met my family and my brethren.— This is the end of the 
history of the events that happened to mc during my voyages; and 
praise be to God, the One, the Creator, the Maker! 

And when Es-Sindibad of the Sea had finished his story, he 
ordered his servant to give to Es-Srndibad of the Land a hundred 
pieces of gold, and said to him. How now, O my brother? Hast 


ihou heard of the like of these afflittioos and calamities and distresses, 
or have such croables as have befallen me befallen any one else, or 
hath any one else suffered such liLirdships as 1 have suffered P Know 
then that these pleasures are a compensation for the toil and humilia- 
dons that I have experienced. — And upon ihis^ Es-Sindibad of the 
Land advanced^ and kissed his hands, and said no him» O my lord, 
by Allah^ :hou hast undergone great horrors^ and hasc deserved 
ihese abundant favours: condnue then, O my lord, in joy and 
security; for God hath removed from ihee the evils of fortune; and 
i beg of God that He may continue to thee thy pleasures, and bless 
thy days. — And upon this, Es-Sindibiid o£ the Sea bestowed favours 
upon him, and made him his boon-companion; and he quitted him 
not by night nor by day as long as they both lived. 

Praise be to God, the Mighty, the Omnipotent, the Strong, (he 
Eminent in power, the Creator of the heaven aiid the earth, and 
of (he land and the seas! 

[Nig/its 566-575] 
TiiE Story of the Cirr of Brass 

THERE was, ia olden time, and in an ancient age and period, 
in Damascus of Syri^t, a King, one of the Khjlitchs, named 
*Abd-El-Melik ihe son of Marwan; and he was sitting, one 
day, having with him the great men of his empire, consisting of 
Kings and Sultans, when a discussion took place among ihem, re- 
specting the tradiLJons of former nations. They called to mind the 
stories of our lord Suleyman the son of Da^nd (on both of whom be 
peace]), and the dominion and auchority which God (whose name 
be exalted!) had bestowed upon him over mankind and ihe Jinn and 
the birds and the wild beasts and other things; and they said, We 
have heard from those who were before us [hat God (whose per- 
fection be extolled, and whose name be exalted!) bestowed not 
upon any one the like of that which He bestowed upon our lord 
Suieyman, and that he attained to that to which none other attained, 
so that he used to imprison the Jinn and the Matids and the Devils 
in bottles of brass, and pour molten lead over rhem, and seal this 
cover over them with a signet. 

Then Tahh [the son of Sahl] related, that a man embarked in a 
sliip with a company of others, and they voyaged to the island o£ 
Sicily, and ceased not in their course until there arose against them 
a wind which bore them away to one of the lands of God, whose 
name be esalted! This happened during the black darkness of 
night, and when the day shone forth, there came out to them, from 
caves in that land, people of black complexion and with naked 
bodies, like wild beasts, not understanding speech. They had a King 
of their own race, and nfjne of them knew Arabic save their King. 
So when they saw the ship and those who were in her, he came 
forth to them attended by a party of his companions, :ind saluted 
them and welcomed them, and inquired of them respecting their 


religion, "Hif^y therefore acquainted him with their state; and he 
said to them, No harm shjU bef,"tll you. And ^vhen he asked (hem 
respecdng [heir rehgioiij each of them was of some one of the 
religions prevailing before the manifestation of EMsbm, and be- 
fore the mission of Mohammad^ may God bless and save him] — 
wherefore the people of the ship said, We know not what thou 
sayesi. Then the King said to them. There hath not come to us any 
one of the sons of Adam before you. And he entertained them 
with a banquet of the flesh of birds and of wild beasts and of fish, 
beside which they had no food. And after this, the people of the 
ship went down to divert [hemselvcs in the city, and they found one 
of the fishermen who had cast his net in the sea to catch fish^ and 
he drew it up, and lo, in it was a bottle of brass, stopped with lead, 
which was sealed \vith the signet of Suleyman the son of Da'ud, 
on both of whom be peace[ And the fisherman came forth and 
broke it; whereupon there proceeded from it a blue smoke, which 
united with the clouds of heaven; and they heard a horrible voice, 
saying, Repentance! repentance! O Prophet of Godf — Then, of that 
smoke there was formed a person of terrible aspect, of terrific make, 
whose head would reach [as high as] a mountaini and he dis- 
appeared from before their eyes. As to the people of the ship, their 
hearts were almost eradicated; but the blacks thought nothing of 
the event. And a man returned to the King, and asked him re- 
specting this; and the King answered him. Know that this is one of 
the Jinn whom Suleyman the son of Da^ud, when he was incensed 
against them, imprisoned in these bottles, and he potired lead over 
them, and threw them into the sea. When the fisherman casteth his 
net, it generally bringeih up chose bodies; and when they are broken, 
there cometh forth from them a Jinni, who imagineth that Suley- 
man is still living; wherefore he repenteth, and saith, Repentance! 
OPropher of God! 

And the Prince of the Faithful, 'Abd-E|-Melik the son of Mar- 
wan, ^vondcred at these words, and said, Extolled be the perfection 
of God! Suleyman was endowed with a mij^hty dominionl — And 
among those who were present in that assembly was En-Nabighah 
Edh-Dhubyani;' and he said, Talib hath spoken truth in that which 

^ An Arab poei, who, however^ ditd before Isldin, 


he hiuh related^ and the proof of hrs veracity is tlie saying of the 
Wise, ihc PirsE, [thus versiliedj — 

And [consider] Suleyman^ when the Deity said to him, Peilorm die 

o(£ce of Khjhfeh, and govern widi diligence; 
And whoso obeyeth tliec, honour him for doing so; and whoso dis- 

obeyeth thcCj imprison him forever. 

He tis'ied to put titcm into botdcs of brass, and to cast them into the 
sea. — And the Prince of the Faithful approved of these wocds, and 
said, liy Allali, 1 de^rc to sec some nf these bottles! So Talib the 
son of Sahl replied, O Prince of tlie Faithful, thou art able to do so, 
and yet remain in ihy country. Send to thy brother 'Abd-El-'A^ii, 
the son of Mar^van, desiring him to bring them 10 thee from the 
Western country,^ that he may write orders to Musa^ to journey 
from the Western Country to this mountain which we have men- 
tioned, and to bring thee what thou desirest of these bottles; for the 
furthest tryct of his province is adjacent to this mountain. — And the 
Prince of the Faithful approved of his advice, and said, O Talib, 
thou hast spoken truth in that which thoii hast said, and I desire 
that liiou be my messenger to Musa the son of Nuseyr for this 
purpose, and thou shalt have a white ensit^n, together with what thou 
shalt desire of wealth or dignity or other things, and I will be thy 
substitute to take care oE thy family. To this, Talib replied. Most 
wiUingly, O Prince of the Faithfuh And the IChahfeh said to him, 
Go in dependence on the blessing of God, and his aid- Then he gave 
orders that they should write for him a letter to his brother *Abd- 
El-'Aziz, his viceroy in Egypt, and another letter to Musa, his vice- 
roy in the Westerii Country, commanding him to journey, himself, 
in search of the bottles of Suleyman, Co leave his son to govern the 
country in his stead, and to take with him guides, to expand weaUh, 
and to collect a large number of men, and not to be remiss in ac- 
complishing that object, nor to use any pretext to excuse himself- 
He sealed the two letters, and delivered [hem to Talib the son of 
Sahl, commanding hjm to hasten, and to elevate the ensigns over 
his head; and he gave him riches and riders and footmen to aid him 

^El-Mas'i '■''*' Noril> Africa- 

^ [Thv Arnb ytntrnl who cnat\uvrn\ Narrh Africa and Sp^in.] 


in liis way: he gave orders tiso to supply Kis house with every thing 

So Talib went forth on his wy.y to Egypt- He proceeded with his 
companions, [reversing the distrias from Syria, uniil ihey emered 
Misr/ when the Governor of Egypt met him, and lodged him with 
him; and he treated him with the utmost honour during the pericd 
of his stay with him- Then he sent with him a guide who accom- 
panied him to Upper Egypt until they came to the Emir Muaa the 
son of Nuseyr; nnd when he knew of his approach, he went forth 
to him and met iiim^ and rejoiced at his arrival; and Talib handed 
to him the letter. So he took it and read it and understood its mean- 
ing; and he put it upon his head saying, I hear and obey the com- 
mand of the Prince of the Faithful- He determined to summon the 
great men; and they presented themselves; and he inquired of them 
respecting that whith had been made known to him by the lefter; 
whereupon they said, O Emir, if thou desire him who will guide thee 
to that place, have recourse to the sheykh *Abd-£&-Samad the son 
of *Abd'£l-Kuddus EUMasmudi ; for he is a knowing man, and hath 
travelled much, and he is acquainted with the deserts and wastes 
and the seas, and their inhabitants and their wonders, and the coun- 
tries and their districts. Have recourse therefore to him, and lie 
will direct thee to the object: of thy desire. Accordingly he gave 
orders to bring him, and he came before him; and, lo, he was a very 
old man, whom the vicissitudes ot years and times had rendered 
decrepit. The Emir Musa saluted him, and said to him, O sheykh 
'Abd-Es-Samad, our lord the Prince of die Faithful, "Abd-El-Melik 
the son of Marwan, hath commanded us thus and thus, and I 
possess little knowledge of chat land, and it hnith been told me that 
thou art acquainted with that country and the routes. Hast ihou 
then a wish to accomplish the affair of the Prince of the Faithful ? — 
The sheykh replied. Know, O Emir, that this route is difficult, far 
extending, with few tracks. The Emir said to him, Ho^v long a 
period doth it require? He answered. It is a joorney of two years 
and some months going, and ihe like returning; and on the way are 
dilTicuhies and horrors, and extraordinary and wonderful things. 
Moreover, thou art a warrior for the defence of tlie faith, and our 

*/,(-., El-fuitai,"om Cairo." 


country is near unto the enemy; 50 perhaps the Clirisiians may come 
forth during our absence: it 15 expedient therefore ihar thou leave 
in thy province one to govern it. — He replied^ Well. And he left 
his son Harun as his substitute in his province, exacted an oath of 
fidelity CO him, and commanded the troops that tlicy should not 
oppose him, but obey him in all tliat he should order them to do. 
And they heard his words, and obeyed him. His son Harun was 
of great courage, an illustrious hero, and a bold champion; and the 
sheykh 'Ahd-Es-Samad pretended to him that the place in which 
were the things tliat the Prince of the Faithful desired was four 
months' journey distant^ on the shore of the sea, and that through- 
out the whole route were haltrng-places adjacent one to another, and 
grass and springs. And he said, God will assuredly make this affair 
easy to us through the blessing attendant upon thee, O Viceroy of 
the Pfinceof the Faithful. Then the Emir Musa said, Kno west thou 
if any one o£ the Kings have trodden this land before us? He an- 
swered him. Yes, O Emir: this land belonged to the King of 
Alexandria^ Darius the Greek. 

After this they departed, and they continued their journey until 
they arrived at a palace; whereupon the sheykh said, Advance with 
us to this palace, which presenteth a lesson to him who will be 
admonished. So the Emir Musa advanced thither, together with the 
sheykh *Abd'Es-Samad and his chief companions^ trll they came to 
its entrance. And they found it open, and having lofiy angles, and 
steps» among which were two wide steps of coloured marbles, the 
like of which hath not been seem the ceilings and walls were 
decorated widi gold and silver and minerals, and over the entrance 
was a slab, whereon was an inscription in ancient Greek; and the 
sheykh 'Abd-Es-S3[nad said. Shall I read it, O Emir? The Emir 
answered, Advance and read. May God bless thee) for nought haih 
happened to us during this journey but what hiith been the result 
o£ the blessing attendant upon thee, — So he read it; and, lo, it was 
poetry; and it was this: — 

Here was a people whocrtj after their works, thou shaTc Sec wept over 

for their lost dominion; 
And in this palace is the last informotion respecting lords collected in 

the dust. 


Deaih hath deairoyed them and disunited them, and in the dust chey 

have tost ^vhac ihey amassed; 
As though iKey had only put dawn theif loads to rest a while: quickly 

have they departed! 

And the Emir Musa wept until he became insensible, and he said, 
There is no deity but God, the Living, the Enduring without 
failure! He then entered tlie palace, and was confounded by its 
beauty and its construction; 3nd he looked at the figures and images 
iha: it contained. And, lo, over the second door were inscribed some 
verses. So the Emir Musa said, Advance, O sheykh, and read. AC' 
cordingly he advanced and read; and the verses were these: — 

How many companies hnvc allphted in the tabernacles since times of 

old, and taken their departure! 
Consider thou then what ih<? accidents oC fortune have done with others 

when they have befnIJcn them. 
They have shared togelher whjt they collected, and they have left the 

pleasure thereof* and departed. 
What enjoyments they hiid! antl what food did they eat! and then in the 

dust they themselves were eatenl 

And again the Emir Musa wept violently : the world became yellow 
before his face; and he said* We have been created for a gre^it objecit 
Then they attentively viewed the palace; and, lo, it was devoid of 
inhabitants, destitute of household and occupants: its courts were 
desolate, and its apartments were deserted ; and in the midst of it was 
a chamber covered with a lofty dome, rising high into the air, 
around which were four hundred tombs. To these tombs the Emir 
Musa drew near, and, behold* among them was a tomb constructed 
of marble, whereupon were engraved these verses:— 

How often have I stood [in light]! and how often slaini and to how 

many things hnve I been 3 witness! 
And how often have I eaten! and how often drunk! and how often have 

I heard the songs of beauteous damsels! 
And how ofren have I ordered! and how often forbidden! and how 

many strong fortresses are seen, 
Which I have besieged and searched, and from which I have taken the 

lovely females* ornaments! 
But in my ignorance I transgressed to obtain things wished for, which 

proved at last to be frail. 


Then consider attentively ihy case^ O man, before ibou shalt drink the 

cup oi death; 
For after a little while shall the (Tust be poufed iipon ihce, and thou 

wilt be lifeless. 

And the Emir Musa, and those who were with him, ^vept. Then 
he drew neiir lo the dome-crowned chamber, and, lo, il hitd eight 
dtyois of sandal-wood, with nails of gold, cmamenied with srars of 
silver set with various jewels. And over the firs: door were inscribed 
these verses: — 

What I have left, f left not from generosity; but throujjh the sentence 

and decree operating upon man. 
Long time I lived, happy and enraged, defending my asylum like a Herce 

I was never quier, nor would I bestow a mustard-seed, by reason of my 

avarice, though I were ca$i into ihe fire. 
Thus did I until I was smitten hy the decree of the glorious Deity, the 

Creator, the Maker. 
When my death was appointed soon to take place^ I could not prevent it 

by my numerous slr,itagemi; 
My troops that I had collected availed not, and none of my friends aided 

me, nor my neighbour. 
Throughout my whole life was T wearied in my journey to the grave^ 

now in ea^e, and now in difHcully. 
So, when the purses have become Ijden, shouMst ihau accumulate dinar 

upon dinar, 
It will all pass before the morning to another, and they will have brought 

thee a camel-driver and a grave-digger; 
And on the day of thy judgment, lone shalt thou meet GckI, laden with 

sin and crimes and heavy burdens. 
Then let not the world deceive thee with its beaucyi but set; what it hath 

done to thy family and neighbour. 

And when the Emir Musa heurd these verses, he wept again so 
violently that he became insensible; and after he had recovered, he 
entered the chamber covered with the dome, and beheld in it a long 
tomb, of terrible appearance, whereon was a tablet of iron of China; 
and the sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad drew near to it, and read its inscrip- 
tion; andj loj on it was writEen, — 

In the name of Godj the Eternal, the Everlasting throughout all ages; 
in the name of God, who begetteth not, and who is not begotten, and 
unto whom there is none like: in the name of God, the Mighty and 


Powerful; in the name of the Living who dieth not. — To proceed; — O 
ihoa who arrivcsc at this placc^ be admonished by Lhe misfortunes and 
cabmities thaE ihou beholde^t, and be not deceived by the world and its 
be^iutyj and its lalsity ^nd caEutnnyj and its fallacy and finery; tor it U a 
flattererj a cheat, a traitor, fts things are borrowedj and it will take the 
loan from the borrower: and it is like ihe confused visions of the sleeper^ 
and ihe dream of the dreamer^ as though it were tfie sarab^ of the pUini 
which the thirsty imagineth to be water: ihe Dex'il adurneth iC for nian 
until death* These are il^e characteristics of the world: confide not there- 
fore in it^ nor incline to it; for it will betray him who dependeLh upon ilj 
and who in his affairs reheih upon if- Fall noc in its snares, nor cling to 
ii-i skirts* For I possessed four thousand bay horses in a stable; and ! 
married a thousand damsels^ of the daughters of Kings^ high-bnsoined 
vitgins, like nionns; and I wa^ blessed with a thousand children^ like 
stern lions; and I lived a thousand years^ happy in mind and heart; and 
I amassed riches such 3^ the Kings of the re^iions of ihe earih wt^re un- 
able to proeure^ and I imagined that my enjoyments would continue 
without faihire. But 1 was not aware when there alighted among us the 
terminator ot delijjhts and the separator of companions, the desolator of 
abodes and the ravager of inhabited mansions, the destroyer of the great 
and the small and the infants and the children and ihe molhers. We 
bad resided in Uiis p;ilace in security until ihe event decreed by the 
Lord of all creatures^ the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the 
earihs, befell us, and ihe ihunder of the Manifest Truih assailed us, and 
there died of us every day two, till a great company of us had perished. 
So when I saw that dcsiruciion had entc^red our dwefiings^ and had 
alighted among us, and drowned us in the sea of deaths^ I summoned a 
writer^ and ordered him to write these verses and admonitions and 
lessons, and caused them lo be engraved upon these doors and tableU 
and tombs. I had an army comprising a thousand thousand bridles^ 
composed of hardy mt^n, with spears, and coats of mail, and sharp swords, 
and strong arms; and I ordered them to clothe themselves with the long 
coais ofc m^il, and lo hang on the keen swords, and to place in rest the 
terrible lances, and mount the high-blooded horses. Then, when the 
event ap[>ointed by the Lord of all creatures, the Lord of the earth and 
the heavens, befell us, I said, O eompantes of troops and soldiers, can ye 
prevent that which bath befallen me from the Mighty King? But the 
soldiers and troops were unable lo do so, and ihey said. How shall ^ve 
contend against Him from whom none hath secluded^ ihe Lord of the 
door that hath no door-keeper? So J said. Bring Eo me the wealth. (And 
it was contained in a thousand pits^ in each of which were a diousand 
hundred-weights of red gold, and in them were varieties of pearls and 
jewels, and tliere was the like <iuantiLy of white silver, with treasures 

^ Mirage. 


such as the Kings of ihe carih were unable to procure.) And ihey did 
so; and when they had brought the wealth beiare me, 1 saiJ to tliem, 
Can ye deliver me by means of aU these riches, and purchase for me 
therewiih one day during which I may remain ahve? But they could 
noL do io. They resigned themsehc? 10 fate and destiny, and i sub- 
mitted to God wilh patient endurance of fate and affliction until He 
took my soul, and made me 10 dwell in my grave. And if ihou ask con- 
cernmg my name, I am Kush the son oi Sheddad the son of 'Ad the 

And upon tbe same tablet were also inscribed these verses: — 

Shouldsl thou think upon me after the length of my age, and the vicissi- 
tudes of days and circumstances, 

I am the son of Sheddad, who held dominion over mankind and each 
tract of the whole earth. 

All the stubborn iroop-! became abject unto inc, and E&h-Sham from 
Misr unto 'Adran^ 

In glory I reigned, abasing their Kings, the people of the earth fearing 

my dominion; 
And 1 beheld the tribes and armies in my power^ and saw the countries 

and their inhabitants dread me. 
When I mounted, I beheld my army comprising a million bridles upon 

neighing steeds; 
And I possessed wealth that could not be calculated, which I treasured 

up against misfortunes, 
Determining to devote the whole of my property for the purpose of 

extending the term of my life. 
But the Deity would nought save the execuiioii of his purpose; and thus 

I became separated froiu my brethren. 
Death, the disuniter of mankind, canii? to me, and I was removed from 

grandeur to the mansion of contempt; 
And I found [the recompense of] all my past actions, for which I am 

pledged: for I was sinfull 
Then raise thyself, lest thou be U|>on a brink; and beware of calamities! 

Maye^t thou he led aright! 

And again the Emir Musa wept until he became insensible, in con- 
sidering the fates of the people; after which, as they were going 
about through the different apartments of the palace, and viewing 
attentively its chambers and its places of dtversioii, they came to a 
table upon four legs of alabaster, whereon was inscribed^ — 

Upon this table have eaten a thousand one-eyed Kings, and a thousand 
King^ each sound fn both eyes. All of ihem have quitted the world, and 
taken up their abode in the burial-grounds and the graves. 


And the Emir Muaa wtoie all this. Then he went forth, and took 
not with hiju from the piilace iiught save the table. 

The soldiers proceeded, with the sheykh 'Abd-£s-Samad before 
them shewing them the wjy» until all the first day had passed, and 
the second, and the thirtL They then came ro a high hill, at which 
they looked, :ind, jo, upon it was a horseman of brass, on the top o£ 
whose spear was a wide and ghstening head thai almost deprived 
the beholder of sight, and on it was inscribed, O ihou who coraest 
up to me, if thou know not the way that leadeih to the Cuy of 
Brass, rub the hand of the horseman, and he will turn, and then will 
stop, and in whatsoever direction he stoppeth, thither proceed, with- 
out fear and without dlfhculcy; for it wjU lead thee to the City of 
Brass.— And when the Emir Musa had rubbed the hand of the 
horseman, it turned like the blinding lightning, and faced a diflerent 
direction from that in which they were travelling. 

The parly therefore turned thither and journeyed on, and it was 
the right way. They took that route, and continued their course the 
same day and the next night until they had traversed a wide tract 
of country. And as they were proceeding, one day, they came to a 
pillar of black 5tone, wherein was a person sunk to his arm-pits, and 
he had two huge wings, and four arms; two of them like those of 
the sons of Adam, and two like the forelegs of lions, with claws. 
He had hair upon his head like the tails of horses, and two eyes like 
two burning coals, and he had a third eye, in his forehead, like the 
eye of the lynx, from which there appeared sparks of fire. He was 
black and tali; and he was crying out. Extolled be the perfeetion of 
my Lord, who hath appointed me this severe affliction and painful 
torture until the day of resurrection! When the party beheld him, 
their reason fled from them, and they were stupefied at the sight of 
his form, and retreated in flight; and the Emir Musa said to the 
sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad, What is thisP He answered, I know not 
what he is. And the Emir said, Draw near 10 him and investigate 
his case: perhaps he will discover it, and perhaps thou wilt learn his 
history. The sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad replied. May God amend the 
state of the Emir! Verily we fear him. — Fear ye not, rejoined the 
Emir; for he is withheld from injuring you and others by the state 
in which he is. So the sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad drew near to him, and 


SJid [0 hiiT], O tLou ptrsorij what is ihy name» and what is thy nature, 
and tvhjt hath placed tliec here in this manner? And he answered 
him, As 10 me, 1 am an 'Etrii oi the JiunT and my name is Dahish 
the son of El-A'mash, and \ am restrained here by ihe majesty, 
confined by the power, [of God, J tormented as long an God (eo 
whom be ascribed might and glory!) willeth. Then the Emir Musa 
said, O sheykh *Abd-Es-Samad, ask him what is the cause of his 
confinement in this pillar. He therefore asked respecting that, and 
the ^Efrit answered him, Verily my story is wonderful; and it is 

There belonged to one of the sons of Iblis a[i idol of red carnehan, 
of which 1 was made guardiatj; and there used to worship ii one 
of the Kings o£ the sea, of illustrious dignity, of great glory, leading, 
among his troops of the Jann» a million warrioEs wlio smote with 
swords before him, and who answered his prayer in cases of diili- 
culty. These Jann who obeyed him were under my Lommand and 
authority, following my words when I ordered them: all of them 
were in rebellion against Suleyman the son of Da'ud (on both of 
whom be peacel)i and I used to enter ihe body of the idol, and 
command them and forbid them. Now die daughter of that King 
was a frequent adorer of the idol, assiduous in the worship of it, and 
she was the handsomest of the people of her age, endowed ^vith 
beauty and lovelinesSi and elegance and perfection; and I described 
her to Suleyman, on whom be peace! 

So he ient to her father, saying to him. Marry to me thy daughter 
and break thy carnctian-idol, and bear witness that there is no deity 
but God, and that Suleyman is the Prophet of God. If thou do so, 
thy due shall be the same as our due, and thy debt as our debt. But 
if thou refuse, 1 bring against thee forces with which thou hast not 
power to contend: therefore prepare an answer to the question,*' and 
put on the garment of death; for I will come to thee with forces 
that shall fill the vacant region, and leave thee like yesterday that 
hath passed. — And when the messenger of Suleyman (on whom be 
peacel) came to him, he was in^'iolent and contumacious, and mag- 
nified himself and was proud. Then he said to his wczirs. What say 
ye respecting the affair of Suleyman the son of Da'ud? For he 

^On [he day of jud^cnvni. 


hath senc demanding my daughter^ and commanding me to break 
my carnelian-idol, and to adopt his faith.^And they replied, O 
great King, can Snleyman do unto thee thai, when thou art in the 
midst of this vast sea? if lie come unto thee, he cannot prevail 
against thee; since the Marids of the Jinn will fight on thy side; 
and (hou shall seek aid against him of thine idol that thou wor- 
shippesi; for he will aid thee against him and will defend thee. The 
right opinion is, that thou consuk liiy lord {and they incant by him 
the red carnehan-idol), and hear what will be his reply: if he coun- 
sel thee to fight him, fight him; but otherwise, dc> not. — And upon 
this the King went immediately, and, going in to his idol, after he 
had offered a sacrifice and slam victims, fell down before it pros- 
trate) and began to weep, and to recite these verses: — 

O my lord, verily I know thy dignity^ and, behold, Suleyman dcsireth to 

break thte- 
O rrfy lord, verily I seek thy defence: command then; for 1 am obedient 

CO ihy command. 

(Then that ^Efrlt, the half of whom was In the pillar, said to the 
sheykh "Abd-Es-Samad, while those around him hstened,) And 
thereupon I entered the body of the idol, by reason of my ignorance, 
and the paucity of my sense, and my soiicittide respecting the affair 
of Suleyman, and recited this couplet; — 

As for me, I am not in fear of him; for T am acquainted with everything. 
It he wish to wage war wiih me, 1 will go forth, and I will snatch his 
soul fiam him. 

So when the King heard my reply to him, his heart was strength- 
ened, and he determined to wage war with Suleyman tlie Prophet of 
God (on whom be peace!) and to fight against him. Accordingly, 
when the messenger of Suleyman came, he inflicted upon him a 
painful beatingi and returned him a shameful reply; and he sent to 
threaten Suleyman, saying to him, by the messenger. Thy mind hath 
suggested to thee desires. Dost thou threaten me with false wordsP 
Either come thou to me, or 1 will go to ihee. 

Then the messenger returned to Suleyman, and acquainted him 
with ail that had occurred and happened to him. And when the 
Prophet of God. Suleyman, heard that, [it was as though] his 


reiLirrecEion Eook pkce;' his resolution was routed, and he prep^ired 
his forces, consisting o£ Jinn and men, and wild beasts, and birds 
and reptiles. He commanded bis Wezir Ed-Dimiryai, the King of 
the Jinn, to collect the Marids of the Jinn from every place: so he 
collected for him, of the Devils^ six hundred millions. He also 
commanded Asaf [he son of Barkhiya [his Wezir of men] to col- 
lect his soldiers of mankind; and Eheir number was one million or 
more. He made re^idy the accoutrements and weapons^ and mounted, 
with his forces of the Jinn and of mankind, upon the carpet^ \vith 
the birds Jlying over his head, and the wild beasts beneath the carpet 
marchings until he aNghted upon his enemy's coast, and surrounded 
his island^ having filled the land with the forces. He then sent to our 
Kingi saying to him, Behold^ I have arrived: therefore repel from 
thee that which hath come down, or else submit thyself to my 
authority^ and acknowledge my mission, and break thine idol» and 
worship the One, the Adored God, and marry to me thy daughter 
according to law, and say thou, and those who are with thee, I 
testify that there is no deity but God, and 1 testify that Suleyman is 
the Prophet of God. If thou say that, peace and safety shall be thy 
lot. But if thou refuse, thy defending thyself from me in this island 
shall not prevent thee: for God (whose name be blessed and exalted!) 
hath commanded the wind to obey me, and I will order it to convey 
me unto thee on the carpet, and will make ihee an example to re- 
strain others,— So the messenger came to him, and communicated to 
him the message of the Prophet of God, Suleyman, on whom be 
peace] But the King said to him, There is no way for the accom- 
plishment of this thing (hat he requireth of me: therefore inform him 
thai 1 am coming forth unto him. Accordingly the messenger re- 
turned to Suleyman, and gave him the reply. The King then sent 
to the people of his country, and collecfed for himself, of the Jinn 
that were under his authority, a million; and to these he added 
others, of the Marids and Devils that were in the islands of the seas 
and on the tops of the mountains; after which he made ready his 
forces^ and opened the armouries, and distributed to them the 
weapons. And as the Prophet of God, Suleyman (on whom be 
peacel), he disposed his troops, commanding the wild beasts to form 

'/. e., his pas&ion rox- 


thcmscivps into Lwo divisions, on the right of [he people and on their 
left, and commiinding the hirds no be upon the islands. He ordered 
ihcm also, when the assault should be made, to fear out rhe eyes 
of their aiitagonists with their beaks, and 10 beat their faces with 
their wings; and he ordered the wild beasts to tear in pieces their 
horses; and they replied, We hear and obey God and thee, O 
Prophet ot Godi Then Suleyman, ihe Prophet o£ God, set for 
himself a couch of alabaster adorned with jewels, and plated with 
plates of red gold, and he placed his Wezir A&af the son of Bark- 
hiya on the right side, and his Wezir Ed-Dimiiyar on the left side, 
and the Kings of mankind on his right, and the Kings of the Jinn 
on his left, and the wild beasts and the vipers and serpents before 

After this, [hey came upon us all together, and wc contended with 
him in a wide tract for a period of two days; and calamity befell us 
on the third day, and the decree of God (whose name be exalted!) 
was executed among us. The first who charged upon Suleyman were 
I and my troops; and I said to my companions, Keep in your places 
in the battlefield while I go forth to them and challenge Ed-Dimir- 
yat. And, lo, he came forth, like a great mountain, his fires flaming, 
and his smoke ascending; and he approached, and smote me with a 
flaming fire; and his arrow prevailed over my fire. He cried out 
at me with a prodigious cry, so that I imagined the heaven had 
fallen and closed over me, and the mountains shook at his voice. 
Then he commanded his companions, and they charged upon us 
all together; we also charged upon them, and we cried out, one to 
another: the fires rose and the smoke ascended, the hearts of the 
combatants were almost cleft asunder, and fhe battle raged. The 
birds fought in the air; and the wild beasts in the dust; and I con- 
tended with Ed-Dimiryac until he wearied me and I wearied himj 
after which I became weak, and my companions and troops were 
enervated, and my tribes were routed. The Prophet of God, Suley- 
man, cried out, Take ye this ^reat tyrant, the ill-omened, the in- 
famousf And the men eharced upon the men, and the Jinn upon 
the (inn; defeat befell our Kin^, and wc became unto Suleyman a 
spoil. His troops charged upon our forces, with the wild beasts on 
their right and left, and the birds were over our heads, tearing out 


the eyes of the people, sometimes with their talons and sometimes 
with their beaks, and sometimes they beat with their wings upon the 
fates of the combatants, while the wild beasts bit the horses and 
(.ore in pieces the men, until tJie greater portion ot the party lay 
upon the face of the earth like the trunks of palm-trees. As to me^ 
I flew from before Ed-Dimiryat; but he followed me a journey of 
three months, until he overlook me. I had fallen down through 
fatigue, ;md he rushed upon me» and made me a prisoner. So 1 s^-id 
to him^ By Him who hath exalted thee and abased me, pity me, and 
take me before Sulcyman, on whom be pencel But when I came 
before Suleyman, he met me in a most evil manner: he caused this 
pillar to be brought, and hollowed it, and put me in it, and sealed 
me with his signet; after which, he chained me, and Ed-Dimiryat 
conveyed me to this place^ where he set me down as thou seest me; 
and this pillar is my prison until the day of resurrection- He charged 
a great king to guard me in this prison, and I am in this condition 
tortured as thou seest me. 

The party therefore wondered at lilm, and at the horrible nature 
of his form; and the Emir Musa said. There is no deity but GodT 
Suleyman was endowed with a mighty dominion!— And the sheykh 
^Abd-Es-Samad said to the 'Efrit> O thou, I ask thee concerning a 
thing of which do thou inform us. The "Efril replied, Ask con- 
cerning what thou wilt. And the sheykh said^ Are there in this 
place any of the "Efrits confined in botdes of brass from the time of 
Suleyman, on whom be peace? He answered. Yes, in die Sea of 
El-Karkar, where are a people of the descendants of Nuh (on whom 
be peace!), whose country the deluge reached not, and they are 
separated there from [the rest of] the sons of Adam. — And where, 
said the sheykh, is the way to the City of Brass, and the place wherein 
ire the bottles? What distance is tlierc between us and it? — The 
*E£rit answered, It is near. So the party left him, and proceeded; 
and there appe;ired to them a great black object, with two [seeming] 
fires corresponding with each other in position, in the distance, in 
that black object; whereupon the Emir Musa said to the sheykh. 
What is this great black object, and wbac are these two correspond- 
ing fires? The guide answered him, Be rejoiced, O Emir; for this 
is the City of Brass, and this is the appearance of it that I find 


described in ihe Book of Hidden Treasures; that ifs wall is of bfack 
stonesj and it hath two towers of brass of El-Andahis/ which the 
beholder seeth resembling two corresponding fires; and thence it is 
named the City of Brass. — They ceased noL to proceed until they ar- 
rived at it; and^ lo, it was lofty^ strongly fortified, rising high into 
the air, impenetrable: the height of its walls W2S eighty cubits, and 
it had five and twenty gates, none of which would open but by 
means of some artifice; and there was not one gate to it that had 
not* within the city, one like it: such was the beauty of the con- 
struction and architecture of the city. They stopped before it, and 
endeavoured to discover one o£ its gatesi but they could not; and 
the Emir Musa said to the sheykh 'Abd-Es-5amad, O sheykh, I see 
nor to this city any gate. The sheykh replied, O Emir, thus do I 
find it described in the Book of Hidden Treasures; that it hath 
five and twenty gates, and that none o£ its gates may be opened but 
from within the city, — And how* said the Emir, can wc contrive to 
enter it, and divert ourselves with a view of its wonders? 

Then the Emir Masa ordered one of his young men to mount a 
camel, and ride round the city, in the hope that he might discover 
a trace o£ a gate, or a place lower than that to which they were 
opposite. So one of his young men mounted, and proceeded around 
it for two days with their nights, prosecuting his journey with 
diligence, and not resting; and when the third day arrived, he came 
in sight of his companions, and he was astounded at that which he 
beheld of the extent of the city, and irs height. Then he said, O 
Emir, the easiest place in it is this place at which ye have alighted. 
And [hcreu|K)n the Emir Musa took Talib the son of Sahl, and the 
sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad, and they ascended a mountain opposite the 
city, and overlooking it; and when they had ascended that mountain, 
they saw a city than which eyes had not beheld any greater. Its 
pavilions were lofty, and its domes were shining; its mansions were 
in good condition, and its rivers were running; its trees were fruit- 
ful, and its gardens bore ripe produce. It was a city with impene- 
trable gates, empty, still, without a voice or a cheering inhabitant, 
but the owi hooting in its quarters, and birds skimming in circles in 
its areas, and the raven croaking in its districts and its great 

' Spain; not mcsely AndalUiia, 


thoroughfare-Streets, and bewailing chose who had been in it. The 
Emir Musa paused^ sorrowing for its being devoid ot inhiibitants, 
and its being despoiled o£ people and dwellersj and he said, Exiollcd 
be ibe perfection of Him whom :igGS and times change noc, the 
Creator of the creation by his power! And while he was extoUlng 
the perfection of God (to whom be ascribed might and gloryl), he 
happened to look aside, Lmd, lo, there were seven tablets of white 
marble, appejiring from a disianee. So lie approached them, and^ 
behold, they were sculptured and inscribed; and he ordered that their 
writing should be read; therefore the sheykh *Abd-Es-Samad ad- 
vanced and examined them and read them; and they contained 
admonition^ and matter for example and restraint, unto tho^e en- 
dowed with faculties of discernment. Upon the first tablet was 
inscribed, in the ancient Greek character, — 

O son of Adam, how hcodleis art thou of die esse of him who hath 
been before theef Thy years and age have diverted ihce from considtr- 
ing him. Knc^vest diou noi that the cup of death will be filled for ihtc. 
and that in a short time thou wilt drink iiP Look then to thyself before 
entering thy grave. Where are liiase wha pos:ie55ed the countries and 
abased ihe servant? of God and led armies? Death haifi come upon 
thum; and God is the terminator of delights and the separator of com- 
panions and the devastator of flourishing dwellings; so He hath trans- 
ported them from the amplitude of paTaces to the siraitncss of the graves. 

And in the lower part of the tablet were inscribed these verses; — 

Where are the Kings and the peoplers of the carthP They have quitted 

that which tli'v have built and [icupled; 
And in the grave t..^y are pledged for their past actions: there, after 

dtsiruction, they have bi^come putrid corpses. 
Where are the troops? They re^xilled not, nor profiled. And where is 

that which ihey collected and hoarded? 
The decree of the Lord of the Tlitone surprised them. Neither riches 

nor rei^uge saved them from ii. 

And the Emir Musa fainted; his tears ran down upon his cheeks, 
and he said, By Allah, indirferencf; to the world is the most ap- 
propriate and the most sure course! Then he caused an inkhorn 
aniit a paper to be brought, and he wrote the inscription of the first 
tablet; after which he drew near to the second tablet, and the third, 
and the fourth; and, having copied what was inscribed on them, he 


descended from the mountain; and the world iiad beesi pictured 
before his eyes. 

And when he came back to the troops, ihey passed the day devising 
means of entering the city; and the Emir Musa said to his Wezir^ 
Talib the son of Sahl, and to those of his chief officers, who were 
around him, How shall we contrive to enter the city, that we may 
see its wondersP Perhaps we shall find in it something by which we 
may Ingratiate ourselves ivith the Prince of the Faithful. — Talib the 
son of Sahl replied, May God continue the prosperity o£ the Emir! 
Let us make a ladder, and mount upon it, and perhaps we shall 
gain access to the gate from within, — And the Emir said, This is 
what occurred to my mind, and excellent is the advice. Then he 
called to the carpenters and blacksmiths, and ordered them to make 
straight some pieces of wood, and to construct a ladder covered with 
plates of iron. And ihey did io, and made it strong. They employed 
themselves :n constructing it a whole month, and many men were 
occupied in making it. And they set it up and fixed it against the 
wallj and it proved to be equal to the wall in height, as though it 
had been made for ii before that day. So the Emir Musa wondered 
at it, and said, God bless you! It scemcih, from the excellence of 
your work, as though ye had adapted it by measurement to the 
wall. — He then said to the people, Which of you will ascend this 
ladder, and mount upon the wall, and walk along it, and contrive 
means of descending into the city, that he may see how the case is, 
and then inform us of the mode of opening the gate? And one o£ 
them answered, I will ascend it, O Emir, and descend and open 
the gate. The Emir therefore replied, Mount. God bless thee!— 
Accordingly, the man ascended the ladder until he reached the top 
of it; when he stood, and fixed his eyes towards the city, clapped his 
hands, and cried out with his loudest voice, saying, Thou art beauti- 
ful! Then he cast himself down into the city, and his flesh became 
mashed with his bones. So the Emir Musa said, This is the action 
of the rational. How then will the insane act? If we do thus with 
all our companions, there will not remain of them one; and we shall 
be unable to accomphsh our a(Tair, and the affair of the Prince of 
the Faithful. Depart ye; for we have no concern with this city. — 
But one of them said, Perhaps another ilian this may be more steady 


than he. And a second ascpndeid, and a. third, and a fourth, and a 
fifth; and they ceased not to ascend by tli^E ladder to the top of the 
wall, one after jfnoiher, until twelve men of ihcm had gone» acting 
as acted the first. Therefore the sheykli 'Abd-Es-Samad said, There 
is none for this affair htit myself, and ihe experienced is not hke the 
inexperienced. But the Emir Musa sajd lo him, Thou shall not do 
that, nor will 1 allow thee to ascend to the top of this walU for 
shouldst tliou die, thou wouldst he the cause of the deach of us all, 
and there would not remain of us one; since thou art the guide 
of che party. The sheykh ho^vevcr replied. Perhaps the object will 
be accomplished by my means, through the will of God (v^'hose 
name be exalted!) And thereupon all the people agreed to his 

Then the sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad arose* and encouraged himself, 
andj having said. In die name of God, the Compassionate) the Merci- 
ful! — he ascended the ladder, repeating the praises of God (whose 
name be exalted!), and reciting the Verses of Safely, until he reached 
the top of the wall; when he clapped his hands, and fixed his eyes. 
The people therefore all called out to him, and said, O sheykh 'Abd- 
Es-Samad, do it not, and casr not thyself dnwnf And they said. 
Verily to God we belong, and verily unto Him we return! If the 
sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad fall, we all perishi— Then the sheykh *Abd- 
Hs-Samad laughed immoderately, and sat a long time repeating the 
praises of God (whose name be exalted!), and reciting the Verses 
of Safety; after which he rose with energy, and called out with his 
loudesc voice, O Emir, no harm shall befall you; for God (to whom 
be ascribed might and gloryl) hath averted from me the effect of 
the artifice and fraiEdulencc of the Devil, through the blessing re- 
sulting from the utterance of the words. In the name of God, the 
Compassionate, the Merciful, — So the Emir said to him, What hast 
thou seen» O sheykh? He answered, When I reached the top of the 
wall, i beheld ten damsels, like moons, who made a sign with their 
hands, as though they would say. Come to us. And it seemed to me 
that beneath me was a sea (or great river) of water; whereupon I 
desired to cast myself down, as our companions did: but 1 beheld 
them dead; so I ivichheld myself from them, and recited some words 
of the book of God (whose name be exalted!), whereupon God 


averted from me the influence of those damsels' aiEificf;, and they 
departed from me; therefore 1 cast not myself down, and God re- 
pdlcd from me the eflect oi their artifice and enchantment. There 
is no doubt that this is an enchantment and an artitite which the 
people of this city contrived in order to repel from it every one who 
should desire to look down upon it, and wish to obtain access to it; 
and these our companions are laid dead. 

He then walked along the wall till he came to tlie two towers of 
brass^ when he saw that they had two gates of gold, without locks 
upon them, or any sign of the means of opening them. Therefore 
the sheykh paused as long as God willed, and^ looking attentively, 
he saw in the middle of one of the gates a figure of a horseman of 
brass» having one hand extended^ as though he were pointing with 
it^ and on it was an inscription, which the sheykh read, and^ ]o, it 
contained these words: — Turn the pin that is in the middle of the 
front of tlie horseman's body twelve times, and then the gale will 
open. So he examined the horsemarij and in tlie middle of the front 
of his body was a pin, strong, firm, well fixed; and he turned it 
twelve times; whereupon the gate opened immediately^ with a noise 
like thunder; and the sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad entered. He was a 
learned man, acquainted with all languages and characters. And he 
walked on until he entered a long passage, whence he descended 
some stepsj and he found a place with handsome wooden benches, 
on which were people dead, and over their heads were elegant 
shields^ and keen swords, and strung bows, and notched arrows. 
And behind the [next] gate were a bar of iron, and barricades of 
wood, and locks of delicate fabric, and strong apparatus. Upon this, 
the sheykh said within himself. Perhaps the keys are with these 
people. Then he looked, and> lo, there was a sheykh who appeared 
to be the oldest of them, and he was upon a high wooden bench 
among the dead men. So the sheykh *Abd-Es-Samad said^ May not 
the keys of the city be wiih this sheykhf Perhaps he was the gate- 
keeper of the city, and these were under his authority.— He there- 
fore drew near to him, and lifted up his garments, and, lo, the keys 
were hung to his waist. At the sight of them, tlie sheykh "Abd-Es- 
Samad rejoiced exceedingly; his reason almost fled from him in 
conseijuence of his joy; and he took the keys, approached the ^are» 


opened the locks, and pulled the g^te and the barricades and other 
apparatus^ which opened, and chu gate ako opened, with a noise 
like thunder, by reason of its greatness and tertibleness^ and the 
enormousiicss of its apparatus. Upon this, the sheykh c-'iclaimed, 
God IS most great! — and the people made the same exclamation with 
iiim^ rejoicing at the event. The Emir Musa also rejoiced at the 
safety o£ the sheykh *Abd-Es-Samad, and at the opening of the gate 
of the city; the people thanked the sheykh for that which he had 
done, and all the troops hasteneil to enter the gate. But the Emir 
Mitsa cried out to them, O people, if all of us enter, we shall not be 
secure from some accident that may happen. Half shall enter, and 
half shall remain behind. 

The Emir Musa then entered the gale, and with him half of the 
people, who bore their weapons of war. And the party saw their 
companions lying dead: so they buried them. They saw also ihe 
gate-keepers and servants and chamberlains and lieutenants lying 
upon beds of silk, all of them dead. And they entered the market 
of the city, and beheld a great market, with lofty buildings, none of 
which projected beyond another: the shops were open, and the scales 
hung up, and the utensils of brass ranged in order, and the khans 
were full of all kinds of goods. And they saw the merchants dead 
in their shops: their skins were dried, and their bones were carious, 
and they had become examples of him who would be admonished. 
They saw likewise four markets of particular shops Riled with 
wealth. And they left this place, and passed on to the silk-market, 
in which were silks and brocades interwoven with red gold and 
white silver upon variotis colours, and the owners were dead, lying 
upon skins, and appearing almost as though they would speak. 
Leaving these, they went on to the market of jewels and pearls and 
jacinths; and they Mc it, and passed on to the market of the money- 
changersj whom they found dead, with varieties of silks beneath 
ihenij and ihcir shops were filled with gold and silver. These they 
left, and they proceeded to the market of the perfumers; and. To, 
their shops were filled with varieties of perfumes, and bags of musk, 
and ambergris, and aloes-wood, and nedd, and camphor, and other 
things; and the owners were all dead, not having with them any 
food. And when they went forth from the market of the perfumers^ 


they found near unrok a palace, decomced^ and strongly constructed i 
and they entered it, and found banners unfurled, ynd drawn swords, 
and Strang bows, and shields hiing up by chains of gold and silver, 
and helmets gilded wiih red gold. And in die passage? of that 
palace were benches of Ivory, ornametited with plates of brilliant 
gold, and with silk, on which were men whose skins had dried upon 
the bones; the ignorant would imagine them to be sleeping; but, 
from the want of food, they had died, and lasted mortality. Upon 
this» the Emir Musa paused, exiolling the perfeciion of God (whose 
name be exakedl), and hi& holiness, and contemplating Lhe beauty 
of that palace, and its strong construction, and its wonderful fabri- 
cation in the moit beautiful form and with the firmest architecture; 
and most of its decoration was in ultramarine. Around it were 
inscribed these verses: — 

Consider what thou beholdest, O man^ and be on thy guard before thou 

And prepare good provision, that thou iniiyc&t enjoy it; for every dweller 
in a house shall depart. 

Consider a people who decorated their ahodes, and in the dust have be- 
come pledged for their actions. 

They built; bui their buildings availed not; and treasured; but their 
wealth did not save thcni when the term had expired. 

How often they hoped for what wa? not decreed theml But they passed 
to the graves, and hope did not profit them; 

And from their high and glorious slate tf^ey were removed to the 
narrowness of the sepulchre. Evil is their abode! 

Then there came to them a crier, after they were buried, saying, Where 
are the thrones and lhe crowns and the apparel? 

Where are (he faces wiiich were veiled and curtained, and on which, for 
their beauty^ proverbs were composed? — 

And the grave plamly answered the inquirer for them, As to the cheeks, 
lhe rose is gone from them- 

Long time they aie and drank; but novi', after pleasant eating, they them- 
selves have been eaien. 

And the Emir Musa wept until he became senseless; and after- 
wards, having given orders to write these verses, he went on into the 
interior of the palace. There he beheld a great hall, and foar large 
and lofty chambers, each one fronting another, wide, decorated with 
gold and silver ^nd with various colours. In the midst of lhe hall 


was 3 great founwin of alabaster, over which was a canopy of 
brocade; and in those chambers were places [one in each chamber] 
containing decorated fountains, and unks lined with marble; and 
channels of water flowed along the floors of those chambers, the 
four streams meeting together in a great tank lined with marbles 
of various colours.— The Emir Musa then said to the sheykh 'Abd- 
Es-Samad, Enter ihese chambers with us. So chcy entered the first 
chamber; and they found u filled with gold and with white silverj 
and pearls and jewels, and jacinths and precious minerals. They 
found in it also chests fuU o£ red and yellow and white brocades. 
And they went thence to the second chamber^ and opened a closet 
in it, and, lo, it was filled with arms and weapons of war, consisting 
of gilded helmets, and Davidean coats of mail, and Indian swords, 
and lances of Khatt Hejer, and maces o£ Khuware^m, and other 
instruments of war and battle. Then they passed thence to the third 
chamber, in which they found closets having upon their doors 
closed locks, and over them were curtains worked with various 
kinds of embroidery. They opened one of these closets, and found 
it filled with weapons decorated with varieties of gold and silver 
and jewels. And they went thence to the fourth chamber, where 
also they found closets, one of which they opened, and they fotmd 
it full of utensils for food and drink, consisdng of various vessels 
of gold and silver, and saucers of crystal, and cups set with brilliant 
pearls, and cups of carnelian, and other things. So they began to 
take what suited ihem of those things, and each of the soldiers 
carried off what he could. And when ihey determined to go forth 
from those chambers, they saw there a door of saj inlaid with ivory 
and ebony, and adorned with plates of brilliant gold, in the midst 
of that palace. Over it was hung a curtain of silk worked \vith 
various kinds of embroidery, and upon it were locks of white silver, 
to be opened by artifice, without a key. The sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad 
therefore advanced to those locks, and he opened them by his 
knowledge and boldness and excellent skill. And the party entered 
3 passage paved with marble, upon the sides of which were curtains 
whereon were figured various wild beasts and birds, all these being 
worked with red gold and white silver, and their eyes were of 
pearls and jacintlis: whosoever beheld tfiem was confounded. Next 


they came to a saloon, on beholding which the Emir Musa and the 
sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad were ania?-ed at its constructioo. 

They then passed on, and found a saloon toiistracied of polished 
marble adorned with jewels. The beholder imagined that upon its 
floor was ninning water, and if any one walked upon it he would 
slip. The Emir Musa therefore ordered the sheykh *Abd-Es-Symad 
to throw uf>on it something that ihey might be enabled to wallc on 
it; and he did this, and contrived so that ihey passed on. And they 
found in it a great dome conscracted of stones gilded with red gold. 
The party had not beheld, in all that they had seen, any thing more 
beautiful than it. And in the midst of that dome was a great dome- 
crowned structure of alabaster, around which were lattice-windows, 
decorated, and adorned ^vith oblong emeralds, such as none of the 
Kings could procure. In it was a pavilion of brocade, raised upon 
columns of red gold, and within this were bird^, the feet of which 
were of emeralds; beneath each bird was a net of brilliant pearls, 
spread over a fountain; and by the brink of the fountain was placed 
a couch adorned with pearls and jewels and jacinths, whereon was 
a damsel resembling the shining sun. Eyes had not beheld one more 
beautiful. Upon her was a garment of brilliant pearls, on her head 
was a crown of red gold, with a hllet of jewels, on her neck was a 
necklace of jewels in the middle of which were refulgent gems, and 
upon her forehead were two jewels the light of which was like that 
of the sun; and she seemed as though she were looking at the people, 
and observing them to the right and left. When the Emir Musa 
beheld this damsel, he wondered extremely at her loveliness, and 
was confounded by her beauEy and the redness of her cheeks and 
the blackness of her hair. Any beholder would imagine that she was 
alive, and not dead. And they SJid to her. Peace be on thee, O 
damselJ But TaLb the son of Sahl said to the Emir, May God 
amend thy state. Know that thJs damsel is dead. There is no life 
in her. How then can she return the salutation?— And he added, 
O Emir, she is skilfully embalmed; and her eyes have been taken 
out a£ter her death, and quicksilver hath been put beneath them, 
after which they have been restored to their places; so they gleam; 
and whenever the air putteth them in motion, the beholder imagineth 
that she twinkleth her eycsj though she is dead- — Upon this the 


Emir Musa said, E>;t<jlled be the perfection of God, who hath sub- 
dued his servants by death! — And as to the couch upoti which was 
the damsel, it liad steps, and upon the itcps were two slaves* one of 
them while and the other bbck; and in the hand of one of thorn 
was a weapon of steel, and in die hand of the other a jewelled sword 
chat blinded the eyesj and before the two slaves was a tablet of 
gold, whereon wss read an inscription* which was this: — 

Tn the name of God, the Compassionate, the McrcifuL Praise be to 
Cod, the Creator of man; and He is ihe Lord of lords* and the Canse of 
causes. In the name of God, the Everlasting, the Eternal: in the name 
of God, the Ordainer of faie and destiny, O son of Adam, how ignorant 
art thou in the long indulgence of hope[ and how unmindful art thou 
of the arrival of the predestined period! Knowest thou not [hat death 
hath called for thee* and hath advanced to seize thy soul? Be ready 
then for departure* and make provision in the world; for thou wih quit 
it soon. Where is Adam, the father of mankind? Where are Kuh and 
his offspring? Where are the sovereign Kisras and Caisars? Where are 
the Kings of India and El-'Irak? Where are the Kings of the regions of 
Ehe earth? Where are the Amalekites? Where arc the mighty monarch?? 
The mansions are void of their presence* and ihey have quilted their 
families and homes. Where are the Kings of the foreigners and ttie 
Arabs? They have all died, and hecome rotten bones. Where are the 
lords of high degree? They have all died. Where are Karun and 
Haman?^ Where is Sheddad the son of 'Ad? Where arc Ken'an and 
the Lord of the Stakes?'" God haih cut them o(f, and it is He who 
cuiLeih short the lives of mankind* and He haih made the mansions to 
be void of their presence. Did they prepare provision for the day of 
resurreciionn and make themselves ready lo reply to the Lord of men.^ — 
O thoUf if thou know rne not, I wiH acquaint thee with my name and my 
descent, I am Tedmur, the daughter of iha King of the Amalekiies, of 
those v/ho ruled the countries with equity. I possessed what none of the 
Kings possessed, and rufed with justice, and acted impartially towards 
my subjects: T gave and bestowed, and I lived a long rime in the enjoy- 
ment of happiness and an easy life, and possessing emancipated female 
and male slaves- Thus I did until the summoner of death came to my 
abode, and disasters occurred before me. And the case was this:— Seven 
years in succession came upon us, during which no water descended on 
us from heaven, nor did any grass grow for us on die face of the earth. 
So we ate vvhat foo^l we had in our dwel|ini;s, and after that we fell 
upon the beasts and ate them, and there remained nothing. Upon this* 

^Korahi Haman ihc chief mini^ccr of ihe Pharaoh til the oppression. Sec Kufan. 
x^viJ. '*Cani3an and ilic Pliar^ah of ihc opprti^iion. 


ihereforCj I caused rhs wealth to be brought, and meted it with a measure^ 
and sent it by trusty men^ who went about wiih it through iit! the dis- 
trictSj not leaving unvisited a single large cicy^ lo seek for some food. 
Bui they found it not; and they returned to us with the wealthy after a 
long absence- So thereupon we exposed to view our riches and our 
treasures, locked the gates of the iortresses in our city, aixd submitted 
ourselves to the decree of our Lord, committing our case to our Master; 
and thus we all died, as thou beholdejir^ and lefr what we had huilc and 
what we had treasurt^d. This is the story: and aficr the substance there 
rernaineth not aught save [he vestige^ 

And they looked at the lower parr of the tabletj and saw inscribed 
upon it these verses: — 

Child of Adamj let not hope mate game of thee. From all that thy 

hands have treasured thou shall be removed, 
I see thee desiraus of the world and its emhetlishments; and ihe past 

generations have pursued the same course. 
They acquired wealthy both lawful and forbidden; but it repelled not 

fate when the term exptledj 
They led troops in multitudes^ and collected riches; and they left their 

wealth and buildings, and depari4^d 
To the narrow graves, and lay down in (he dust; and there they have 

remained, pledged for their actions; 
A$ if the company of travellers had put down their baggage during night 

in a house where was no food tor guests- 
And it^ owner had said to them, O people, there is not any lodging for 

you in it. So they packed after alighting; 
And they all thereupon btjc^me fearful and tmiid: neither halting nor 

journeying was pleasant unto ihem. 
Then prepare gooti provision ihat will rejoice thee to-morrow; and act 

not save agreeably with the fear of \hy Lord. 

And upon the tablet were also inscribed these worc^s*— 

Who^o ar^i^'eth at our city^ and entereth it, God facilitating his en- 
trance into it, let him Cake of the wealth what he can, but noi touch any 
thing that is on my body; for it is th^ covering of my person, and the 
attire with which [ am fitted forth from the workin Therefore let him 
fear God, and not seiic ai-tght of it; for he would destroy himself- I ha^e 
caused this to be an admonition from me unto him, and a charge which 
I give him in confidence. And peace be an you[ I beg God, moreover, 
to save you from the evil of trials and sickness- 

Thc Emir Mtisa^ when he heard these words, again wept so 
violently that he became insensible; and after he had recovered^ he 


wrote all ihat he saw» and was admonished by what he wirnes^ed- 
He rhen said to his companions, Bring the sacks, and fill ihem with 
part of these riches and these vessels and raridcs and jewels. And 
thereupon, Talib tiic son of Sahl said lo the Emir Musa, O Emir, 
shall wc leave this damsel with the things that arc upon herp They 
are things that have no equal, nor is the like of them at any time 
founds and they are more than the riches ihou hast taken, and will 
be the best pr^^sent by which thou mayesr ingratiate thyself with 
the Prince of the Faithful.— But the Emir replied, O thou, heardest 
thou not that which the damsel hath given as a charge, in the in- 
scription upon this tablet? Moreover, and especially, she hath given 
it as a charge offered in confidence^ and we are not of the people 
of treachery. — The Wozir Talib, however, said, And on account 
of these words wilt thou leave these riches and these jewels, when 
she is dead? What then should she do with these ihings, which are 
the ornaments of the wodd, and the decoration of the Lvingi' 
With a garment of cotton might this damsel be covered, and we are 
more worthy of iha diings than she.—Then he drew near Co the 
steps, and ascended them until he reached the spot between the two 
men [the slaves before mentioned], when, lo, one of these two 
smote him upon his hack, and the other smote him with the s^vord 
that was in his hand, and struck olT his head, and he fell down 
dead. So the Emir Musa said. May God not regard with mercy thy 
resting-place I There was, in these riches, a sufficiency; nnd covetous- 
ness doth doubtlessly dishonour the person in \vhom ii existeth! — He 
thereupon gave orders for the entry of the troops, who accordingly 
entered, and they loaded the camels with part of those riches and 
minerals] after which the Emir Musa commanded them to close the 
gale as it was before. 

They then proceeded along the sea-coast until they came in sight 
of a high mountain overlooking the sea. In it were many caves, and, 
lo, in these was a people of the blacks, clad in hides, and with 
burnuses of hides upon their heads, whose language was not known. 
And when they saw the troops, they ran from them, and fled to those 
caves, while their women and their children stood at the entrances 
of the caves. So the Ernir Musa said, O sheykh 'Abd-Es-Samad, 

hat are these people? And he answered. These are the objects of 



the inquiry of the Prince of the Faithful, They therefore alighted, 
yiid the tents were pitched, and the riches were pur down; and they 
had not rested when the King of the blacks came down from the 
mountain, and drew near to the troops. He was acquainted with the 
Arabic language; therefore, when he came to the Emir Musa, he 
saluted him; and the Emir returned his aalutationj and treyted him 
with honour. Then the King of the bhcks said to the Emir, Are 
ye oi mankind, or the Jinn ? The Emir answered, As to us, we are 
of mankind; and as to you, there is no doubt but that ye are of the 
Jinn, because of your seclusion in this mountain tliat is separated 
from the world, and because of the greatness of your make. But 
the King of the blacks replied, Nay, we are a people of the race of 
Adam, of the sons of Ham the son of Nuh^ on whom be peace! And 
as to this sea, it is known by the name of El-Karkar. — So the Emir 
Musa said to him. And whence obtained ye knowledge, when there 
hath not come unto you any prophet divinely inspired in such a 
country as this? He answered, Know, O Emir, that there appeared! 
unto us, from [his sea, a. person diffusing a light whereby the sur- 
rounding tracts are illuminated; and he prociaimeth, with a voice 
which the distant and die near hear, O sons of Ham, be abashed at 
Him who seeih and is not seen; and sayj There is no deity but 
God: Mohammad is the Apostle of God. And I am Abut-' Abbas 
El-Khidr. — Before that, we used to worship one another; bur he 
called us to the \^'orship of the Lord o£ mankind. — Then he said to 
the Emir Musa, He hath also taught us some words to say.— And 
what, asked the Emir, are those words? He answered, They are 
these: — There is no deity but God alone: He hath no partner; to 
Him belongeth dominion, and to Him bclongeth praise: He giveth 
life and killeth: and He is able to accomplish every thing. And we 
seek not access to God (to wliom be ascribed might and glory[) save 
by these words, nor know we any others. Also, every night of 
Friday we see a light upon the face of the earth, and we hear a 
voice saying, Perfect! Holy! Lord of the Angelic and che Spirit! 
Whatsoever God willeth cometh to pass, and what He willcth not 
comeih not to pass! Every benefit from God is a gratuitous favour! 
And there is no strength nor power but in God, the High, the Great! 
The Emir Musa then said to him. We are the associates of the 


King of El-I&lam, 'Abd-El-Meiik the son of Marwan; and we have 
come on account of the botdci of brass ihat are here in your sea, 
and wherein are ihe devils imprisoned from the time of Suleyman 
che son ot Da*ud (on both of whom be peace!). He hath com- 
manded us to bring him some of them, that he may see them, and 
divert himself by the vIgw of them,— And the King of the blacks 
replied, Most willingly. Then he feasied him with fish, and ordered 
the divers to bring up from the sea some of the bottles of Suleyman; 
and they brought up for them twelve bottles; wherewith the Emir 
Musa was delighted, and the shcykh 'Abd-Es-Samad also, and ihe 
soldiers^ on account o£ the accomplishment of the ailair of the Prince 
cf the Faithful. The Emir Musa thereupon presented to the King 
of the blacks many presents^ and gave him large gifts. In hke 
manner too the King of the blacks gave to the Emir Musa a present 
consisCmg of wonders of the sea» in the form of human lieings, and 
said to him. Your entenainmeni for these three days shall be of 
these iish. And the Emir replied, We must carry with us some of 
them, that the Prince of the Eaithful may see them; for thereby will 
his heart be pleased more than by the botdes of Suleyman. 

Then chey bade him farewell, and they journeyed back until they 
came to the land of Syria, and went in to the Prince of the Faithful; 
whereupon the Emir Musa acquainted him with all that he had 
seen, and all that had occurred to him with respect to the verses and 
histories and admonitions, and told him of the case of Talib the son 
of Sahl. And the Prince of the Faithful said to him, Would that I 
had been with you, that I might have beheld what yc beheld! He 
then took the bottles, and proceeded to open one after another, and 
the devils came forth from them, saying, Repentance, O Prophet of 
God! We will not return to the like conduct ever! — And *Abd-E]- 
Melik the son of Marwan wondered at this. But as to the damsels 
of the sea, with the like of which the King of the blacks feasted 
them, they made for them troughs of ^vood, which they filled with 
water, and into these they put them. They died, hoivever, in conse- 
quence of the intensity of the heat. After this, the Prince of the 
Faithful caused the riches to be brought before him, and divided 
them among the Muslims. And he said, God hath not bestowed 
upon any one the like of what He bestowed upon Suleyman the son 


of Da'ud. Then the Emir Musa begged the Prince o£ the Faithful 
thai: he might appoiot his son in his place as Governor of [he 
province^ and that he might himself go to the noble Jerusalem, there 
to worship God, So the Prince of the Faithful appointed his son 
to the government, and he himself went to the noble Jerusalemj 
and he died there. 

This is the end of that which hath come down fo us, of the lilstory 
o£ the City of Brass, entire. And God is all-kno:ving. 

[Nights 7j8-y56] 
TiTE Story of JuLLANAii oi- the Sia 

THERE was, in olden time, and in an ancient age and period, 
in the land of the Persians, a King named Shah-Zcman, 
^nd the place of his residence was Khurasan. He had a 
hundred concubines; but he had not been bkst, during his whole 
life, with a male child by any of them, nor a female; and he re- 
fleeted upon this, one day, and lamented that the greater portion of 
his life had passed, and he had not been blessed with a male child to 
inherit the kingdom after him as he had inherited ii from liia fathers 
and forefathers. So the utmost grief, and violent vexation, befell 
him on this account. 

Now while he was sitting one day, one of his mcmluts came in 
to him, and said to him, O my lord, at the door is a slave-girl with 
3 merchant: none more beautiful than she hath been seen. And he re- 
phed, Brin^ to mo the merchant and the slave-girh The merchant 
and the slave-girl Lherebre came to him; and when he saw her, he 
found her to resemble the Rudeyni' lance. She was wrapped in an 
izar of silk embroidered with gold, and the merchant uncovered her 
face, whereupon the place was illuminated by her beauty, and there 
hung down from her forehead seven locks of hair reaching to her 
anklets, like the tails of horses- She had eyes bordered with kohl, 
and heavy hips, and slender waist: she was such as would cure 
the malady of the sick, and extinguish the Eire of the thirsty, and 
was as the poet hath said in these verses: — 

I am enamoured of her: she is perlect in beauty, and perfect also in 
gravity and in dignity. 

She is neither lalj nor shoFt; but her hips are such that the izar is too 

narrow for them. 
Her stature is a mean between the sm^ill and the large: so there is neither 

tallne&s nor shortness to ftnd fault with- 

iRudc>'iieh and iter huabjnd Stcnher, of Khali Hcier, were famoui for making 

5iraighi sptar-jhaffs. 



Her hair reachelh to her anklets, [and is black as nighcj but her face 
is ever like the day. 

The King, therefore wonilcrcd ai the sight of her, and at her beauty 
and loveliness, and her iiaiure jnd justness of form; ynd he said 
to the merchant, O sheykh, for how much is this damsel to be sold? 
I'he merchant answered, O my lord, I purchased her for two thou- 
sand pieces of gold oi the merchant who owiied her before me, and 
I have been for three ye:irs travelling with her, and she hath cost, to 
the period of her arriwil at this place, three thousand pieces of gold; 
and she is a present from me unto thee. Upon this, the King con- 
ferred upon him a magnificent robe of honour, and gave orders to 
present him with ten thousand pieces of gold. So he took them, and 
kissed the hands of the King, thanking him for his bounty and 
beneficence, and departed. Then the King committed the damsel to 
the tirewomen^ saying to them, Amend the state of this damsel, and 
deck her, and furnish for her a private chamber, and take her into 
it. He abo gave orders to his chamberlains that every thing which 
she required should be conveyed to her. The seat of government 
where he resided was on the shore of the sea, and his city was called 
the White City. And they conducted the damsel into a private 
chamber, which chamber had windows overlooking the sea; and 
the King commanded his chamberlains to close all the doors upon 
her after taking to her all that she required. 

The King then went in to visit the damsel; but she rose not to 
him, nor took any notice of him. So the King said, It seemeth that 
she hath been with people who have not taught her good manners. 
And looking at the damsel, he saw her to be a person surpassing in 
beauty and loveliness, and in stature and justness of form; her face 
was like the disk of the moon at the full, or the shining sun in the 
clear sky; and he wondered at her beauty and loveliness, and stature 
and justness of form, extolling the perfection of God, the Creator: 
lauded be his power! Then the King advanced to the damsel, and 
seated himself by her side, pressed her to his bosom, and seated her 
upon his thigh; and he kissed her hps, which he found to be sweeter 
than honey. After this, he gave orders to bring tables of the richest 
viands, comprising dishes of every kind; and the King ate, and put 


morsels inio her mouth until she was satisfied) but she spoke no: a 
single word. The King talked to her, and inquired of her her niime; 
but she was silent, not uttering a word, nor returning him an answer, 
cejsjng not to h:ing down her he^d towards the ground; and what 
protected her from the anger of the King was the excess of her 
beauty :ind loveliness, and her tenderness of mourner. So the King 
said witliin himself, Extolled be the perfection of God, the Creator 
of this damsel! How elegant is she, saving that she doih not speak! 
But perfection belongeth unto God, whose name be esalted! — Then 
the King asked the female slaves whether she had spoken; and they 
answered him. From the lime of her arrival to the present moment 
she hath not spoken one word, and we have not heard her talk. The 
King therefore caused some of the female slaves and concubines to 
come, anti ordered ihem to sing to her, and to make merry with 
her, thinking that then she might perhaps speak. Accordingly the 
female slaves and concubines played before her with all kinds oE 
musical instruments, and enacted sports and other performances, and 
they sang so that every one who was present was moved with delight, 
except the damsel, who looked at them and :vas silent, neither 
laughing nor speaking. So the heart of the King was contracted. 
He however inclined to her entirely, paying no regard to others, but 
;relinquishing all the res: of his concubines and favourites. 

He remained with her a whole year, which seemed as one day, 
and still she spoke not; and he said to her one day, when his love of 
her, and his passion, were excessive, O desire of souls, verily the love 
that 1 have for thee is great, and I have relinquished for thy sake all 
my female slaves, and the concubines and the women and the 
favourites, and made thee my worldly portion, and been padent with 
thee a whole year. 1 beg God (whose name be exakedl) that He 
will» in his grace, soften thy heart towards me, and that thou mayest 
speak to me. Or, if thou be dumb, inform me by a sign, that I may 
give up hope of thy speaking. 1 also beg of God {whose perfection 
be extolled!) that He will bless me by thee with a male child that 
may inherit my kingdom after mci for I am single and solitary, hav- 
ing none to be my heir, and my age hath become great. 1 conjure 
thee then by Allah, if thou love me, that thou return me a reply. — 
And upon this, the damsel hung down her head towards the ground. 


mcdiEating, Then she raised her head, and smiled in the face o£ 
the Kittgt whereat it appeared to ihe King that lightning filled the 
private chamber; and she said, O magnanimous King, and bold hon, 
God hath answered thy prayer; for 1 am about to bear thee issue, and 
the time is [almost] come. But I know not whether die child is 
male or female. And were it not for my being in this stale, I had 
not spoken to thee one word,— And when the King heard what she 
said, his face brightened up wiLh joy and happiness, and he kis.scd 
her head and her hands by reason of the violence o£ his joy, and 
said, Praise be to God who hath favoured me with things thai I 
desired; the first, thy speaking; and the second, thy information that 
thou art abotil to bear me issue. Then the King arose and went 
forth from her, and seated himself upon ilie throne of his kingdom 
in a stale of exceeding liappiness; and he ordered the Wezir to give 
out to the poor and the needy and the widows and others a hundred 
thousand pieces of gold as a thank-offering to God (^vhose name be 
exalted!) and an alms on his part. So che Wczir did as the King 
had commanded him. And after that, the King went in to the 
damsel, and sat with her, and embraced her and pressed her to his 
bosom, saying to her, O my mistress, who ownest me as thy slave, 
wherefore hath been this silence, seeing that thou hast been with me 
a whole year, night and day, awake and asleep, yet hast not spoken 
lo me during this year except on this day? What then hath been 
the cause of thy silence? 

The damsel answered, Hear, O King of the age, and know that 
I am a poor person^ a stranger, broken-hearted: I have become sepa- 
rated from my mother and my family and my brother. And when 
the King heard her words, he knew her desire, and he replied. As to 
thy saying that thou art poor, there is no occasion for such an 
assertion; for all my kingdom and my goods and possessions are at 
thy service, and 1 also have become thy memluk: and as to thy 
saying, I have become separated from my mother and my family and 
my brother — inform me in what place they are, and T will send to 
them, and bting them to thee. So she said to him. Know, O fortU' 
nate King, that my name is fullanar of the Sea. My father was one 
of the Kings of the Sea, and he died, and left to us the kingdom; 
but while we were enjoying it, one of the Kings came upon us, and 


took the kingdom from our hands. I have also a brother named 
Salih, and my mother is of the women of the sgs; and 1 quarrelled 
with my brother, and swore that t would throw myself into the 
hands of a man ot the inhabitants o£ the land. Accordingly 1 came 
foi [h from the ^a, and sat upon the shore of an island in the moon- 
light, and there passed by mc a man who took me and conducted 
me to his abode» and desired to make me his concubine; buE 1 
smote him upon his head, and he almost died; wherefore he went 
and sold me to this man from whom thou tookest me, and he was 
an e^:cellent, virtuous man, a person of religion and fidelity and 
kindness. But had not thy heart fovcd me, and hadst thou not pre- 
ferred me above all diy concubines, I had not remained with thee one 
hour; for I should have casr myself into the sea from this window, 
and gone to my modier and my people, i was ashamed, however, 
to go to them in ibe state in which 1 am; for ihey ivould imagine 
evil of me, and would not believe me, even though 1 should swear 
to them, were I to tell rhem that a King had purchased me with his 
money, and had made me his worldly portion, and chosen me in 
preference to his wives and all that his right hand possessed. This 
is my story, and peace be on thee! — And when he heard her words, 
he thanked her, and kiascd her between her eyes, and said to her, 
By Allah, O my mistress, and light of my eyes, 1 cannot endure thy 
separjtion for one hour; and if thou quit me, 1 shall die instantly. 
How dien sb;sll the alTair be? — She answered, O my master, the 
time of the birth is near, and my famity must come. — And how, said 
the King, do they walk in the sea without being wetted r She 
answered. We walk in the sea as ye walk upon the land, through 
the influence of the names engraved upon the seal of Suleyman the 
son of Da'ud, upon both of whom he peace! But, O King, when my 
family and my brethren come, I will inform them that thou bought- 
cst me with ihy money, and hast treated me with kindness and 
beneficence, and it will he meet that thou confirm my assertion to 
them. They will also see thy state with their eyes, and will know 
that thou art a King, the son of a King.— And thereupon the King 
said, O my mistress, do what seemeth iit to thee, and what thou 
wishest; for I will comply with ihy desire in nil that rhou wik do. 
And the damsel said, Know,. O King of the age, that we walk in 


the sea with our eyes open^ and see what is in it, and we see the 
sun and the moon and the stars and the aky as on the face of the 
earth, and liiis hurteih us not.^ Know also» that in the sea are many 
peoples and various [orms of all the kinds that are on the land; and 
know^ moreover, that all that is on the land, in comparison with 
what is in the sea, is a very small matter. — And the King wandered 
at her words. 

Then the damsel look forth from her shoulders two pieces of 
Kamari aloes-wood, and took a bit of them» and, having lighted a 
fire in a perfuming- vessel, threw into it that bit, and she ulcered a 
loud whistle, and proceeded to speak words which no one under- 
stood; whereupon a great smoke arose, while the King looked on. 
After this, she said xo the King, O my lord, arise and conceal thyself 
in a closet, that I may shew thee my brother and my mother and my 
family without their seeing thee; for I desire to bring them, and 
ihou shalt see in this place, at tliis time, a wonder, and shalt wonder 
at the various shapes and strange forms that God (whose name be 
exalted!) hath created. So the King arose immediately, and entered 
a closet, and looked to see what she would do. And she proceeded 
to burn per£unie and repeat spells until the sea foamed and was 
agitated, and there came forth from it a young man of comely form, 
of beautiful countenance, like the moon at the full, with shining 
forehead, and red cheek, and hair resembling pearls and jewels; he 
was, of all the creation^ the most like lo his sister, and the tongue of 
the case itself seemed to recite in his praise these verses: — 

The moon becometh perfect once in each, month; but the loveliness of 

thy face is perfect every day^ 
Its abode is in the heart of one sign at a time; but tliine abode Is in all 

hearts at once. 

Afterwards, there came forth from the sea a grizzly-haired old 
woman, and with her five damsels, resembling moons, and bearing a 
likeness to the damsel whose name was JuUanar, Then the King 
saw the young man and the old woman and the damsels walk upon 
the surface of the water until they came to the damsel Jullanar; and 

'These ptopfc are perhaps die Ghawwa^oh, or Divert and PlunBers, aa inferior 
daat of itw Jinn. 


when cliey drew near to the window, and Jullanar beheld them^ she 
rose CO them and met them with joy and happiness. On their seeing 
her» [hey knew her^ and they went in to her ynd embraced hcr^ 
weeping violeiuly; and Ehey said to her, O Jullanar, how is it that 
thou leavest ijs for four years, and we know not the place in which 
diou an? By Allah, die world was contracted unto us, by reason 
of the distress occasioned by thy separation, and we had no delight 
in food nor in drink a single day, weeping night and day on account 
of the excess of our longing to see thee, — Then the damsel began to 
kiss the hand of the young man her brother^ and the hand of her 
mother^ and so also the hands of the daughters of her uncle, and 
they Silt with her a while, asking her respecting her state, and the 
things thai had happened to her, and her present condition. 

So she said to them, Know ye, that when I quitted you, and came 
forth from the sea, 1 sat upon the shore of an island, and a man 
took me, and sold me to a merchant, and the merchant brought me 
to this city, and sold me to its King for ten thousand pieces of gold. 
Then he treated me with attention, and forsook all his concubines 
and his women and his favourites for my sake, and was diverted by 
his regard for me from every thing that he possessed and what was 
in his city. — And when her brother heard her words, he said. Praise 
be to God who hath reunited us with iheel But it is my desire, O 
my sister, that thou wouldst arise and go with us to our country and 
our family.^So when the King he^rd the words of her brother, his 
reason iled in consequence of his fear lest the damsel should accept 
the proposal of her brother, and he could not prevent her, though he 
was inflamed with love of her; wherefore he became perplexed, in 
violent fear of her separation. Bnt as to the damsel Jullanar, on 
hearing the words of her brother, she said, By Allah, O my brother, 
the man who purchased me is the King of diis city, and he is a great 
King, and a man of wisdom, generous, of the utmost liberality. He 
hath treated me with honour, and he is a person of kindness, and 
of great wealth, but hath no male child nor a female. He hath shewn 
favour to me, and acted well to me in every reiipect; and from the 
day when I came to him to the present time, i have not heard from 
him a bad word to grieve my heart; but he hath not ceased to treat 
me with courtesy, and hath done nothing without consulting me. 


and I am living wich him in the best o£ states, and the mosf perfect 
of enjoj'ment?. Moreover", if 1 quitted hini, he would perish: for he 
c^ii never endure my scp^iradon even for a single hour, I also, if I 
quilted him, should die» by reason of the violence of my love for 
him in consequence of the excess of his kindness to me during the 
period of my residence with him; for if my father were hving, my 
tondidon wirh him would not be like my condition with this great, 
glorious King. Ye have seen, loo, that I am about to bear him issne; 
and praise be to God who hath made me ro be a daughter of a King 
of the Sea, and my husband the greatest of [he Kings of the Land. 
God (whose name be exakedl) aiHicted me not^ hue compensated me 
well; and as the King hath not a male child nor a female, I beg 
God (whose name be exalted!) to bless me with a male child that 
may inherit of this great King these buildings and palaces and 
possessions of which God haih made him owner. — And when her 
brother and the daughters o£ her uncle heard her words, dieir eyes 
became cheerful thereat, and they said to her, O JuUanar, thou 
k no west the place which thou hast in our estimation, and art ac- 
quainted with our allecrion for thee, and thou art assured chat thou 
art the dearest of all persons to us, and art certain that we desire 
for thee comfort, without trouble or toil. Therefore if ihou be not 
in a state of comfort, arise and accompany us to our country and our 
family; but if thou be comfortable here, in honour and happiness, 
this is our desire and wish; for we desire not aught save thy com- 
fort in every respect. — And fuUanar replied, By Allah, I am in a 
state of the utmost comfort and enjoyment, in honour and desirable 
happiness. So when the King heard these words from her, he re- 
joiced, and bis heart became tranquilNzed, and he thanked her for 
them; his love for her increased, and penetrated to his heart's core, 
and he knew that she loved him as he loved her, and that she de- 
sired to remain with him to sec his child which she was to bear him. 
Then the damsel Jullanar of the Sea gave orders to the female 
slaves to bring forward the tables and the viands of all kinds; and 
Jullanar herself was the person who superintended the preparation 
of the viands in the kitchen. So the female slaves brought to them 
the viands and the sweetmeats and the fruits; and she ate with her 
family. But afterwards they said to her, O Jullanar, thy master is a 


man who is a stranger to usj and we have entered his abode without 
his permission and without his knowledge of us, and thou praisest to 
us his excellence, and hast also brought to us his food, and we have 
eaien, but have not had an incerview with him, nor seen him, nor 
had] he seen us, nor come into our presence, nor eaten with uSj that 
the bond of bread and salt might be established between us. And 
[hey all desisted from eating, and were enraged at her, and fire began 
to issue from their mouths as from cressets. So when the King be- 
held this, his reason fled, in consequence of the violence of his fear 
of them. Then JuUanar rose to them, and soothed their hearts; after 
which she walked along until she entered the closet m which \vas 
the King her master; and she said to him, O my master, didst thou 
see, and didst thou hear my thanks to thee, and my praise of thee 
in the presence of my family; and didst thou hear what ihey said to 
me, that they desired to take me with them to our family and our 
country? The King answered her, I heard and saw. May God 
recompense thee for us well! By Allah, I knew not the extent of the 
love that thou feelest for me until this blessed hour, and I doubt not 
of thy love for me.— She replied, O my master, is the recompense of 
beneficence aught but beneficence? Thou hast treated me with 
beneficence, and bestowed upon me grciit favours, and 1 see that 
thou lovcst me with the utmost love, and thou hast shewn me every 
kindness, and preferred me above all whom thou lovcst and desirest. 
How then could my hear: be happy to quit thee, and to depart from 
thee; and how could that be when thou besrowest benefits and 
favours upon me? Now I desire of thy goodness that thou come and 
salute my family, and see them, and that they may see thee, and that 
pleasure and mutual friendihip may ensue. But know, O King of 
the age, that my brother and my mother and the daughters of my 
uncfe have conceived a great love for thee in consetfucnce of my 
praising thee to them, and they have said, We will not depart from 
thee to our country until we have an interview with the King, and 
salute him. So they desire to behold thee, and to become familiar 
with thee.— And the King said to her, I hear and obey; for this is 
what 1 desire. He then rose from his place, and went to them, and 
saluted them with the best salutatTonj and they hastened to rise to 
him; they met him in the most polite manner, and he sat with them 


in ihe pavilion, are with them at the lable^ aad remained with Them 
for a period of tiiirty days. Then they desired to remrn to their 
country and abode. So they tooli leave of the King, and the Queen 
JuUanar of the Sea, and departed from them, a£ter the King had 
treated them with the utmost honour. 

After this, JuUanar fulfilled her period, and she gave birth to a 
boy, resembling the moon at the full, whereat the King experienced 
the utmost happiness, because he had not before been blest with a 
son nor a daughter during his life. They eontinued the rejoicingSi 
and the decorations [of the city], for a period of seven days, in the 
utmost happiness and enjoyment; and on the seventh day, the 
mother of the Queen JuUanar, and her brother, and the daughters 
o£ her uncle, all came, when they knew tliat jullanar had given 
birth to her child. The King met them, rejoicing at their arrival, 
and said to them, 1 said 1 would not name my son until yc should 
come, and that ye should name hrm according to your knowledge. 
And they named him Bedr Basim; all of them agreeing as to this 
name. They then presented the boy to his maternal uncle, Salih, who 
took him upon his hands, and, rising with him £rom among them, 
walked about the palace to the right and left; after which, he went 
forth with him from the palace* descended with him to the sea, and 
walked on until he became concealed from the eye of the King. So 
when the King saw that he had taken his son, and disappeared from 
hira at the bottom of the sea, he despaired of him, and began to 
weep and wail. But Jullanar, seeing him in this state, said to him, 
O King o£ the age, fear not nor grieve for thy son; for 1 love my 
child more than thou, and my child is with my brother; therefore 
care not for the sea, nor fear his being drowned. If my brother 
knew that any injury would betide the little one, he had not done 
what he hath done; and presently he will bring thee thy son safe, 
if it be the will of God, whose name be exalted! — And but a shore 
time had elapsed when the soa was agitated and disturbed, and the 
uncle of the little one came forth from it, having with him the 
King's son safe, and he flew from the sea until he came to them, 
with the iitde one on his arms, silent, and his face resembling the 
moon in the night of its fulness. Then the uncle of the httle one 
looked towards the King, and said to him. Perhaps thou fearedst 


some injury to ihy son when 1 descended into [he aea, h-ivrng him 
wiih me. So he replied. Yes, O my master, I feared for him, and I 
did noE imagine that he would ever come forth from if safe. And 
Salih said to him, O King o£ the Land, we applied to his eyes a 
collyrium that we know, and repeated over him the names engraved 
upon the seal oi Suicyman the son of Da'ud (on both of whom be 
pe-ice!); for when a child is born among us, we do to him as I 
have lold thee. Fear not therefore, on his account, drowning, nor 
suffocation, nor all the seas if he descend unto them. Like as ye walk 
upon the land, we wdk in the sea. 

He then took forth from liis pocket a case, written upon, and 
sealed; and he broke its seal, and scattered its contents, whereupon 
dicrc fell from it strung jewels, consisting of all kinds of jacinths and 
Other gems, together with three hundred oblong emeralds, and three 
hundred oblong large jewels, of the size of the eggs of the ostrich^ the 
light of which was more resplendent than the light of the sun and 
the moon. And he said, O King of the age, these jewels and jacinths 
are a present from me unto thee; for we never brought thee a 
present, because we knew not the place of JuUanar's abode, nor were 
acquainted widi any trace or tidings of her. So when we saw thee 
to have become united to her, and that we all had become one, we 
brought thee this present^ and after every period of a few days, we 
will bring thee the hke of it, if it be the will of God, whose name be 
exakedl Por these jewels and jacinths with us are more plenriful 
than the gravel upon the land, and we know the excellent among 
them, and the bad, and all the ways to them, and the places where 
they arc found, and they are easy of access Eo us. — And when the 
King looked at those jewels and (jcinths, bis reason was confounded 
and his mind was bewildered, and he said, By Allah, one of these 
jewels is worth my kingdomi Then the King thanked Salih of the 
Sea for his generosity) and, looking towards the Queen Jullanar, 
he said to her, I am abashed at ihy brother; for he hath shewn 
favour to me, and presented me with this magnificent present, which 
the people of the earth would fail to procure. So Jullanar thanked 
her brother for that which he had done; but her brother said, O 
King of the age, thou hadst a prior claim upon us, and to thank thee 
hath been incumbent on Us; for thou hast treated my sister with 


beneficence, and we have entered thine ahode, and eaten of thy pro- 
vision; and the poet hath said, — 

Had / wept before she did, in my passion for So'da^ 1 had healed my souL 

before repeniance came. 
But jA(? wept bofore I did: her tears drew minej and I said, The merit 

belongs to the precedent. 

Then Salih said, T£ we stood serving thee, O King o£ the agSj a 
thousand years, regarding nothing else, we could not requite thee, 
and our doing so would be but a small thing in comparison with 
thy desert. — The King therefore thanked him eloquendy. And Salih 
remained with the King, he and his mother and the daughters of 
his unde, forty days; after which he arose and kissed the ground 
before the King, the husband of his sister. So the King said to him, 
What dost thou desire, O Salih? And he answered, O King of the 
age, thou bast conferred favours upon us, and we desire of thy 
goodness that thou wouldst grant us a boon, and give us permission 
to depart; for we have become desirous of seeing again our family 
and our country and out relations and our homes. We will not, how 
ever, relinquish the service of thee, nor that of my sister nor the 
son o£ my sister; and by Allah, O King of the age, to quit you is 
not pleasant to my heart; but how can we act, when we have been 
reared in the sea, and the land is not agreeable to us? — So when the 
King heard his words, he rose upon his feet, and bade farewell to 
Salih of the Sea and his mother and the daughters of his uncle, and 
ihey wept together on account of the separation. Then [hey said to 
the Krngi In a short time we shall be with you, and we will never 
relinquish you, but after every period of a few days we will visit 
you. And after this^ they flew towards the sea, and descended into 
it, and disappeared. 

The King treated Jullanar with beneficence, and honoured her 
exceedingly, and the little one grew up well; and his rnaternal uncle, 
with his grandmother and the daughters of his uncle, after every 
period of a few days used to come to the residence of the King, and 
to remain with him a month, and two months, and then return to 
their places. The boy ceased not, with increase of age, to increase in 
beauty and loveliness until his age became fifteen years; and he was 


incomparable m his perfect beamy, and his suture ynd his justness 
of form. He had learned writing and reading, and history and 
grammar and philology, and archery; and he learned to play with 
the spear; and he aho learned horsemanship, and all that the sons 
of the Kings required. There was not one oi the children of the 
inhabitants of the city, men and women, that talked not o£ the 
charms of that young man; for he was of surpassing loveliness and 
perfection; and the King loved him greatly. Then the King sum- 
moned the and the emirs, and the lords of the empire, and 
the great men of the kingdom, and made them swear by binding 
oaths that ihcy would make Bedr Easim King over them after his 
father; so they swore to him by binding oaths, and rejoiced thereat; 
and ibo King himself was beneficent to the people, courteous in 
speech, of auspicious aspect, saying nothing but what was for the 
good of the people. And on the following day, the King mounted, 
together with the lords of the empire and all the emirs, and all die 
soldiers walked with him through the city and returned; and when 
they drew near to the palace, the King dismounted to wait upon 
his son, and he and all the emirs and the lords of the empire bore 
the ghashiyeh before him. Each one of the emirs and the lords of 
the empire bore the ghashiyeh a while; and they teased not to pro- 
ceed until they arrived at the vestibule of the poEace: the King*s son 
riding. Thereupon he alighted, and his father embraced him, he and 
the emirs, and they seated bim upon the throne of the kingdom, 
while his father stood, as also did die emirs, before him. Then Bedr 
liasim judged the people, displaced the tyrannical and invested the 
just, and continued to give judgment until near midday, when he 
rose from the throne of the kingdom, and went in to his mother 
Jullanar of the Sert, having upon his head the crown, and resembling 
the moon. So when his mother saw him, and the King before bim, 
she rose to him and kissed bim, and congratulated him on his 
elevation to the dignity of Sultan; and she offered up a prayer in 
favour of him and his father for length of life, and victory over their 
enemies. He then sat with his mother and rested; and when the 
time of afternoon-prayers arrived, he rode with the emirs before bim 
until he came to the horse-course, where he played with arms till the 
time of nightfall, together with his father and the lords of his em- 


pire; after which he returned to the palace, with all the people before 
him. Every day he used to ride to the horse-course; and when he 
returned, he sal to judge the people, and administered justice between 
the emir and the poor man. He ceased not to do thus for a whole 
year; and after that, he used to ride to the chase, and to go about 
through the cities and provinces that were under his rule, making 
proclamation of safety and security, and doing as do the Kings^ and 
he was incomparable among the people of his age in glory and cour- 
age, and in justice to the people. 

No^v it came to pass that the old King, ihe father of Bedr Basim, 
fell sick one day, whereupon his heart throbbed, and he felt that 
he was about to be removed to the mansion of eternity. Then his 
malady increased so that he was at the point of death. He there- 
fore summoned his son, and charged hiin to take care of his sub- 
jects and his mother and all the lords of his empire and all the 
dependants. He also made them swear, and covenanted wuh [hem, 
that they would ohey his son, a second time; and he confided in 
their oaths. And after this, he remained a few days, and was ad- 
mitted to the mercy of God, whose name he exaltedl His son Bedr 
Basim, and his wife Jullanar, and the emirs and we/irs and the 
lords of the empire, mourned over him; and they made for him a 
tomb, and buried him in it, and continued ihe ceremonies o£ mourn- 
ing for him a whole month, Sahh, the hrother of jullanar, and her 
mother, and the daughters of her uncle, also came, and consoled them 
for the loss of the King; and they said, O Jullanar, if the King hath 
died, he hath left this ingenuous youth, and he who hath left such 
as he is hath not died. This is he who hath not an equal, the crush- 
ing lion, and the splendid moon. — Then the lords of the empire, 
and the grandees, went in to the King Bedr Basim, and said to him, 
O King, there is no harm in mourning for the King; but mourning 
becometh not any save women; therefore trouble not thy heart and 
ours by mourning for thy father, for he hath died and left thee, and 
he who hath left such as thou art harh not died. They proceeded 
to address him with soft words, and to console him, and after that 
they conducted him into the bath; and when he came forth from 
the bath, he put on a magnificent suit woven of gold, adorned with 
jewels and jacinths, and he put the royal crown upon his head, seated 


himself upon the throne of his kingdom^ arnj pprtormed the affairs 
of the people, deciding equitably between rhe strong and the weak, 
and exacting for the poor man his due from the emir; wherefore 
the people loved him exceedingly. Thus he continued to do so for 
the space o£ a ivhole year; and after every shori period, his family 
of the sea visited liim; so his life was pleasant, and his eye was 
cheerful: and he ceased not to live in this state for a length of time. 


The Story of 'Ala-ei>Din anO the Wondieful Lamp 

I HAVE heard, O King of ihe Age, that rttere dweh in a city of 
China a poor tailor who had a son named 'Ala-ed-Din. Now 
ihts boy had been a scatter-brained scapegrace from his birch. 
And when he had come to his tenth year his father wished to teach 
him a h^^ndicrafi; and being too poor to afford to spend money on 
him for learning an art or craft or business^ he look him into his 
own shop 10 learn his trade of tailoring. But *Alii-ed-Din» being a 
careless boy^ and always given to playing with the urchins of the 
street, would not stay in the shop a siJigle day, but used to watch 
till his father went out on business or to meet a customer, and then 
would run off to the gardens along with his fellow-ragif muffins. 
Such was his case. He would neither obey his parents nor learn a 
trade; till his father, for very sorrow and grief over his son's mis- 
doing, fell sick and died. Bnt 'Ala-ed-Din went on in the same way. 
And wheii his mother perceived that her husband :vas dead, and 
that her son was an idler of no use ivhatever, she sold the shop and 
all its contents, and took to spinning cotton to support herself and 
her good-for-nothing son. Meanwhile, 'Ala-ed-Din, freed from the 
control of his father, grew more idle and disreputable, and would 
not stay at home except for meals, while bis poor unfortunate 
mother subsisted by the spinning of her hands; and so it was, until 
he had come to his fifteenth year. 

One day, as 'Ala-ed-Din was sitting in the street playing with the 
gutter-boys, a Moorish Darwish came along, and stood looking at 
them, and began to scrutinise *Ala-ed-Din and closely examine his 
appearance, apart from, his companions. Now this D:irwish was 
from the interior of Barbary, and was a sorcerer who could heap 
mountain upon mountain by his Spells, and who knew astrology. 
And when he had narrowly scrutinised ^Ala-cd-Din, he said within 



himself; ^^Vcrily this is the yoiuli I need^ and in quest of whom 1 
left my native bnd." And he took one of the boys aside and asked 
him concerning ^Ala-cd-Din^ whose son he was, and winced to know 
all about him, AfLer which, he went up Co 'Alu-ed-Din, ynd took 
him asidej and said: "Boy, ait ihou not the son of such -d one, the 
tailor?" And he answered: "Yes, O my mastery but as to my father, 
he has long been dead."* When the Moorish sorcerer heard this, he 
feif upon ^Ala-ed-Din, and embraced him and kissed him and wept 
till llie tears ran down his cheeks. And when 'Ala-cd-Din saw the 
stale of the Moor, wonder seized upon him^ and he asked him and 
said: "Why dosr thou weep, O my master? and how knowesL Lhou 
my father?" And the Moor replied in a low and broken voice: 
*'My boy, how doit thou ask me this question after thou hast told 
me that thy father, my brother is deadP For thy father was my 
brother^ and I have journeyed from my country, and I rejoiced 
greatly in the hope of seemg him again, after my long cjiile, and 
cheering him; and now thou hast told me he is dead. But our blood 
hideth not from me that thou art my brother's son, and I recognised 
thee amongst all the boys, although thy father was not yet married 
when I parted from him. And now, O my son, "Ala-ed-Dtn, I have 
missed the obsequies, and beeEi deprived of the delight of meeting 
thy father, my brother^ ^^'hom 1 had looked to see again, after my 
long absence, before I die. Separation caused me this grief, and 
created man hath no remedy or subterfuge against the decrees of 
God the most High.'* And he took "Ala-ed-Din and said to him : '*0 
my son, there remaineth no comfort to me but in thee; thou standcst 
in ihy father's place, since thou art his successor, and 'whoso leaveih 
issue doth not die, O my son." And the sorcerer stretched forth his 
hand and look ten gold pieces, and gave them to *Aia-ed-Din, saying 
to him: *'0 my son, where is thy house, and where is thy mother, my 
brother's widow?" So 'Ala-ed^Din shewed him the wiiy lo their 
house, and the sorcerer said to him: "O my son, lake this money, 
and give it to thy mother, and saluie her from me, and tell her that 
thy uncle hath returned from his exile, and, God willing, will visit 
her to-morrow to greet her and to see the house where my brother 
lived and the place where he is buried." So *Ala-ed-Din kissed the 
hand of the Moor, and went, running in his joy, to his mother's. 

'ala-ed-din and the wonderful lamp 343 

and entered, contrary lo his custom^ for he was not wont to come 
liome save at meal times. And when he was come in he cried out 
in his joy: "O my mother, I bring thee good news o£ my uncle, who 
haih returned from his exile, and saluteth thee.'' And she said: ^*0 
my son, dost ihou mock me? Who is this uncle of thine, and how 
hast thou an uncle at all?'' And 'Ala-ed-Din answered: "O my 
mother, how canst ihou say that 1 have no uncles or kinsmen Uving, 
when this man is my uncle on my father's side, and he hath em- 
braced and kissed me and wept over me, and told me to make this 
known to thee!" And she said: *'0 my son, I know indeed that 
thou didst have an uncle, but he is dead, and 1 know not any other 
that thou hast/' 

On the morrow the Moorish sorcerer went out to seek 'Ala-ed-Din, 
for his heart couid not bear parting from him; and as he wandered 
in [he streets of the city, he met him disponing himself as usual 
along with the other vagabonds, and, approaching, he took him by 
the hand and embraced and kissed him, and took from his purse 
ten gold pieces, and said: "Haste thee lo thy jnother and give her 
these gold pieces^ and tell her, *My uncle would fairi sup with usj 
so take these pieces and make ready for us a good supper.' But 
first of all, she\v me again the way to your home/' And 'Aia-ed-Din 
replied: *'On the head and eye, O my uncle." And he went before 
him and shewed him the way home. So the Moor left him and 
went his way; while 'Ala-ed-Din went home and told his mother, 
and gave her the gold pieces, and said his uncle would fain take 
supper with them. So she arose forthwith and went to the market 
and bought what she needed, and returning home she set about 
making ready for the supper. And she borrowed from her neigh- 
bours what she needed of dishes and the rest, and when the time 
came for supper she said to her son: "Supper is ready^ but perhaps 
ihy uncle doth not know the way to the house; go therefore, and 
meet him on [he road." And he answered, *1 hear and obey." And 
whilst they were talking, a knock came at the door, and when *A)a- 
cd-Din opened, behold, there was the Moorish wizard, with a 
eunuch carrying wine and fruit. And 'Ala-ed-Din brought them in, 
and the eunuch departed; but the Moor entered and saluted the 
mother, and began weeping and asking her questions, as, "Where 


is the place where my brother sal?" And when she shewed him her 
hushiJnd's seat, he went to it and prostrated himself and kissed 
the ground, and cried: "Ah, how small is my satisfaction and how 
cruel my fate, sJnte I have lost ihee, O my brother, O apple of my 
eye!" And he went on in this manneri weeping and wading, until 
'Aia-ed-Din's mother was assured that it was irue^ for verily he had 
swooned from the violence of his grief. And she raised him up 
fromUhe ground and said; "What benefit is there in killing thyself?" 
And she comforted him, and seated him. And after he was sealed 
and before the supper-tray was servedj the Moor began balking with 
her» and said; "O wife of my brother, let it not amaze thee that in 
aU thy life thou hast neither seen me nor heard of me in the days 
of my departed brother; for it is forty years since I left this city and 
banished myself from my birthplace and wandered throughout the 
countries of India and China and Arabia, and came to Egypt and 
abode in its glorious capital^ which is one o£ the wonders o£ the 
world, until at length I journeyed to the interior of the West and 
abode there for the space of thirty years. One day, O wife of my 
brother^ 1 was silting thinking of my native land and my birthplace 
and my blessed brother, and my longing to see him grew stronger, 
and I wept and wailed over my se^xiration and distance from him. 
And at last my yearning made mc determine to journey to this 
country, which is the pillow of my head and my birthplace, for to 
see my brother. For I said to myself: *0 man, how long wilt ihou 
abandon thy country and diy native placej when thou hast but one 
brother and no more? So rise and journey and see him ere thou die; 
for who can tell the calamiiies of this world and the chances of life? 
And it would be a sore grief to die without seeing thy brother. More- 
over, God (praised be his iSmnef) hath given thee abundant wealth, 
and perchance thy brother may be in distress and poverty, and thou 
canst succour him as well as look upon him.' Therefore 1 arose and 
made ready for the journey, and recited the Fatihah^ and when the 
Friday prayers were over, I departed and came to this city, after 
many troubles and difficulties, which 1 endured by the help of God. 
So I arrived here, and the day before yesterday, as I roamed about 
the streets, I perceived thy son 'Aia-ed-Din playing with the boys, 
and by Almighty God, O wife of my brother, hardly had I seen 


him, when my heart went out to him (for blood is loving to its hke), 
and my heart told me that he was my brother's son. And I forgot my 
troublps and anxietLcs as soon as i saw him, and could have flown 
for joy, until he told me of the death of him who is gathered to the 
mercy of God most High; whereat I swooned for heaviness of grief 
and regret. But 'Ala-ed-Din hath doubtless informed thee of my 
tribulation. Yet am 1 comforted in part by this child, who hath been 
bequeathed to us by the departed- Verily, *he who leaveth. issue 
doth noE die.' " 

^Vnd when he sa\v that she wept at his words^ he turned to 'Ala- 
ed-Din, to divert her from the thought of hcc husband; and to con- 
sole her and perfect his deception, he said, "O my son 'Ala-cd-Din, 
what crafts has thou learned and what is thy trade? Hast thou 
learned a craft to support thee withal, thyself and thy mother?" 
And "Ala-ed-Din was ashamed and hung down his head in confu- 
sion, and bent it toward the ground. But his mother cried: *'What 
then! By Allah, he knoweth nothing at all; i never saw so heedless 
a child as this. All the day he idleth about with the boys of the 
street, vagabonds like himself, and his father (O my grief!) died 
only of grieving over him. And I am now in woeful plight; I toil, 
and spin night and day to gain a couple of loaves of bread for us 
to eat together. This is his state^ O brother-in-law; and by thy life 
he cometli not home save to meals, and never else. And as for me, I 
am minded to lock the door of my house and open not to him, but 
let him go and seek his own living. 1 am an old woman, and 1 have 
not strength to work and struggle for a livelihood like this. By 
Allah, I have to support him with food, when it is I who ought to 
be supported." And the Moor turned to 'Ala-ed-Din and said: "O 
son of my brother, why dost thou continue in such gracelessness ? 
It is shame upon ihce and bcfitteth not men like thee. Thou art a. 
person of sense, my boy, and the son of decent folk. It is a reproach 
to thee that thy mother, an aged woman, should toil for thy main- 
tenance. And now that thou hast reached manhood, it behooveth 
thee to devise some way whereby thou mayest be able to support 
thyself. Look about, for God be praised, in this our city there are 
plenty of teachers of handicrafts; nowhere more. So choose a craft 
that pleasetli ihee^ for me to set thee up tlierein, 50 that as thou 


waxest older, my son, thy trade shall bring itee maintenance. If so 
be [by father's calling liketh ihee noi, choose another that thou prc- 
ferrest. Tell me, and i will help ihce as best I can, my son." And 
when he saw that 'Ala-ed-Din was silent and answered him never a 
word, he knew that he did not wish any calling at all, save idling, 
so he said: "O son of my brother, let not my advJce be irksome to 
thee; for if, after all, thou like not lo learn a trade, 1 will open for 
thee a merchant's shop of the richest stulls, and thou shah be known 
among the people, and lake and give and buy and sell and become 
a miin of repute in che city." And when 'Ala-ed-Din heard his uncle s 
words, that lie would make him a merchant iraderj he rejoiced 
greatly, for he knew ihar merchants are well dressed and well fed. 
So he looked smilingly at ibc Moor and inclined his head to signify 
his content. 

And when the Moorish wizard saw 'Ala-ed-Din smiling, he per- 
ceived that he was content to be made a merchant, and he said to 
him: "Since diou art satisfied that 1 make thee a merchant and open 
a shop for thee, O son of my brother, be a man, and, God willing, 
to-morrow I will take tlice to the market to begin with, and get cut 
for thee an elegant dress sudi as merchants wear, and then find for 
thee a shop, and keep my promise to thee." Now 'Ala-cd-Din^a 
mother had been in doubt whether the Moor were indeed her 
brother-in-la:v; but when she heard his promise to her son to open a 
merchant's shop for him and furnish him with goods and wares and 
the rest, the woman decided in her mind that this Moor was verily 
her brother-in-law, since no stranger would have acted thus to her 
son. And she began to direct her son and bade him banish igno- 
rance from his head and become a man, and ever obey his uncle like 
a son, and retrieve the time he had squandered in idling with his 
males. Then she arose, and spread the table and served the supper, 
and they all sat down, and began lo eat and drink; and the Moor 
discoursed 10 'Ala-ed-Dln on the affairs of business and the like, so 
that ilie boy did not sleep that night for joy. And when he perceived 
that the night had fallen, the Moor arose and went to his abode and 
promised them to return on the morrow to take 'Ala-ed-Din to have 
his merchant's clothes made. 

The next day the Moor rapped at the door, and the mother of 


'Al:f'e(l-Dia artise and opent^d to bimj bui: he would not enter, but 
only desired to take her son with him to the market. So 'Ala-ed-Din 
came forth to him and wished him good-day^ and kissed his handj 
and the Moot took him by the hand and went with him to the 
market, and entered a clothes-shop o£ all sorts of stuffs^ and de- 
manded a sumpciious suit of merchant's style. So the dealer brought 
out what he required re^dy made. And the Moor said to 'Ala-ed- 
Din: "Choose what pleiiseth thee, my son." The boy rejoiced greatly 
when he understood that his unde had given him his choice, and 
he picked out the suit he preferred; and the Moor paid the dealer 
the price on the spot. Then ho took 'Ala-ed-Din to the Hammam, 
and they bathed, and cJme forth, and drank sherbet. And ^Ala-ed- 
Din arose and put on his new dress, rejoicing and preening; and he 
approached his uncie and thanked him, and kissed his handj and 
acknowledged liis kindness. 

After the Moor had come forth from the bath with *A]a-ed-Din 
and taken him to the market of the merchants, and delighted him 
with the buying and seUing Eherein, he said to him; "O son oi my 
brother, it behoovedi thee to become acquainted with the people, 
above all with the merchants, in order to learn their business, since 
it Is now thy profession." And he took him and shewed him about 
the city and the mosques and all the sights of the place; and then 
led him to a cook-shop, where dinner was served to them on silver 
dishes; and they dined and ate and drank until they were satisfied, 
and then they went their way. And the Moor pointed out the 
pleasure-grounds, and great buildings, and entered the Sultan's 
palace, and shewed him all the beautiful large rooms. Then he took 
him to the Khan of the foreign mercliantSj where he had his lodging; 
and he invited some of the merchants in the Khan to supper; and 
when they sat down, he informed them that this was his brother^s 
son, whose name was 'Ala-ed-Din. And when they had eaten and 
drunk and night had fallen, he arose and took 'Ala-ed-Din back to 
his mother. And when she saw her son, that he was one of the mer- 
chants, her reason departed for very joy, and she began to thank 
her brother-in-law for his goodness, saying: "O my brother-in-law, 
1 could not satisfy myself if I thanked thee all my i'lh, and praised 
thee for the favour thou hast done to my son." And the Moor re- 


plied: **0 wife of my brother, it is no favour at iill, for this is my 
son» and ic is my dury to fill the place of my brother, his father. So 
let it suffice thee.'^ And she said: "I pray Godj by his favoured ones, 
the saints of old and of latter days, to keep thee and prolong thy 
life to me, O my brother-in-law, so [haE thou mayest be a shield for 
this orphiin youth, and he be ever obedient to thy command and 
do nothing save what thou orderest him to do." And the Moor 
replied: "O wife of my brother, *Ala.-ed-Dm is of man's estate and 
inieiligent and of an honest stock, and please God he will follow 
his father's way and refresh [hine eye. I am sorry, however, that, 
to-morrow being Friday the day o£ worship^ I shall not be able to 
open his shop for him, because on thai day all the merchants after 
service repair to the gardens and walks. But on S;itiirday, God will- 
ing, we will accomplish our affair. And to-morrow I will come here 
and take Ala-ed-Din, and shew him the gardens and \valks outside 
the city, which he may not perhaps have seen before, and point out 
10 him the merchant folk and people of note who walk about and 
amuse themselves there, so that he may become acijuainted with 
them and they with him." 

So the Moot slept that night at bis abode, and in the morning he 
came to the tailor's house and rapped at the door. Now 'Ala-ed-Din, 
from excess of delight in his new dress, and what with the bathing 
and eating and drinking and sightseeing of the day before^ and the 
expectation of his uncle's coming on the moFro^v to fake him to the 
gardens, had not slept that night, nor closed his eyes, nor scarcely 
believed the morning had come. So as soon as he heard the rap at the 
door he ran out like a flash of fire antl opened the door and met his 
uncle, who embraced and kissed him, and took him by the h^nd. 
And as they went along he saidr "O son of my brother, to-day I 
will shew thee such a sight as thou never didst see in all thy Ufe.'^ 
And he made the boy laugh and entertained him with his talk. And 
they went out of the gate of the city and began meandering among 
the gardens: and the Moor pointed our the splendid pleasure- 
grounds and ^vondrous tall palaces. And so often as they looked upon 
a garden or mansion or palace, the Moor would pause and say: 
''Doth this astonish thee, O son of my brother?" And Aia-ed-Din 
well nigli. Hew widi delight at seeing things he had never imagined 


in all his born d.iys. Aad they ceased nor 10 wajider about and 
amuse Themselves till they were weary. Then they entered a hrge 
garden hard by, whereat the heart became tight and the eye bright, 
for its brooks trickled amid flowers, and fountains gushed from the 
jaws of brazen lions, which shone like gold. So they sai down by a 
lake and rested awhile^ and "Ala-ed-Din was full o£ happiness and 
began to make merry and jest with his uncle as though he were of 
a truth his f^nher's brother. Then the Moor arose, and loosening 
his girdle, took forth a wallet of food and fruit and so forth, saying: 
"O son of my brother, thou art hungry; come ihcn and cjt thy fill" 
So 'Ala-ed-Din fell to eating and the Moor ate with him, and their 
souls were refreshed and made glad, and they reposed. And the 
Moor said; "O son of my brother, if thou arc rested, let us walk a 
spell and finish our stroll." So 'Ala-ed-Din arose, and the Moor led 
him from garden to garden till they had quitted all the gardens and 
come to a lofty hill. But 'Ala-ed-DIn, who all his life had never 
gone beyond the city gates, or taken such a walk, said to the Moor; 
*'0 my uncle, whither do we go? We have left all the gardens 
behind us, and come to the mountain, and If the way be far» I liave 
not strength to walk longer; nay, I am all but fainting from tired- 
ness. Tliere are no more gardens ahead, so let us turn and go back 
TO the city." But the Moor replied; *^Nay, my son; this is the road, 
and it is not yet an end a£ the gardens; for we are just going to look 
at one such as is not to be seen among Kings' gardens, and all those 
thou hast seen are naught compared with it. So pluck up thy cour- 
age, £orj God be praised, thou art now a grown man." And the 
Moor set to cheering 'Ala-ed-Din with encouraging words, and re- 
lated wonderful tales, both true and false, until they came to the 
place which this Moorish sorcerer had fixed upon, and the which to 
find he had iourneye<l irora the lands of the West to the countries 
of China. And when they arrived, he said to ^Ala-ed-Din: "O son 
of my brother, sit down and rest, for this is the place we are seeking, 
and if it please God T will shew thee wonders the like of which no 
one in the world ever saw before, nor hath any one rejoiced in look- 
ing upon what thou art to see. When thou art rested, arise and find 
some faggots of wood and thin dry sticks to make a fire. Then will 
I ihew ihee, O son of my brother, a thing beyond description." And 


when 'Ala-ed-Diii heard this, he longed Eo see what his uncle would 
do, and forgot liis weariness and straightway arose and began to 
collect small hggois and dry sticks and gathered them together till 
the Moor cried, "Enough, O son of my brotherl" Then the Moor 
drew frotn his pocket a box, and opened it, and took from it what 
incense he required, a[id he biicnc it and muttered adjurations and 
said mysterious words. And straightway^ amid murk and quaking 
and ihiinder, the earth openedj and 'Ala-ed-Din was alarmed and 
terrified at this, and would have fled, But when the sorcerer per- 
ceived his intention, he was wroth and furiously enraged thereat, for 
Without 'Ala-ed-Din his design would come to naught, and the 
treasure he sought to unearth could not be obtained save by means 
of the boy. And so when he saw him thinking o£ flight he made for 
him, and raising his hand, he smote him on die head, so that his 
teeth were almost knocked out, and he swooned and fell to the 
ground. And after a while he came to, by the spelts of the Moor, 
and fell a-crying, and said: '*0 my uncle, what have I done to deserve 
such a blow from thee?" So the Moor began to mollify him, and 
said: "O my sonj it is my intention to make a man of rheei so thwart 
me not, who am thine uncle^ and, as it were, thy father. Obey me, 
rather, in all I tell thee, and shortly thou shalt forget all this toil and 
trouble when thou lookest upon marvellous thmgs,*' Thereupon, 
when the earth had opened in front of the wizard, there appeared 
a marble slab, wherein was a ring of brass. And drawing geometric 
figures, the Moor said to 'Ala-ed-Din: "If thou dost ^vhat I tell thee, 
ihou wilt become richer than all the Kings put together; and for this 
cause struck 1 thee, O my son* because there is buried here a treas- 
ure which is deposited in thy name, and yet thou wast about to 
abandon it and flee. And now pull thy wits togedier and behold 
how I have cloven the earth by my spells and incantations, 

"Under that stone with the ring" he continued, "is the Treasury 
whereof 1 told thee- Put forth thy hand to the ring and raise the 
stone, for no one in the world but thyself hath the power to open 
it, nor can any save thee set foot in this Treasury, ivhich hath been 
reserved for thee alone. Wlierefore thou must hearken to all that I 
bid thee, and not gainsay my words a jot. All this, O my son, is for 


thy good, since this tEcasure is immense. Tiie Kings of che earch 
have never seen the like, and it is all for thee and for me." 

So poor 'Ala-ed-Din forgot liis tiredness and the beating and the 
rearsj and was dazzled ai the words of the Moor, and rejoiced to 
think that he would become so rich that Kintjs would not be 
wealthier than he. And he said: "O my uncle^ command me what 
thoir wih, and 1 will obey thy behest*" And the Moor said to him: 
*'0 son of my brother, thou art like my own child, and more, since 
thou art my brother's son, and I have none of kin save thee; and 
thou art my heir and successor, O my son." And he approached 
'Ala-cd-Din and kissed hmi, saying; 'Tor whom should 1 design ail 
these labours of mine> my child, except for thee, that I may leave 
thee a rich man, as rich as can be! Wherefore thwart me not in any- 
thing I tell tliee, but go 10 that ring and lift ir as I bade thee." And 
'Ala-ed'Din said: "O my uncle, this ring is too heavy for me; I 
cannot lift it atone; come and holp me to raise ir, for I am little in 
years." But the Moor replied: "O my brothcr^s son, we can accom- 
plish nnihiug if I aid thee, and our labours would be vain; put then 
thy hand to ihe ring and lift it, and the stone will come up imme- 
diately. Did 1 not tell thee that none can move it but thyself? Re- 
peat thy name and the names of tWy father and mother, ivhilst thou 
puUesf, and it will come up at once, and thou will not feel its weight." 
So 'Ala-ed-Din summoned his strength and plucked up his courage, 
and set to work as his uncle had bjdden him, and lifted the stone 
with perfect ease, after saying the names of himself and his father 
and mother as the Moor had counselled him. So he lifted the slab 
and cast it on one side. 

And when he had lifted the slab from the door of the Treasury, 
before him lay a passage entered by a descent of twelve steps. And 
the Moor said to him: " *Ala-cd-Din, pull thy wits together, and do 
exactly what I tell thee to the uttermost, and fail not a little from it. 
Descend carefully into yonder passage until thou reachest the end. 
and there shalt thou find a place divided into four chambers, and 
in each of these thou shalt see four golden jars and others of virgin 
gold and silver. Beware that thou touch them not nor take any- 
thing out of them, but leave them and go on to ihe fourth chamber. 


without even brushing rhem with thy clothes or loitering a single 
moment; for if thou do contrary lo this thau viilt straightivay be 
transformed and become a black stone. And when, thou comesi to 
the fourth i:hambcr thou wilt Rnd a door; then open the door, and 
repeating the names thou saidst over the slab, enter, and veriiy thou 
wik pass thence into a garden full o£ fruit trees, whence thou wilt 
proceed by a path which thou wilt see in front of thee about fifty 
cubits long, and come upon an alcove' En which is a ladder of about 
fifty steps, and thou shalt see, moreover, a Lamp suspended above the 
alcove- Take thou the Lamp, and pour our the oil therein, and put 
it in thy breast and be not afraid for thy clothes, since it is hut com- 
mon oil. And on thy return thou mayest pluck what thou pleasest 
from the trees, for all is thine so long as the Lamp continue in thy 
hand." And when he had ended, the Moor took a signet ring from 
his finger and put it on *Ala-ed'Din's finger, and said: "My son, 
this ring will guard thee from all peril and fear that may behest 
thee, so long as thou obeyest all that 1 have told thee. Arise, there- 
fore, forthwith and descend and pluck up thy courage, and strengthen 
thy resolve and fear not, for tiiou art a man now, and no longer a 
child. And after this, my boy, thou shalt speedily become possessed 
of riches galore, till diou art the richest man in the world." 

So 'Ala-ed-Din arose and went down into the cavern and found 
the four chambers and the four golden jars therein, and these be 
passed by with all care and precaution, as the Moor had told him, 
and he came to the garden and went through if till he found the 
a]co^'e, and climbing the ladder, he took the Lamp and poured out 
the oil and put it in his bosom, and went down into the garden, 
where he began to marvel at the trees with the birds on their 
branches singing the praises of their glorious Creator. And though 
he had not noticed it when he entered, these trees were all covered 
with precious stones instead of fruit, and each tree was of a different 
kind and had ditlerent jewels, of all colours, green and white and 
yellow and red and other colours, and the brilliance of these jewels 
paled the sun's rays at noontide. And the size of each stone surpassed 
description, so that none of the Kings of the world possessed any 
like the largest or half the size of the least of them. And *Ab-ed- 


Din walked among the trees and gazed upon ihem and on these 
things which dazzled the sight and bewildered the mind» and as he 
CK:imined them he perceived that instead of ordinary fruit the yield 
was of big jewels, eineralds and diamonds, and rubies and pearls, 
and ocher precious stones, such as to bewilder the understanding. But 
as he had never seen such things in his hfe, and had not reached 
mature years so as to know the value of such jewels (for he was still 
a little boy), he imagined that these jewels were all of glass or 
crystal. And he gathered pockets full of them, and began to examine 
whether they were ordinary fruit, like figs or grapes and other like 
eatables; but when he saw that they were of glass (knowing nothing 
of precious stones), he put some of each kind that grew on the trees 
into his pockets, and hnding them of no use for food, he said in his 
mind: "I will gather these glass fruits and play with them at home/' 
So he began plucking ihem and stuffing them into his pockets until 
they were full; and then, when he had picked more and put them 
in his girdle, and girded it on, he carried off all he could, intending 
to use them for ornaments a: home, since he imagined, as has been 
said, that they :vere only glass. Then he hastened his steps, for fear 
of his uncle^ the Moor, and passed through the four chambers, and 
came to the cavern, without as much as looking at the jars of gold, 
notwithstanding that on his way back he was permitted to take of 
them. And when he came to the steps, and ascended them till none 
remained but the last one, which was higher than the others, he 
was unable to climb it by himself, without help, seeing that he was 
weighted. And he called to the Moor: "O my uncle, give me thy 
hand and help me to get up," And the sorcerer replied: "O my son, 
give me the Lamp, and lighten thyself; perhaps it is that which 
weigheth thee down." But he answered: "O my uncle^ the Lamp 
doth not weigh me down at all; give me only thy hand, and when 
1 am up I will give thee the Lamp." But since the wizard wanted 
only the Lamp, and nought beside, he began to urge 'Ala-ed-Din 
to give it him, which, since it was ai the bottom of his dress and the 
bags of precious stones bulged over it, he could not reach to give it 
him; so the Moor pressed him to give what he could not, and raged 
furiously, and persisted in demanding the Lamp, when 'Ala-ed-Din 
could not get at it to give it him. 


And when 'Ak-ed-Din could noi get at the Lamp to give it lo 
Kis uncle, the Moor, ihe impostor, he became frantic si not gaining 
his di^sire, though 'Ala-ed-Din had promised to give it him wichoui 
guile or deceit as soon as he got out or the cave. But when the Moor 
saw that *Ala-ed-Din would not give him the Lamp, he was furiously 
enraged and gave up all hope of getting it. So he muttered incanta- 
tions and threw incense into the fire, and immediately the slab shut 
of itself and by the power of magic became closed, the earth buried 
the stotae as heretofore, and 'Ala-ed-Din remained under the ground 
unable to come fordi. For this sorcerer^ as we have related, was a 
stranger and no uncle of 'Ala-ed-Din's; hut he misrepri^sented him- 
self and asserted a lie, in order to gain poisession of this Lamp by 
means of the youth. 

So the accursed Moor heaped the earth over him and left him, for 
whose sake this treasure had been preserved, to die of hunger. For 
this damnable Moorish sorcerer was from the land of Africa, from 
the inner Wesiland, and from his youth he had practised sorcery 
and ail magic arts (the City of Africa [in Barbary] is well known 
for all these mysteries), and he ceased not to study and learn from 
his childhood in the City of Africa until he had mastered aU the 
sciences. And one day, by his accomplished skill ii^ sciences and 
knowledge, acquired in the course of forty years of sorcery and 
incantation, he discovered that in a remote city of China, called El- 
K^ras, there was buried a vast treasure the like o£ which not one of 
the Kings of this world had ever amassed, and among this treasure 
was a Wonderful Lamp, which whoso possessed, mortal man could 
not excel him in estate or in riches, nor could the mightiest King 
upon earth attain to the opulence of this Lamp and its power and 
its potency. And when he discovered by his science and perceived 
that this treasure could only be obtained by means of a boy of Lhe 
name of Ala-ed-Din, of poor family, and belonging to that city, and 
understood how it could dius be taken easily and without trouble, 
he straightway and without hesitation prepared to journey to China, 
as we have said, and did with 'Ala-ed-Din what he did, and imagined 
that he would gain possession of the Lamp. But his design and his 
hopes were frustrated and his labour was in vain. So he resolved 
to tlo 'Ala-ed-Din to death, and heaped the earth over him to the 


end thar he might die, for "ihe hving hath no murderer,'^ More- 
over, he resolved upon this, in order that *Aia-ed-Din, as he could 
not get out, should no: be able to bring up the Lamp £rom belo^v 
ground. Then he weiK his way and returned to the regions oE 
Africa, dejected in spirit and disappointed of his aim. Thus was it 
with the sorcerer. 

Bur 35 for 'Ala-ed-Din, when the earrli was heaped over him, he 
began to call to his uncle, die Moor, whom he beheved to be stich| 
to stretch out his hand, that he might come forth from the vault 
to the face of the earth; and he shouted, and no one answered him. 
Then he understood the trick which the Moor had played upon him, 
and that he was no uncle at all, but a lying magician. So 'Ala-ed-Din 
despaired of his life, and perceived to his grief that there remained 
to him. no escape to the earth*s surface, and he began to weep and 
bewail that which iiad befallen him. But afrer awhile he arose and 
descended to see if God Most High would provide him a door of 
escape. And he went, turning to right and left, and found nothing 
bur darkness, and four doors shut against him; for the sorcerer by 
his magic had closed all the doors, and had even shut that of the 
garden through which 'Ala-ed-Din had passed, so that he might 
not find there a door by which to escape to the surface of the earth, 
and thus to hasten his deach. And ^Ala-cd-Din^s weeping increased 
and his wailing grew louder when he saw the doors all shut, and 
the garden also, where he had intended 10 console himself awhile; 
but he found everything closed, and he gave himself up to weeping 
and lamenting, like liim who haih abandoned hope, and he returned 
and sat on the steps of the vault where he had hrst entered. 

Thus he sat weeping and wailing and hopeless. But a small thing 
is it to God (extolled and exalted be he!) if he willeth a thing to 
say to it, "Be," and it is. Thus doth he create joy in the midst of woe; 
and thus was it with 'Ala-ed-Din. When the Moorish sorcerer sent 
him to the vault, he gave him a ring and put it on his hnger, saying, 
"Verily this ring will guard thee from all danger if thou be in trouble 
and difficulties, aEid take away from thee all evils, and be thy helper 
wheresoever thou art." And this was by the decree of God Most 
High, that it should be the means of 'Aia-ed-Din's escape. For whilst 
he sat weeping and lamenting his case and abandonii^ his hope of 


iife> overwhelmed wiih his misfortune, in his exceeding tribulation 
he began wringing his hands as the sorrowful are wont ro do. And 
he raised liis hands supplicating God, and saying: '*I testify that there 
is no God buE thee aione^ the mighty, the omnipotent^ the all-con- 
quering^ the quickener of the dead, creator of needs and fulliUer 
thereof, ;vho djspellest troubles and anxieties and turnest them into 
joy. Thou sulhcest me, and thou art the best of protecE<)rs; and 1 
testify that Mohammad is thy servant and apostle, O my God, by 
his favour with thee, release me from this calamity." And whilst he 
was supphcating God and wringing his hands from heaviness of 
grief at the calamity which had overtaken him, his hand happened 
ID rub the ring, and, behold, immediately the Slave of the King 
appeared before him and cried: "Here I am, thy slave, between thy 
hands. Ask what ihou wilt, for 1 am the slave of him on whose 
hand is the ring, the ring of my master." And 'Ala-ed-Din looked 
up and saw a Marid like the Jinn of our Lord Suleyman, standing 
before him; and he was affrighted at the awful apparition, until he 
heard the Slave of the Ring say: "Ask what thou wilt, for verily am 
1 thy servant, because the ring of my master is on thy hand." So he 
recovered his spirit and called to mind the words of the Moor when 
he gave him the ring. And be rejoiced exceedingly and plucked up 
heart and said to him: "O Slave of the Ring, I wish thee to convey 
me to the surface of the earth." And hardly had he spoken when, 
behold, the earth gaped open and he found himself at the door of 
die Treasury, outside, in face of the world. And when 'Ala-ed-Din 
saw himself thus in face of the world, after tieing three days under 
ground siidng in the dark Treasury, and the light of day and the 
sunshine smote his face and be could not open his eyes for it, he 
began to open his eyelids little by little till his eyes were stronger and 
became accustomed to the light and recovered fri^m the gloom. 

Then he perceived that he was on the surface of the eanh, whereat 
he rejoiced greatly, and rt astonished him that he should be outside 
the door of the Treasury which be had entered when the Moorish 
sorcerer opened it, and yet that the door should be shut and the 
earth made level so that there was no trace of an entrance at all. 
And he wondered more and more, and could not believe he was In 
the same place, till he saw the spot where they had lighted the fire 

'ala-eD'DIn= and the wonderful lamp 357 

of sticks and faggors^ and the place where the sorcerer had muttered 
his incantations. Then turning right and left, he saw the gardens 
at a distance^ and perceived the road» and he knew it was the same 
by which he had come. So he gave thanks to God Most High, who 
had brought him back to the earth's surface and saved him from 
death afier the hope of life had abandoned him. So he arose and 
walked on the road which he recognised till he canie to the city» 
and entered, and repaired to his home, and went to his mother. And 
when he saw her, he swooned on the ground before her from esceed- 
ing joy at his escape and the recollection of the terror and toil and 
hunger he had endured. And his mother had been sorrowful since 
his departure, and had sat sobbing and iveeping for him; so when 
she saw him come in she rejoiced over him with great joy, though 
grief seized her when she saw him fall swooning to the ground. 
But she did not give way to her anxiety in the predicament, but 
poured water on his face and borrowed from her neighbours aro- 
matics for him to sniff. And when he was somewhat restored, he 
begged her to give him something to eat, saying to her: *'0 my 
mother, it is now three days since I ate anything at all.** And his 
mother arose and prepared for him what she had ready by her, and 
set it before him, saying: "Come, my son, eat and refresh thyself, 
and when thou art restored, tell me what hath happened to thee 
and befallen thee, O my child; but 1 will not ask thee now, because 
thou art weary." So *Ala-ed-Din ate and drank and became restored, 
and when he was belter and had regained his spirits, he said to his 
mother: "Ah, my mother, I have a heavy reckoning against thee for 
abandoning me to that devilish man who sought my ruin and de- 
sired to kill me. Know that 1 looked death in the face on account 
o£ the accursed reprobate whom thou didst acknowledge as my 
uncle; and had not God Most High delivered me from him, both 
I and thou, my mother, ^vould have been imposed upon by the 
plenitude of this villain's promises of the good he would do me, and 
the zeal of the love he displayed for me. But know. O mother, that 
this man is a sorcerer, a Moor, a liar, accursed, impostor, cheat, 
hypocrite. I hold the devils beneath the earth are not his match. May 
God condemn every record of his deeds! Listen, then, my mother, 
to what this devil did— for all 1 tell thee is really true. See how this 


accursed one brake every promise he made me ro work me good; 
and look ar ihe love he shewed me and how he acted; and all to 
attain his own ambition! And he would have killed me — God be 
thanked for my deliverance. Consider and hearken, O my mothi^r, 
how this Man of the curse acted." Then 'Ala-ed-Din informed his 
mother all that had befallen him — weeping for excess of joy — telling 
her how, after he had left her, the Moor had led him to a mountain 
wherein was a treasure, and how be had muttered incantations and 
spells. And he added: "After that, O my mother, he beat me till 
] tainted from soreness, and a great horror gat hold o£ me, when 
the rDountain split asunder and the earth opened before me by his 
sorcery, and I trembled and was afeared at the roaring of the thunder 
which I heard and the darkness which fell around as he muttered 
his spells. And I would fain have fled from fear when 1 saw these 
awful sights. So when he saw ihaE 1 was bent upon E3ight* he reviled 
me and beat me. But, since the Treasure could not be unearthed 
save by me, as it was in my name, and not his, and because this ill- 
omened sorcerer knew that it could only be opened by my means, 
and this was what he wanted mc for; therefore, after beating me, 
he thought it better to moHify mc in order to send me to open the 
Treasure and obtain his desire. And when he sent me, he gave me 
a ring and put it on my finger, after it had been on his own. So 1 
descended into the Treasury, and found four chambers all full of gold 
and silver and the hke, and all this was as nought, fof that Devil's 
own hand commanded me to touch nothing of k. Then I entered 
a great garden full of lofty trees, whose fruits confounded the rea- 
son, for all were of glass of delightful colours; and I came to the hall 
in which was this Lamp, and I look it forthwith and emptied it/' 
And ^Ala-ed-Din took out the Lamp from his bosom, and shewed 
it 10 his mother, and in hke manner the precious stones which he 
had troughi from the garden, of which there were two large pockets 
full, ef such as not one was to be met with among the Kings of the 
world. But 'Ala-ed-Din knew not their worth, but deemed them 
glass or crystal. And he continued; "After getting the Lamp, O 
my mother, and arriving at the door of the Treasury, 1 called to 
the accursed Moor, who passed himself off as my uncle, to give me 
his hand and help me up, as I was overburdened with things and 

'ala-ed-dtn and the wonderful lamp 359 

could not get up alone- Bui he would nocgive me his hjnd, but said: 
"Hand up the Lamp that is with thee» and ihen I will give thee my 
hand and help thee out.* But 1 had put the Lamp at the bottom of 
my pockety and the bags stuck out above it, and I could not get it 
our to give it him» and I said: 'O my uncle, 1 cannot give thee the 
Lamp, but when I am up I will give it iKee/ Dut he did not mean 
to help me out, for he only wanted the Lamp; and his intention was 
10 take it from me and heap the earth over me and destroy me» as 
he did his best to do. And this is what happened, O my mother, 
from this ill-omened sorcerer." And 'Ala-ed-Din told hef all the 
story to the end ihereof, and fell to cursing the Moor with ali hif 
might £rom out of his raging soul, saying: *'0 my mother, woe to 
this damnable sorcerer, this ill-omened, vile, inhuman cheat and 
hypocrite, who contemneth all htmian kindness, and spurncth mercy 
and compassion!" 

M'hen his mother heard her son*s story and what the Moorish 
sorcerer had done to him, she said: "Yea, my son, of a truth he is a 
miscreant and a hypocrite, a hypocrite who slays folk by his magic; 
and it was only the grace of God Most High, my son, that delivered 
thee from the wiles and spells of this accursed, whom I believed to 
be in truth thine uncle." And 'Ala-ed-Din, since he liad not slept a 
wink for three days, and found himself nodding, sought his repose 
and went to sleep, and his mother likewise slept afterwards; and he 
did not wake up till near noon on the second day- As soon as he was 
awake he wanted something to eat, for he was hungry. And she said 
to him; "O my son, 1 have nought to give thee, because thou didst 
eat yesterday all tbat there was in the house; but wait awhile; i have 
spun yarn which 1 will take to the market and sell and buy thee 
something to eat with the proceeds," To Vi'hich 'Ala-ed-Din replied : 
"Mother, keep thy yarn; sell it not, but give me the Lamp I brought, 
that I may go sell it, and buy therewith something to eat, for I think 
the Lamp will fetch more than the yarn." So she arose and brought 
die Lamp to Iier son, and she found it very dirty, and said: "O my 
son, here is the Lamp, but verily it is dirty, and when we have cleaned 
and polished it it will sell for a greater pricc,^' So she went and 
took a handful of sand, and fell to rubbing the Lamp iherewith; but 
she had hardly begun to nib when there appeared hctore her one 


of the Janrij of terrible aspect and vast stature, iis it were of the 
giants* And he said to her: "Tell me what thou dost want of me; 
here am 1» thy slave^ and the slave of him ivho holderh the Lamp; 
not I only, but all ihe slaves of the Wonderful Lamp which is in 
thy hand." But she trembled, and fear gat hold of her, and her 
tongue clave as she gazed upon that terrible form; and she could 
not answer, because she was not accustomed to seeing apparitions 
like that. So in her terror she could not make any reply to the Marid, 
but fell down overcome with alarm. But 'Ala-ed-Din her son was 
waiting hard by, and had seen the 'Efrir of the Ring which he had 
rubbed when in the Treasury; and hearing the speech of the Jinni 
to his mother, lie hastened forward and seized ihc Lamp from her 
hand^ saying: *'0 Slave of the Lamp> I am hungry; and I wish [hce 
to bring me something to eat, and let it he sometliing good beyond 
imagination.'' So the 3inni vanished for a moment and brought 
him a magnificent tray of great price, made of pure silver, on which 
were twelve dishes of various foods and delicious dainties, and two 
cups of silver and Hagons of clear old wine, and bread whiter than 
snow; and he set them before *Ala-cd-Din and vanished. And 'Ala- 
ed-Din arose and sprinkled water on his mother's face and made 
her smell pungent perfumes, and she revived. Then he said: "O my 
mother, come and eat of this food which God Most High hath pro- 
vided for us." And when his mother saw the beautiful table, that 
it was of silver, she marvelled at this affair, and said: "O my son, 
who is this generous benefactor that hath satisfied our hunger and 
lightened our poverty ? Verily we are in his debt, and I am chinking 
that the Sukan, seeing our case and our poverty, sent this tray of 
food to us himself." "O my mother" he answered, "this is not a 
time for speculation; come, let us eat, for we are an-hungered/^ So 
they went and sat down to the tray and fell to eatings and 'Ala-ed- 
Din^s mother tasted viands such as never in all her life hiid she 
eaten the hke thereof. So they ate heartily with the utmost appetite 
from the violence of their hunger; moreover, the food was fit for 
Kings. But they kneiv not if the tray were precious or not, for they 
had never seen its like in their born days. And when they had done 
earing {but they left enough for supper and to last for the next day), 
they arose and washed their hands and sat down to talk, and 'Ala- 

'ala-ed-din and the wonderful lamp 361 

etI-Din's mother turned to her sort and siiid: "O my son, tell me what 
took place with the Slave, ihe Jinni, now thar God be praised, we 
have eaien and sarislied ourselves from his good ihings, and ihou 
h:ist no excuse for saying ro me, '1 am hungry.'" So, 'Ala-ed-Din 
told her jU that hid laken place between him and the Slave, while 
she was fallen in a swoon from affright. And sore amazement took 
hold upon her, and she said to him : "It is true, for the ]inn do appear 
before the son o£ Adam, though 1, O my child, in all my day^ have 
never seen them; and 1 am thinking that this is the same thac 
appeared to thee in the Treasury." Bur he replied: "It is not he, O 
my mother; this slave who appeared before thee is ihe Slave of the 
Lamp/' And when she heard these words she said: "How is that, 
my son?" And he answered her: "This slave is different in aspect 
from that; and (hat one was the Slave of the Ring, and this which 
thou sawcsE is the Slave of the Lamp which was in thy hand " 

And when she heard this she said: "AhaT that accursed, who 
appeared Co me and nearly killed me with fright, belonged to the 
LampI" "Yes," he said, and she continued: "I adjure thee, O my 
son, by the milk which thou didst suck from me cast away this 
Lamp and Ring» since they will cause us great fear, and as for me, 
I cannot bide a second lime to look at them- And it is forbidden us 
to deal with them, since the Prophet (God bless and save him!) 
hath warned us against [hem/* And he said to her: "O my mother, 
thy behests be on my head and my eye! Yet as to this behest which 
thou hast spoken, it is not possible for me to abandon either the 
Lamp or the Ring. Thyself hast seen what good they did us when 
we were anhungered; and know, O my mother, that the Moor the 
liar, the sorcerer, ivhen 1 was sent down to the Treasury, wanted 
nought of the gold and silver of which the four chambers were full, 
but commanded me only to bring him the Lamp, and nought l>e- 
sides, because he knew its great value, and unless he had known that 
this was immense, he had not Eoiled and laboured and journeyed 
from his own cotmtry to ours in search of it, nor would he have 
imprisoned me in the Treasury when he despaired of the Lamp, 
when I would not give it to him. Therefore, O my mother, it be- 
hooveth us to hold fast by this Lamp and take care of it, for it is 
our sustenance, and shall make us rich, and we must not publish it 


abroad 10 anyone. And as touching the Ring) in like mamicr I m^y 
not take it oil my finger, siqcc but for this ring ihoii hadst not seen 
me again alive, but I should have lain di^ad within the Treasury 
under the ground. Thi^n l\ow can I take it otl my hand ? And who 
knoweth what may befall me in life o£ troubles and perils and sore 
cjlamities, from which this Ring may deliver me P Only in deference 
to thy wishes I will conceal the Lamp» and never again constrain 
thee to look upon it." And when his mother had ht^ard his words 
and had well weighed them, she perceived they were rtghc, and said 
to him: "O my son, do as thou wik; for myself » I wisli never to see 
them again, nor would I willingly witness once more the terrible 
sight which I have seen." 

'Ala-ed-Diu and his mother continued eating of tbe viands which 
ihe jinni had broughE rhem, two days, and then they were done. So 
perceiving that nothing remained to them to ear, he arose, and took 
one of the plutes which tho slave had brought on the tray, wliich 
were of pure gold, though he knew it not; and he went with it to 
the market. And there met him a Jew, viler than the devils, and 
to him he offered the plate. And when the Jew saw it, he took 
^Ala-ed-Din aside so that none should see, and examined the plate 
carefully and assujed himself that it was of fine gold; and not 
knowing whether 'AJa-ed-Din was acquainted with its worth or 
was inexperienced in such things, he said ro him: "How much, O 
my master, is this dish ?" And *Ala-ed-Din answered, "Thou know- 
est its value." And the Jew considered how much he should bid 
for it, since *Ala-ed-DJn had answered him a business-like answer; 
so he thought to offer him a small price, and yet he feared that 'Ala- 
ed-Din might know the value of it and eiipeci to receive a high price. 
So he said within himselE: "Perchance he is ignorant of it and 
knoweth not the valne." Then he took from his pocket a dinar of 
gold and gave it him. And when *Ala-ed-Din had looked at the 
piece of gold in his hand, he took it and quickly went away. So the 
Jew knew that the youth did not understand the value of the plate, 
so he repented with abject repentance that he had given him a. dinar 
instead of a carat of a sixtieth. *Ala-ed-Din meanwhile did not tarry, 
but went to the baker's and bought of him bread and changed the 
dinar and look and went to his mother and gave her the bread and 


the change of the gold, and said to her: "O my mother, go and buy 
for us what we need." And she arose and went 10 the market and 
bought all they required, and they ate and were merry. And every 
lime the price of a plate was exhausted, 'Ab-ed-Din took another 
:ind went with it to the Jew, and ihe accursed Hebrew bought it o£ 
him for a pitiful price; and he would have reduced the price further^ 
but he was afraid, as he had given him a dinar the first time^ that 
if he reduced it [he yomh would go away and sell to iome one elie^ 
and he would thus lose his usurious gains. And 'Ala-ed-Din ceased 
not 10 sell plate after plate till all were sold, and there remained only 
the tray on which ihe plates were set; and as this was large and 
heavy, he went and brought the )ew to his house, and shewed him 
the tray, and when he saw its size he gave him len dinars, which 
'Ala-ed-Din took, and the Jew departed. And 'Ala-ed-Din and his 
mother subsisted on the ten dinars till they were done. 

Then *Ala-ed-Din arose and fetched the Lamp» and rubbed it, and 
there appeared before him the Slave who had appeared to him be- 
fore. And the Jinni said to him: '^Command what thou wilt, O my 
master, for I am thy slave and the slave of him who possesseih the 
Lamp." And Ala-ed-Din answered: "My desire is that thou bring 
me a tray of food like unto that which thou didst bring me before, 
for 1 am starving." Then, in the twinkling of an eye, the Slave 
brought him a tray, like the one he came with before; and on it 
were twelve plates of the richest, and on them the proper vianf^s; 
and on the tray were also bottles o£ clear wine and white bread. Now 
'Ala-ed-Din's mother had gone forth when she knew that her son 
intended to rub the Lamp, that she might not look a second time 
upon the Jinni; and presently :ihe came home and perceived this 
tray, covered with dishes of silver, and the odour of rich viands per- 
meating her house; and she wondered and rejoiced. And 'Ala-ed- 
Din said 10 her: "See, O my mother, thou didst tell me to cast away 
the Lamp- behold now its advantages!" And she answered: "O my 
son, God multiply his weal! but I would not look upon him." Then 
^Ala-ed-Din and his mother sat down to the tray, and ate and drank 
till they were satisfied; and they put aside what was left for the 
morrow. And when the food they had was finished, 'Ala-ed-Din 
arose and took a plate of the plates of the tray under his garment 


and sallied fofth in quest of [he Jew to sell it to him; but by the 
decrees of destiny he passed by the shop of a jeweller, who w*is a 
just man and fejred God. And when the jeweller sheykh saw ^Ala- 
ed-Dm he questioned him^ saying: **0 my son^ what dost ihoawant? 
for I have seen thee often passing by, and thou wast dealing with a 
Jewish man, and I have seen thee making over to him Viirious 
things, and I am thinking that thou hast somcihing with thee now, 
and thou seekeit him to buy it. But thou dost not know, O my son, 
that the property of the Muslims, who profess the Unity of God Most 
Highj is fair spoil to the Jews, who always defraud them, and worst 
of all this damned Jew with whom thou hast deah and into whose 
hands thou hast fallen. So if thou hast with thee, O my son, any- 
thing thou wishest 10 sell, shew it me, and fear not at all, for I will 
give thee its value by the truib of the Most High God." So 'Ala- 
ed-Din produced the plate before the sheykh, who when he had 
looked upon, it, took it and weighed it in his balance, and ques- 
tioned 'Ala-ed'Din and said; "Didst thou sell the like of this to the 
Jew?" And he answered, **YeSj its like and its brother/' And the 
other said: "How much did he give tbee for its price?" And he 
answered, "He gave me a dinar." And when the sheykh heard from 
'Ala-ed'Din that the Jew had given him only a single dinar for the 
price of the plate, he exclaimed: "Woe to this accursed who cheats 
the servants of the Most High Godl" And looking at *Ala-ed-Din 
he said: ^'O my son, verily this rascally Jew hath cheated thee and 
moeked at thee; for thy plate is of fine virgin alver; and 1 have 
weighed it and found its value to be seventy dinars. So i£ thou wilt 
lake its price, take it,'* And the jeweller sheykh counted out to liim 
seventy dinars, and 'Ala-ed-Din took them, and thanked him for 
his kindness in shewing him the Jew's fraud. And whenever the 
price of a plate was gone, he went and brought another, so that he 
and his modier became well to do, though they ceased not to live as 
of old, as middle-class people, without excess or waste. 

'Ala-ed-Din had cast aside his gracelessness and shunned vaga- 
bonds, and chose for his companions upright men, and went every 
day to the market of the merchants and sat with the great and the 
small of them, and asked them concerning matters of business and 
the price of investments and the rest. And he would visit the market 

'aLA-ED-DIN and the WONDEEFtJL LAMP 365 

of the goldsmiths :tfid jewellers; and there he would sit and divert 
himself with looking af the jewels and how they were bought and 
sold there. And thus he learned that the pockets full of fruit which 
he had gathered in the Treasury were noi of glass or crystal^ bat 
were precious stones. And he knew rihat he had become possessed 
oi vast riches such as Kings could never amass. And he examined 
all the stones iliat were in the market of the jewellers and found 
that their very biggest was not equal to his smallest. And he ceased 
not each day to saunter to the Bazar of the Jewellers and make 
acquaintance wiih :he people^ and obbain their good-will, and in- 
quire of them concerning buying and selling and taking and giving 
and the dear and the cheap; till one day^ after rising betimes and 
putting on his dress, he went as was his wont to the Bazar of the 
Jewellers^ and as he passed he heard the herald calling thus: **By 
command of the gracious patron. King of the Time, Lord of the 
Age and the Season; now let all the people close ihcir stores and 
shops and enter in unto their houses, because Bedr-el-Budur, the 
daughter of the Sulian, intendeiii to visit the b;nh; and whoso dis- 
obeyeth the order, death is his penalty, and his blood be on his own 
head." And when 'Ala-ed-Dln heard this prodaniation, he longed 
to look upon the Sultanas daughter, and said within himself: "Verily 
all the folk talk of her beauty and loveliness, and the summit of my 
ambition is to behold her," 

So 'Ala-ed-Din set himself to seek a way whereby he might attain 
to a sight of the daughter of the Sukan, the Lady Bedr-el-Bndur; and 
it seemed best to him to stand behind the door of the Hammam, so 
as to see her face when she came in. Accordingly, without any delay, 
he went to the bath before she was e^^pected and stood behind the 
door, a place where no one could see him; and when the daughter of 
the Sultan drew near, after going about the city and its quarters and 
diverting herself thereby, she came to the bath, and on entering, 
lifted her veil and displayed her face, as it were a radiant sun or a 
pearl of great price; for she was as the poet sang: 

Borders of kohl enhance the witchery of her glance^ 
Gardens of roses are her damask cheeks. 
Black are her tresses as the gloomy night. 
Illumined by the glory ot her brow. 


Wlien the princess raised her veil from her face aod 'Ala-ed-Din 
looked upon her, he said; "Of a surely her make magniiieth the 
Mighiy Milker, and extolled be he who made her and adorned her 
with such beauty and lovdinessl" His vigour became weak at ihe 
sight of her, and his thoughts became discra-ught, and his sight be- 
wildered, and love of her got hold of his whole soul; and he went 
home and returned to his mother like one in a dream. And his 
motl:ier spake to him, but he replied not yea or nay; and she set 
before him breakfast, but be remained in the same state. So she 
said to him: "O my son, what hath befallen tliee? Doth anything 
distress thee? Tell me what bach happened to ihee, for thou, con- 
trary to thy wont, repliest not when I speak to thee," Then 'Ala- 
ed-Din, — who had believed that all women were like his mother, 
and though he had heard of the beauty of Bedr-el-Budur, the 
daughter of the Sultan, yet knew not what this beauty and loveliness 
might mean, — turned to his mother and said to her, "Let me alone," 
But she urged him to come and ear; so he came and ate a little, and 
then lay on his bed pondering till morning da:vned. And he ceased 
not from this state the next day, so that his mother was perplexed 
for her son's condition and could not find out what had come over 
him. And she believed he was seriously sick, and came and asked 
him, saying: ''O ray son, if chou ieel pain or anything o£ the kind, 
tell me, that I may go and bring thee a physician; and this very day 
there is in this city a doctor from the land of the Arabs whom the 
Sultan sent for, and the rumour goeth that he is very skilful. So if 
ihou be sick, let me go and call him in," 

When 'Ala-ed-Din heard that his mother wished 10 bring him a 
physidan, he said to her: "O my mother, I am well, and not sick at 
all. But I always believed that all women resembled thee, until 
yesterday I saw the Lady Bedr-cl-Budur, the daughter of the Sultan, 
going in to the bath." And he told her all that had betided him, and 
said: "Perhaps thou didst also hear the herald calling: 'Let no man 
open his shop or stay in the streets, that the Lady Bedr-el-Budar may 
go to the Bath.' But I did look upon her, even as she Is, because 
she lifted her veil at the entering of the bath. And when i gazed 
on her form and saw that noble shape, there seized me, O my 
mother, a violent ecstasy of love for her, and a fixed resolve to win 


her possesseth every part of me; nor can I possibly rest uiiLil I gain 
her. And I intend^ ibereforej to demand her o£ the Sulian, her 
fanher, in lawful wedI'H:k." And when his mother heard his words 
she feared for his reason, and said; ^'O my son, God's name be on 
thee! for it is plain thou hast lost thy reason, my son. But be guided, 
and be not as the insane" And he answered: "O my mother^ 1 have 
not iost my reason, nor am 1 mad, nor can chy words alter what is 
in my mind, for peace is impossible to me till 1 win the beloved of 
my heart, the lovely Lady Bedr-el-Budur. And 1 am determined to 
demand her of her father, the Sultan," And she said to him: "O my 
son, by my life, say nor so, lest any one hear thee and say thou art 
mad. Put away from thee this folly; for who should do a thing like 
ihis, to ask it of the Sultan p And I know not how thou wik set to 
work to ask chis favour of the Suitan, even if thy speech be true, or 
through whom thou wilt ask it." And he answered: "Through 
whom, O my mother, should I make this request, when I have thee? 
And whom have I more trusty than ihee? It is my wish that thou 
thyself ask this request." And she said: "O my son, God preserve 
me from this! Have I lost my reason like thee? Cast a^vay this 
thought from thy soul, and think whose sou thou art, my son, the 
child of a tailor, of the poorest and meanest of the tailors to be 
found in this city; and I, Loo, thy motlier, come of very poor folk. 
So how dost chou presume to ask in marriage a daughter of the 
Sultan, who would not deign to marry her to any of the Kings and 
Sultans, unless (hey were his equals in grandeur and honour and 
majesty; and ^vere they less than he but asingfe degree he would not 
give them his daughter." 

'Ala-ed-Din waited paiiendy till his mother had ended her speech, 
and then said: "O my mother, all that ihou recallest I know, and it 
is familiar to me that 1 am the son of the poor; but all these thy 
words cannot change my purpose in the least, nor do I the less ej^pcet 
of thee, as 1 am thy son and thou lovest me, to do me this kindness; 
otherwise thou wilt undo me, and speedy death is upon me; unless I 
obtain my desire of the darling of my heart; and in any case, O 
my mother, 1 am thy child." And when she heard his words she 
wept in her grief for him, and said: "O my son, yea verily I am thy 
mother, nor have I child or blood of my blood save thee; and the 


heigh: oi my desire is lo rejoice in thee and wed thee to a wife; bur 
if I seek to ask for ihec a bride of our equals and peerSi they will 
ask at once if thou hast trade or merchandise or land or garden, to 
live on. And what can I answer dicm P And ii 1 cannot answer the 
poor people, onr likes, how shall 3 venture upon this hazard and 
dare this impertinence, O my son, and by what means shall I ask for 
thee of the Suhan his daughter, and howsoever shall I compass access 
to the Sukan's presence? And if they question me, what shall 1 
answer? And probably they will cake me for a mad woman. And 
supposing I gain access to the presencej what shall 1 lake him as 
an offering to his Majesty?" 

And she went on: "O my child, the Sultan Indeed is clement, 
and never rejecteih him who approacheth him to ask of him equity 
or mercy or protection. Ask him for a gifr, for he is generous, and 
grantech grace far and near. But he granteth his favour lo those 
who deserve it, either having done something before him m battle 
or oiherwise served their country. Then as for thee, tell me what 
hast thou done before the Sukan's eyes or publicly* that thou shouldst 
merit this grace? And again, this grace which thou askcst becometh 
not our rank, and it is not possible that the King should give thee 
the favour which thou wouldst ask. And whoso approacheth the 
Sultan to ask favours, it behooveth him to take with him something 
befitting his majesty, as I said to theei and how canst thou possibly 
present thyself before the Sukan, and stand before him and ask bis 
daughter of him when thou hast nothing with thee to offer him suit- 
able to his rank?" And 'Ala-ed-Din replied: "O my mother, ihou 
speakest aright and ihinkest well, and it behooveth me to consider all 
that thou hast brought to mind, But, my mother, the love of the 
Sultanas daughter, the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, hath penetrated into the 
core of my heart, and peace is impossible to me unless I win hen 
Bui thou hast reminded me of something I had forgotten, and this 
very thing doth embolden me to ask of him his daL:ghter. Thou 
sayest, O my mother, that I have no offering to make to the Sultan, 
as is the custom of the folk, yet as a fact T have a gift to present the 
equal of which I think doth not exist among the Kings anywhere, 
nor anything approaching it; for verily what T thought to be glass 
or crystal is notliin^ but precious stones; and I believe that all the 


Kings of the world have never owned aughr to equal the lease of 
ihem. For by visiting the jewellers 1 learned that these are the cost- 
liest jewels which 1 brought in my pockets from the Treasury. 
Therefore be tranquil. In the house is a china bowl; arise, therefore^ 
and fetch it, that I may fill it with these jewels, and wc will see how 
they look in it." And his mother aroic and went for [he china bowl, 
jtnd said within herselft "Let me see if the words of my son concern- 
ing these jewels be irne or not." And she ser the bowl before 'Ata- 
ed-Din, and he drew from his pockets the bags of jewels, and began 
to arrange them in the bowl, and ceased not to set them in order 
until it was full] and when it was quite full his mother looked 
into hy and could not see into it without blinking, for her eyes were 
dazzled by the sheen of the jewels and their radiance and the eseess 
of their flashing. And her reason was confounded, [hough she was 
not certain whether or not their value was so vastly great^ but she 
considered that her son's speech might possibly be true — that their 
equals could not be found among the King's. Then ^Ala-ed-Din 
turned to her and said: "Thou hast seen, O my mother, that this 
gift for the Sukan is splendid, and 1 am convinced that it will pro- 
cure thee great favour from him, and he will receive thee with all 
honour. So now, O my mother, thou hast no excuse; collect, there- 
fore, thy faculties and arise; take this bowl and go with it to the 
palace." And his mother replied; *'0 my son, certainly the present 
is exceeding precious, and none, as thou sayest, possesseth its equal. 
But who \vouId dare to approach and ask of the Sultan his daughier, 
[he Lady Bedr-el-BudurP As for me, I dare not to say to him, *1 
want thy daughter" when he askeih me 'Wl:tat is thy wantP' But I 
know, O my son, that my tongue will be bed. And suppose that, 
by God's help, 1 pluck up my courage and say to him; *It is my de- 
sire !o become related to thee by thy daughter^ the Lady Bedr-cl- 
Budur and my son *Ala-ed-Din,' they will conclude forthwith that 
1 am possessed, and will cast me ford\ in shame and disgrace, till I 
tell thee nor only that I shall run in danger of death, but thou wile 
likewise. Yet, in spite of all this, O my son, in deference to thy 
wish^ I needs must pluck up heart and go. But if the King welcome 
me and honour me on account of the gift, and I should ask of him 
what thou wishesc, how shall I reply when he asketh me, as is usual» 


What is ihy coodidou aad thy income? Hjply, O my sorij he will 
ask me this before he aikcih me who diou jrt." And 'Ala-ed-Din 
answered : ''It is impossible th^it the Siiltan should thus question thee 
after looking at the precious siones and their splendor; nor doth it 
boor to consider things which may not happen. Do thou only arise 
and ask him for his daughter for me, and offer him the jewels^ and 
do not sit there inventing obstacles- Hasi thou not already le:irned, 
O my modicr, that this Lamp of mine is now a firm maintenance for 
us, and that all I demand of it is brought lo me? And this is my 
hope, that by its means I shall know how lo make answer to the 
Suhan ii he ask. mc thus," 

And 'Alit-ed-Din :md his mother kept talking over the matter 
all that njgh[. And when morning dawned his mother arose and 
plucked up courage, the more as her son had explained to her some- 
what of the properties of the Lamp and its virtues— that it would 
supply them with all they wanted. ^Ala-ed-Din^ howeverj when he 
saw ihiic his mother had plucked up courage on his explaining to 
her the cflecis of die Lamp^ feared lest she should gossip about it to 
the people, and said to her; "O my mother, lake heed how thou 
lellest any one about (he Lamp and its virtues, for diis is our ovvn 
benelic. Restrain thy chougbi, lest thou babble to any one about it, 
for fear we lose it and lose the benefit which we possess from it." 
And his mother ans^vered, "Fear not for that, O my son." And she 
arose and rook the bowl of precious stones and passed forth early, 
char she might reach the audience before it was crowded. And she 
covered the howl with a kerchief^ and went to the palace, and when 
she arrived the audience was not fuU; and she saw the ministers and 
sundry of the magnates of the stale entering to the presence of the 
Suhan. And presently the levee was completed by the ^vezirs and 
lords of the state and grandees and princes and nobles- Then the 
Sultan appeared, and the ministers bowed down before him^ Jnd in 
hke manner the rest of the grandees and nobles. And the Sultan 
seated himself on the divan on the kingly throne, and all who at- 
tended the levee stood before him with crossed arms awaiting his 
command to be seated. And he ordered them to sit^ and every one 
of them sat down in his order. Then the petitioners presented them- 
selves before the Sukan, and he decided everything, as usual, unci! 


the audience was over; when the King arose and went m to the 
palace^ and every soul departed his own wjy. And when *Ala-ed- 
Din*s mother siiw the Sultan had risen from hia throne and gone 
into the Harim, she too look her departure and went her way to 
her houie. And ivhen 'Ala-ed-Din perceived her, and saw the bowl 
in her hand, he thought that probably some accident had befallen 
her, hut he did not wish to question her until she was come in and 
had set down the bowl. Then she related to him what had happened, 
and ended by saying: "Praise be to God, my son, that boldness came 
to me, and 1 found a place in the levcc this day, although it did not 
fall to my lot to address the Sultan. Probably, i£ it please God Most 
High, to-morrow 1 will speak to him. Indeed, to-day many of the 
people could not address the Sultan, like me. But lo-morrow, my 
son, be of good cheer^ since 1 must speak to him for the sske of thy 
desire* and how shall what happened happen again?'^ And when 
*Ala-ed-Din heard his parent's words he rejoiced with e^^ceeding 
joy; and though he expected [he affair from hour 10 hour, from the 
violence of his love and yearning for the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, for 
all that he practised parience. So they slept that nightj and in the 
morning his mother arose and went with the bowl to the audience 
of the Sukan; but she found it closed. So she asked the bystanders, 
and tliey toid her that the Sultan did not hold an audience con- 
tinually, but only thrice a week. 

So she resolved to return home that day. And every day she went, 
and when she saw the audience begin she would stand before the 
Sultan till it was over, and dien she would return; and next day 
she would go to see if ihe court were closed; and in this manner 
she went for a whole month. Now the Sultan had perceived her at 
every levee, and when she came on the last day and stood before 
the presence, as was her wont, until it was over» without having 
courage to come forward or address him a word, and the Sultan had 
risen and gone to his Harim, and his Grand Wezir with him* the 
Sultan turned to him and said: "O We^ir, six or seven days at each 
audience have 1 seen that old woman presenting herself here; and 
1 see she always carries something under her cloak. Tell me, O 
Wezir, knowest thou aught of her and her business.''" And the 
Wezir answered: "O our lord the Sultan, verily women are want- 


ing in sense; probably Ebis woitijei hath come to complain to thee o£ 
her husband or one of her people." But che Sultan was not satisfied 
with the Wezir's reply, but comm:LJided him, if the woman came 
again to tbe levee, to bring her before him. So the Wc^ir put his 
hand on his head and said: 'T hear snd obey, O our lord the Sultan," 

Now the mother of 'Ala-cd-Din was wont to set forth every day 
to [he audience and stand in the presence before the Sultan, althongh 
she was sad and very weary; yet for the sake of her son's desire she 
made light of her trouble. And one day she came to the levee^ as 
usual, and stood before the Sulcan, who when he saw her ordered 
his Wezir, saying: "This is the woman I spake of to thee yesterday; 
bring her instantly before me that I may inquire into her suit and 
decide her business." And straightway the Wezir arose and brought 
'Ala-ed-Din's mother to the Sultan. And when she found herself 
in ihe presence, she performed the obeisance and invoked glory upon 
him, and long life and perpetual prosperity; and she kissed the 
ground before him. And the Sultan said to her: "O woman, for 
some days have J seen thee at the levee, and thou hast not addressed 
a word to me; lell me if thou hast a want, that 1 may grant h.'* So 
she kissed the ground again and invoked blessings upon him, and 
said: "Yea, by the hfe of thy head, O King of the Age, verily have 
I a suit. But, first of all grant me immunity, if I can present my suit 
to the hearing of our lord the Sultan, for perhaps thy Felicity may 
find my petition strange." So the Snltan^ wishing to know what 
was her petition, and being endowed with much mildness, promised 
her immuni[y3 and at once ordered all who were there to depart, 
and remained alone, he and the Wezir, 

Then the Sukan, turning to her, said: "Explain thy suit, and the 
protecdon of God Most High be on thee.'* But she answered: "O 
King of the Age, I shall need thy pardon also," And he replied, 
"God pardon thee," Then she said: "O our lord the Sukan, verily 
! have a son whose name is 'Ala-ed-Din. One day of the day? he 
heard the herald proclaiming that none should open his shop or 
appear in the streets of the city, because the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, 
the daughter of our lord the Sukan, was going to the bath. And 
when my son heard that, he longed to see her, and hid himself in a 
place where he would be able to look upon her closely, and that was 

'ala-i^d-dtn and the wonderful lamp 373 

behind tho gacc of the Hammam. So when she drew near, he 
look-Efl upon her and gazed fall upon her as much as he liked; and 
frcrii the moment he saw iier, O King of ilie Age^ lo this instant, 
life haih been iniolerable lo him; and he haih desired me ro ask her 
of thy Fehciiy that he may wed her, 1 have not been able to banish 
this fancy from his mind, for the love o£ her hath taken possession 
oi his heart, so that he told me: 'Be assured, O my mother, that if I 
do not oljtain niy de.^ire, \\'ithoui doubt I shall die.' So I trust for 
clemency and pardon from ihy Felicity for this hardihood of mine 
and my son's, and punish us not for it." 

When the King had heard her story, looking kindly at her, he 
fell a-laughing, and asked her: "What is it thou hast with thee, and 
what is this bundle?" Then the mother of 'A!a-ed-Din, perceiving 
that the Sultan was not wroth at her speech^ but rather laughingj 
forthwith opened the cloth jnd set before him the howl of jewels. 
And when the Sultan saw the stones, after the cloth was taken off, 
and how the hall was lighted up, as it were, by chandeliers and 
lustres, he was da7,ed and amazed at their sparkling, and wondered 
at their si^e and splendour and beauty, saying: — "To this day have 
I never seen the like of these jewels for beauty and size and loveli- 
ness, nor do I believe that there is in my treasury a single one equal 
to them/' Then turning to his Wezir, he said: *'WhaE sayest ihou, 
O Wezir, hast thou seen, thou in thy time, the hke of these splendid 

And the Wezir answered: "Never have I seen such, O our lord 
the Suhan, and 1 do not think that the smallest of them is to he found 
in the treasuries of my lord the King." And the King said to him: 
'^Vcrilv he who hath presented me with these jewels is worthy to be 
the bridegroom of my daughter Bedr-el-Budur, for, methinks, as far 
as I can see, none is worthier of her than he." When the We7-ir 
heard this speech of the Sultan, his tongue became tied with vexa- 
tion, and he grieved with sore grieving, becatise the King had prom- 
ised to marry the Princess to his son. So after a little he said to 
him: ''O King of the Age, thy Felicity was graciously pleased to 
promise the Lady Bedr-el-Budur to my sont it is therefore incumbent 
on thy Highness to graciously allow three months, when, please 
God, there shall be a present from my son more splendid even than 


this." So ihe King, Lhough he knew that this thing could not be 
accomplished either by die Wczir or by any of the gmndeesj yec of 
his kindness and generosiry granted a delay of three months^ as he 
had asked. And turning ro the old woman^ 'Ala-ed-Din's mother, 
he said: "Go back to chy son, and tell him I have given my royal 
word that my daughter shall beitr his name, but it is necessary to 
prepare her wardrobe and requisites, and so he will have to wait 
three months/' 

*Ala-ed-Din's mother accepted this answer, and thanked the Sukan 
and blessed him, and hasteEied £orih, and almost flew with delight 
till she came home and entered. And 'Ala-ed-Din her son saw how 
her face was smiling; so he was cheered by the hope of good news; 
moreover, she had come back without loitering as heretofore, and 
had retirrned without the bowl. So he asked her, saying: "If it please 
God, my mother, thou bringest me good news, and perhaps the 
jewels and their rarity have had their effect, and the Sudan haih 
welcomed thee and been gracious to thee and hearkened to thy 
request?" And she related it all to him — how the Sukim had re- 
ceived her and marvelled at the mukiLude of the jewels and [heir 
size; and the We^ir also; and how he had promised that *'his 
daughter shall bear thy name; only, O my son, the Wczir spake to 
him a private word before he promised me, and after the Wezir had 
spoken he covenanted for a delay of three months; and I am afraid 
the Wezir will be hostile to ihee and try to change the mind of the 

When 'Ala-ed'Din heard the words of his mother and how the 
Sukan had promised him afcer three months, his soul was relieved 
and he rejoiced exceedingly, and said: "Since the Sultan hath prom- 
ised for three months, though ic is indeed a long time* on all accounts 
my joy is immense.'* Then he thanked his parent and magnified 
her success above her toil, and said: "By Allah, O my mother, just 
now 1 was, as it were, in the grave, and thou hast pulled me ont^ 
and 1 praise God Most High that I am now sure that there liveth 
none richer or happier than J.'' Then he waited in patience till two 
months of the three were gone. 

One day of the days the mother of *Ala-ed-Din went forth about 
sunset to the market to buy oil and beheld all the bazars closed, and 

'ala-ed-din and the wonderful lamp 375 

the whole city dcsertedj and rhe people ^vere ptitting caudles and 
flowers in iheir windows; and she saw troops and guards and caval- 
cades of cI^IuSt and lamps and lustres flaming. And wonder gat 
hold of her at this marvel and gala, ant! she xvent lo an oilman's 
shop which was still open, and having bought the oil^ said to the 
dealer: "O Uncle, inEorm me what is the occasion co-day in the 
city* that the people make such adornment, and the markets and 
houses are all dosed and the troops paraded:'" And the oilman 
answered: "O woman, 1 suppose thou art a stranger, not of this 
city.*' But she said, "Nay, I am of this city." So he cried: "Art thou 
of this city, and hast not heard thai the son of the chief Wczir this 
night is to unite himself to the Lady Bedr-cl-tiudur, the ditugluer of 
the Sultan, and he is now at the bath; and these officers and soldiers 
are drawn up waiting to see him come forth from the baih and ac- 
company him lo the palace into the presence of the daughter of the 

When the mother of 'Ala-ed-Din heard his words she was sad 
and perplexed in her mind how she should contrive to break this 
dismal news to her son, for her unhappy boy was counting hour by 
hour till the three months should be over. So she returned home 
after a little, and when she had come and entered lo her son she 
said: "O my son, 1 would fain tell thee certain tidings^ though ihy 
grief thereat will cosi me dear," And he answered, "Tell me, what 
is this news." And she said; "Verily ihe Sultan hath violated hts 
covenant to thee in the matter of his daughter the Lady Bedr-el- 
Budur, and this night the Weii^ir^s son goeth in to her. And O my 
child, I have long suspected thai the Wezir would change the 
Sultan's mind, as I lold ihee how he spake privily to him before me" 
Then 'Ala-ed-Din asked her: "How knowest thou [hac ihe Wezir's 
son is going in this night to the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, the daughter 
of the Sultan?" So she told him about all the decorations she had 
noticed in the town when she went to buy oil, and how the aghas 
and gtiindees of the state were drawn up waiting for the Wezir^s 
son lo come forih from ihe bath, and how this was his nuptial night. 
When he learnt this, *Ala-ed-Din was seized with a fever of grief, 
till after a while he beihoughi him of ihe Lamp. Then he cheered 
up, and said: "'By thy life, O my mother, suppose the Wezir's son 


should iioE enjoy Ker, as tliou thinkcst. But now lei us cease this 
talk, and arise; bring our supper^ thnf wc m^iy eal, and jfter I have 
retired awhile wiEhin my chamber alt will be welt/* 

So after supper 'Ala-ed-Din witlidrew to his chEimljer and fastened 
the door and look out the Lamp and rubbed it, and immediately 
the Slave ciime and said; *^Ask what thou wilt» for I am thy slave, 
the slave o£ him who hath the Lamp, I and all the servants of the 
Lamp." And 'Ab-t'd-DJn sJid: ^'Listen, I asked the Sultan that 1 
might marry his daughter, and he promised me, in three months; but 
he halt] not kept his word, but hath given her to the son of the 
Wezir, and this very night it is his inteniion to go in to her. But I 
command ihee> if thou be a true servant of the Lamp, that when 
thou seest the bride and bridegroom together this night thou bring 
them in ibe bed to this place. This is what 1 requife of thee." And 
the Marid answered: *'l hear and obey; and if thou hast any other 
behestj besides this, command me in all thou desircst." But *Ala- 
ed-Din said: '1 have no other eommand save that which 1 have told 
thee." So the Slave vanished, and 'Ala-cd-Din returned to finish 
the evening with his mother. But when the time came when he 
expected the Slave's return, he arose and entered his chamber, and 
soon after beheld the Slave with the bridal pair on their bed. And 
when 'Ala-ed'Din saw them he rejoiced with great joy. Then said 
he to the Slave: ''Take away yonder gallows-bird and lay him in a 
closet." And immediately the Slave bore the Wezir's son and 
stretched hijii in a closet, and before leaving him he blew a cold 
blast on him, and the state of the Wezir's son becjme miiierable. 
Then the Slave returned to 'Ala-ed-Din and said: "If ihou needest 
aught cbe, tell me." And "Ala-ed-Din answered^ ''Return in the 
morning to restore diem to their place-^' So he said, "1 hear and 
obey,'* and vanished. 

Then 'Ala-ed-Din arose, and could hardly believe that this affair 
had prospered with him. But when he looked at the Lady Bedr-el- 
Budur in his own house, although he had long been consumed with 
love of her, yet he maintained an honourable respect towards her, 
and said: "O Lady of Loveliness, think not that 1 brought thee here 
to harm thine honour; nay, but only that none oiher sbotild be 
privileged to enjoy thee, since thy father the Snltan gave me his 


word ihat I shdiilcl have thee. So rest in peace." But when Btdr-el- 
liudur found herself in this poor and dark house, and heard the 
words of 'Aia-ed-Din, fear and shuddering took hold of her, and she 
was dazedj and could not make him any reply. Then 'Ala-ed-Din 
arose and stripped o!T his robe, and laying a sword between himself 
and hor, slept beside her in the bed, without doing her wrongs for 
he wished only to prevent the nuptials of the Wezir's son with her. 
But the Lady Bcdr-el-liudur passed the worse of nights; she had not 
passed a worse in all her life; and the Wezir's son» who slept in the 
closet, dared not move from his fear of the Slave which poAses&ed 

When it was morning, without any rubbing of the Lamp, the 
Slnve appeared to 'Ala-ed-Din^ and said: "O my master, if thou 
desirest anything, command me, that 1 may perform it on the head 
and the eye." So *Ala-ed-Din said:"Go bear the bride and bridegroom 
to [heir place." And in the twinkling of an eye the Slave did as 
*Al3-eiil-Din bade him, and took [he Wezir*s son and the Lady I5edr- 
el-Budur and carried them and restored them to their place in the 
palace, as they had been, without seeing any one, though they almost 
died of fear when they found themselves being carried from place 
to place. Hardly had the Slave put them back again and departed, 
when [he Sultan came to visit his daughter. And when the Wezir's 
son heard the door open, he forthwith leaped from the bed, for he 
knew that none but the Sultan could come in at that time; but it 
was exceedingly disagreeable lo him, for he wished to warm himself 
a little, since he had noc long left Lhe [cold] closet; however, he 
arose and put on his clorhes. 

The Sultan came in unto his daughter the Lady EeJr-el-Budur, 
and kissed her between the eyes and wished her good-morning, and 
asked her concerning her bridegroom, and whether she was con- 
tent with him. liui she made him never an answer^ but looked at 
him with an eye of anger; and he asked her again, and she remained 
silent and said not 3 word to him. So the Sultan went his way and 
departed from her house, and went to the Queen, and told her what 
had befallen him with the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, Then the Queen, loth 
to have him ve>:ed with the Princess, said to him: "O King of the 
Age, this is the way with most brides in their honeymoon; they are 


shy, and 3 trifle whimsical. So chide hf;r not, and soon slie will return 
to herself and converse with people; for now it is her modesty, O 
King of the Age, that preventeth her speaking. However, it js my 
imemion ro go and visit hevJ' 

So the Queen arose and puc on her robes and went ro her daughter 
the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, and appioached her and gave her good- 
day, and kissed her betwiM ihe eyes. And the Princess answered her 
never a word. So the Queen said Co herseli: "Some sirange thing 
must have happened to her to disquiet her thus." So she asked her : 
"O my daughter, what is the cause of the state thou art in ? TeJI me 
what haih come Eo thee, that wiaen I visit thee and bid thee good-day, 
thou answerest me not." Then Bedr-el-Eudur turned her head and 
said to her: "Chide me not, O my mother; it was indeed my duty 
10 meet thee with all regard and reverence, since ihou hast honoured 
me by this visit. However, I beg thee to hear the reason of this my 
behaviour, and see how this night which I have passed hath been 
the worst of nights for itic. Hardly had we gone to bed, O mother, 
:vhen one whose shape 1 know not lifted up the bed and bore us lo 
a dark, loathly, vile place." And she related to her mother the Queen 
all that had happened to her that night, and how they had taken 
away her bridegroom and she had been left alone, till presently an- 
other youth came and slept, instead of her husband, and placed a 
sword betwist them. *'And in the morning he who took us returned 
to carry us back, and came with us to this our abode. Hardly had 
he restored us to it and left us, when my father the Sukan. entered 
at the very hour of our return, and I had not heart or tongue to 
speak 10 him from the greatness of the fear and trembling which 
had come over me. And perliaps it may have vexed my father; so I 
pray thee, O my mother, tell him the reason for my condition, that 
he may not blame me for my lack of reply to him, but instead of 
censure, excuse me.^* 

When the Queen heard the words of her daughter the Lady Bedr- 
el-Budur, she said to her: "O my child, calm thyselh If ihou wert 
to tell this story to any one, it might he s;iid that the daughter of the 
Sultan had lost her wits, and thou hast well done in not telling thy 
father this talc; and beware, my daughter, beware of telling him 
thereof." But the Princess answered her; "Modier, I have spoken to 


thee wnsibly, and I have not bs: my wits, but this is what hath hap- 
pened to tnc; and ii thou dost not believe it when I nay if, ask my 
bridegroom.** Then Lhe Quc^en said t<i her: "Arise, now» my daaghter, 
and away with such fancies from thy mind; put on thy robes and 
view the bridal fete which is going on En the city in thy honour and 
the rejoicings that are taking place all over the reahn for ihy mar- 
riage; and listen to the drums and songs, and look at these decora- 
tions» all done for the sake of pleasing thee, my daughter." There- 
upon the Queen siimmoned the tirewomen^ and they robed the Lady 
Bedr-el-Budur and straightened her up. And the Queen arose and 
went to the Sultan and told him that the Princess had been troubled 
thar night with drf^ama and nightmare, and added; "Chide her nor 
for her lack of answer to thee," Then she summoned the Wezir i 
son secretly, and asked him concerning the matter^ and whether the 
story of the Princess were true or not; but he» in his fear of losing 
his bride from out his hand, answered: "O my sovereign lady, £ 
know nothing of what thou sayest." So the Queen was sure that 
her daughter had been distraught by nightmare and dreams, lhe 
festivities lasted all day, with 'Almehs and singers and the beating 
of all sorts of instruments, and the Queen and the Wezir atid die 
Wezir's son. did their utmost to keep up the rejoicings so that the 
Lady IJedr-ei-Budur might be happy and forget her trouble; and ail 
day they left nothing that incited to enjoyment undone before her^ 
that she might forget what was in her mind and be content. Uui all 
this had no influence u]30n her; she remained silent and sad and be- 
wildered at what had befallen her that niglit. Worse indeed had 
happened to the Wezir's son tlian to her, since he passed the night 
in a closet^ but he had denied the fact and banished this calamity 
from his mind^ because of his fear of losing his bride and his dis- 
tinction^ especially as all men envied him the connection and the 
exceeding honour thereof; and^ moreover, because of the splendour 
of the bride's loveliness and her excessive beauty. 

*Ala-ed-Din coo went out that day to see the festivities which were 
going on in the city and the palace, and he began to laugh, above 
all when he heard people talking of the honour which had fallen to 
the Wezir's son and his good-fortune in becoming the son-in-law of 
the Sultan, and the great dismiction shewn in his rejoicings and 


wedding festivities. And 'Ab-cd-Din sjid to himself: ^'Ye know 
not, ye rabble, what happened 10 him last nighc, that ye envy him!'' 
And when night fell and it was bed[imej "Ala-ed-Din arose and went 
to his chamber and rubbed ihe Lajnp^ and immediately the Slave 
presented himself. And he ordered him to bring the Sultan's 
daughter and her bridegroom as on the past nighty before the Wezir's 
son had taken her to him. And (he Slave waited not an instant, but 
vanished awhile, till he reappeared, bringing the bed in which was 
the Lady Bedr-el-Budur and the son of [he Wezir. And he did with 
the latter as on the preceding nighty — took and put him to sleep in 
a closet, and there left him bleached with excessive trembling and 
fear. And ^Ala-ed-Dni arose and placed ihe sword betwixE himself 
and the Princess, and went to sleep. And when it was morning the 
Slave appeared and restored the pair to their own place; and 'Ala-ed- 
Din was filled with delight at the misadventure of the We2ir's son- 
Now when the Sultan arose in the morning he desired to go 10 
his daughter, Bedr-el-Bndurj to see whether she would behave to him 
as on the preceding day. So, after he had sliaken olT his drowsiness, 
he arose and dressed himself and went to his daughter's palace and 
opened the door. Then the Wezir's son hastily got up and rose 
from the bed and began to put on his clothes, though his rihs almost 
split with cold; for when the Sukan came in the Slave had only 
just brought them back. So the Sukan entered, and approached his 
daughter Bcdr-cl-Dudur, who was in bed; and drawing aside the 
curtain, he wished her good-morning, and kissed her betwixt the 
eyes, and inquired after her slate. But he saw she was sad, and .she 
answered him never a word, but looked at him angrily; and her 
state was wretched. Then the Sukim was wroth with her, since she 
replied not, and he fancied that something was wrong with her. So 
he drew his sword and said to her: *'What hath come to thee? Tell 
me what hath happened to thee, or 1 will take thy hfc this very 
hour, is this the honour and reverence thou shewcsi me, that I 
speak and thou repliesf not a word?" And when the Lady Bedr-el- 
Budur saw how angi y her father the Sultan was, and chat his sward 
was drawn in his hand, she was released from her stupor of fear, 
and turned her head and said to him: '^O my honoured father, be 
not wroLh with me, nor be hasty in thy passion, fur I am excusable^ 

'ala-ed-din and the wont>erful l.\mp 381 

as thou siiali see. Listen to what hath befallen niF, and I nm per- 
suaded that when ihou hast heard any account ot what happened 
to me these two nights, thou wilt excuse me, and thy Felicity will 
become pitiful toward me, even as 1 claim thy fove." Then the 
Lady Bedr-el-Budur related to her father the Sultan all that had 
happened to her, adding: "O my father, ii thou dobt not believe me* 
ask the bridegroom, and he will Eell thy Felicity the whole matter; 
chough I knew not what they did with him when they took him 
away from me, nor did i imagine where they had put him." 

When the Sultan heard the speech of hia daughter, grief took 
hold of him and his eyes ran over with tears. And he sheathed the 
sword, and came and kissed her, saying: "O my daughter, why 
didsi thou not tell me last night, that 1 might have averted this 
torment and fear which have fallen upon thee this night? How- 
ever, it signifieth nothing. Arise and drive away from thee this 
fancy, and next night I will set a watch to guard thee, and no such 
unhappiness shall again make thee sad." And the Sultan returned 
to his palace, and straight^vay ordered the presence of the Wczir. 
And when he came and stood before him, he asked him: "O Wezir, 
what thinkest thou of this Jiffair? Perchance thy son hath informed 
thee of what occurred to him and my daughter?" But the Wezir 
made answer: ''O King o£ the Age, 1 have not seen my son, neither 
yesterday nor to-day." Then the Sultan told him all that hi? daughter 
the Princess Bedr-cl-Budur had related, adding: "It is my desire now 
that thou find out from thy son the truth of the matter; for it may be 
that my daughter, from terror, did not understand what befell her, 
though I believe her story to be all true." 

So the We?.ir arose and sent for his son and asked him concerning 
all that the Sultan had told him, whether it were true or not. And 
the youth replied: "O my father the We^.ir, God forbid that the 
Lady Ucdr-el-liudur should tell lies! Nay, all she said is true, and 
these two nights that have passed were the worst of nights, instead 
of being nights of pleasure and joy to us both. But what befell me 
was the greater evil, for, instead of sleeping with my bride in the 
bed, 1 was put to sleep in a closet, a cursed, dark, and loathsome 
place smelling horribly, and my ribs almost split with the cold.'^ 
And the young man told his father all that had happened to him. 


jnd added. ^'O htmoured p^irent, I cmreiit thee* speak 10 ihe Sultan 
ibai he reicjse me from this marriage. Truly it is a great honour 
10 me ro be the son-in-law of the Sultan^ and most of all since ihe 
love of the Lady Bedr-d-Budur haih taken possession of my being; 
but 1 have not sirenglh to endure another ni^ht like the two which 
are over." 

When the Wezir heard his son's words he was exceeding sad and 
sorry, for he hoped to exalt and miignify his son by making him 
son-in-law to the Sultan; therefore he considered and pondered over 
this cyse^ how to remedy it. Ir was a grcjt hardship to him to break 
oH the marriage* for he had been much eoogratulated on his success 
in so high a matter. So he said to his son : "Take patience, my child, 
till we see what may betide this nighi, when we set warders to 
wateh ovc?r you; and do not reject this great honour, which hath been 
granted to none save thee alone.'^ 

Then the Wezir left him and returned to ihe Sultan and told him 
thai what the Lady Bedr-el-Budur \\u.d said was true. Therefore 
the 5ukan said: ''If it be so, we must not delay." And he straight- 
way ordered the rejoicings to cease and the marriage 10 be annulled. 
And the people and folk of the city wondered at this strange aEfair, 
and the more so when chey saw the Wezir and his son coming 
forth from the palace in a state of grief and excess of rage; and men 
began asking what had happened and what the cause might be for 
annulhng the marriage and terminating the espousals. And none 
knew how it was save 'Ala-ed-Din, the lord of the invocation, who 
laughed in secret. So the marriage was dissolved, and still the Sultjn 
forgot and recaUed not the promise he bad made to the mother of 
'ATa-ed-Din, nor the Wezir either, and ihey knew not whence came 
that which had come. 

^Ala-ed-Din waited in patience until the three months \vere over, 
after which the Sukan had covenanted to wed him to his daughter^ 
the Jjdy Bedr-el'Budur. Then he instaady despatched his mother 
to the Sukan to demand of him the fulfilment of his promise. So 
the mother of 'Ala-ed-Din went to the palace; and when the Sultan 
came to the hall of audience and saw her standing before him, he 
remembered his promise — thsU after three months he would marry 
his daughter to her son. And turning to the Wezir, he said: "O 


We^ir, ihis is the womaii who gave us the jcweta, yntt lu whom we 
did pledge oar word for three months, bring her 10 me before any- 
ihing else," So ihe Wezir wcat and broughi ^Ala-ed-Dln's mother 
before the Suitors; and when she came up to him she saluted hini 
and prayed for his glory and lasting prosperity. Then the Sultan 
asked her i£ she had any suit. Whereto she answered: "O Kin^ of 
the Age, verily the three months are over, for which thou didst 
covenant wiLh me, after which to marry my son ^Ala-ed-Din to thy 
daughter the Lady Bedr-el-Budur." 

The King was perplexed at this demand, ilic more when he 
observed her poor condition and that she was of the meanest of the 
people. Yet the present she had given him was exceedingly splendid, 
beyond his power to purchase. Then turning to ihe Wezir^ he said: 
"What stratagem bust thou? Of a truth I pledged my word; yet it 
is evidcni to me that they are poor people, and not of high degree.^' 
And the Wezir, since envy was devouring him, and he was beyond 
everything grieved at what had befallen his son, said within himself: 
"How shall one like this wed the daughter of the Sultan and my son 
losSe this honour?" So he answered the Sultan; "O my lord, it is an 
easy thing to he rid of this stranger, for it is not fit that thy Felicity 
should give thy daughter to a man like this, — one knoweth not who 
he is." The Sultan replied: "In what way shall we ward off this man 
from us, when 1 hnve pledged my ^vord, and the word oi Kings 
is sacred?" The Wezir answered: "O my lord, my advice is that 
thou demand of him forty bowls of pure gold full of jewels, stich 
as this woman brought thee that day» and ftjrEv maids to carry (he 
liowls^ and forty black slaves." And the Sukan said: "By Allah, O 
Wezir^ thou hast said well, for lie cannot compass this thing, and 
thus we shall be freed from him." Then he said to the mother of 
'Ala-ed-Din: "Go, tell thy son that I hold to the promise which I 
made to him, provided he be able to furni^^h my daughter's dowry, 
for which I reqtiire of him forty bowls of pure gold, each full of 
jewels, such as thou didst bring me, and forty maids to carry ihem, 
and forty black slaves to attend and escort them. If thy son can do 
this 1 will marry him to my daughter." 

So [he mother of 'Ala-ed-Din returned to her house shaking her 
head and saying: "Whence shall my poor son procure these bowls 


of jewels? Suppose he return to tHe Treasury and gather these 
jewels and bov^'ls from the trees, yet with Al this» — and 1 do noE 
ihmk he can, hut say that he acquire them,— whence will he get the 
maids and sbves?'' Aad she ceased not to commune with herself 
until ihe arrived at her house, where *Ala-ed'Dm was expecting her. 
And when she came in, she said; ^'O jny son, did I not tell thee not 
to think thaL thou couldst attain Lo the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, and 
that such a thing was not poasiblc for people like ur?" And he said 
to her: "Explain to me wh;ir tidings there be." And she syid: *'0 
my son, verily the Sultan received me with alt honour, as is bis wont, 
and it is evident to me that his intentions towards us are benevolent. 
But thy enemy is the accursed Wezir; for after I had spoken to the 
Sultan, according to thy tongue (as ihou saidst, 'Verily the time is 
come for which thou didst covenjnt'), and after I had said to him, 
'Verily it behoves thy Felicity to order the wedding of thy daughter 
the Lady Bedr-el-Budur to my son 'Ala-ed-Din,' he turned to the 
We^ir and spake to him^ and he answered him secretly; and after- 
ward the Sultan gave me his answer," Then she told 'Ala-cd-Din 
what the Sultan retjuired, and said to him: "O my son, verily he 
requireih of thee an immediate reply, and methinks we have no 
answer for him." 

When 'Ala-ed'Din heard the words of bis mother, he laughed and 
said: "O my mother, ihou sayest that we have no answer for him, 
and cnnsiderest the affair exceeding hard; but compose thy mind^ 
and arise, bring me something to eat, and after we have eaten, if the 
Compassionate please, thou shalt see my answer. And the Sultan 
like thee, thinkeih he hath required an enormous thing, in order to 
keep me from the Lady Bedr-el-Budur; though really he hath asked 
a smaller thing than 1 expected. But do thou arise, and fetch me 
somewhat to eat, and trust me to provide the answer for thee" So 
his mother arose and went forth to fetch what was needed from 
the market ro prepare dinner. And 'Ala-ed-Din went into his cham- 
ber, and took the Lamp and rubbed it, and immediately there ap- 
peared to him the Slave, who said: "O my master, a^k what thou 
desirest." And 'Ala-ed-Din answered : "I have demanded the 
daughter of the Sultan in marriage, and the Sultan hath required of 
me forty bowls of pure gold, each weighing ten jx)unds, and they 


'ala-ed-din and the wonderful lamp 385 

must be full of ihe jewels which arc in nbc garden of the Treasury; 
and Eo carry them there must be forty maids, and to each maid a 
slave^ forty slaves in aH. So I desire of thee that thou bring me all 
these/* And the Jinni said: "I hear and obey, O my master," and 
vanished for the spate of an hour, when he brought forty maids, 
and with each maid a eunuch, and on each maid's head a bowl of 
fine gold full of precious stones. And he set them before 'Ala-ed-Din, 
saying: "Here is thy wish: tell me then if thou hast need of any 
affair or service beside this." But 'Ah-cd-Din answered: "1 need 
nothing else; but if I require anything 1 will summon thee and 
inform thee thereof," So the Slave vanished. And presently Ah-ed- 
Din's mother appeared and entered the house, and perceived the 
slaves and maids. And she marvelled, saying: ''All this is from the 
Lamp. God preserve it for my son!" And as she was about to raise 
her veil, 'Ala-ed-Din said to her: "O my mother, this is the momenr 
Eor thee, before the Sultan goes in to his seraglio, to his family. Take 
thou to him that which he demanded, and go to him forthwith, that 
he may know that 1 am able to do what he required, and more also. 
Verily he is deceived by the Wezir, and they both think to fnil me." 
Thereupon Ab-cd-Din arose and opened the door of the house, and 
the maids and the slaves came forth side by side, each maid with a 
eunuch beside her, till they filled the street. And *Alj-ed-Din*s 
mother went before them. And the people flocked to the street when 
ihey saw this mighty, wonderful sight, and stood diverging them- 
selves and marvelling and observing the forms of the damsels and 
their beauty and loveliness; for they all wore dresses embroidered 
with gold and trimmed with jewels, none worth less than a thousand 
dinars. And the folks gazed upon the bowls, and saw that the lustre 
transcentled the light of the sun. Over each was a piece of brocade 
embroidered with gold and studded with precious stones. And the 
people of the quarter stood wondering at this strange spectacle. But 
'Ala-ed-Din's mother walked on, and the damsels and slaves marched 
behind her, in all order and precision, and the people stopped to 
examine the beauty of the damsels, and glorified God the greac 
Creator; and so they arrived and entered with 'Ala-ed-Din's mother^ 
the palace of the Sultan. And when the aghas and chamberlains and 
officers of the army saw them, wonder gat hold of them and they 


were amazed at this sight, ihe like of which ihey had never wit- 
nessed in ail their t>orn days, above all, such dnunsels^ every one oi 
wiiom would turn flic head of an :inchoi'ite. And although the 
chamberlarn and ofHcers ot the Sultan's troops were all sons of 
grandees and nobles, yet they were astonished beyond measure ac ihe 
cosily dresses which the damsels wore, and the bowls upon their 
heads» which ihey could not gaze full upon by reason of their ex- 
cessive flashing and djzzle. 

Then the guard went in and informed the Sultan, and he -.\i once 
ordered that they should be brought before him in the Hall of 
Audience. So *Ala-ed-Din's mother came in with them; and when 
they appeared before the Sultan, they all saluted him with due 
reverence and worships and they invoked blessings ori his glory and 
good-fortune. Then ihey look the bowls from their heads and set 
[hem before him, and removed their coverings, and then stood re- 
spectfully. The Sultan marvelled with great admiration^ and was 
bewildered at the splendour of the jewels antl their loveliness, which 
transcended praise; and his wits were turned when he looked at 
the golden bowls full of precious stones, which captivated the sight; 
and he was confounded at this marvel till he became as the dumb, 
and could not say a word from excess of wonder. And his mind was 
the more perplexed how all this could have come aboui in the space 
of an hour. Then he gave commandment that the damsels with the 
bowls should enter the palace of the Lady Bedr-el-Uudur; so ihey 
took up their loads and went in. 

After that, the mother of "Ala-cd-Din came and said to the Sultan: 
"O my lord, this is not: a great thing wherewith to do honour to the 
Lady Bedr-el-Budur, for she merits the double of this [dower]." 
Then the Sultan turned to the Weztr and said: *'What sayest thou, 
O We^ir? He who can procure such riches as these in so short a 
time, is he not worthy to be the Sultan's son-in-law and the daughter 
of the Snllan his brider"' But the Wezir, although he marvelled at 
the vastness of these riches, more even than the Stdtan, yet, being 
devoured by envy, which grew stronger and stronger when he saw 
how content the Sultan was with the dower and riches, and though 
he could not disguise the truth, answered: "It is iiot worthy of her." 
And he was devising a plan for the Sultanj that he might not give 

'ala'Ed-din and the wonderful lamp 387 

his daughter che Lddy Bedr-el-Budar to 'Ala-ed-Diiij and accord- 
ingly he went on: "O my lord^ all the treasures of the universe are 
not equal to the little finger of thy daughter. Thy Highness 
hath overvaiued these presents as against her." When the Sultan 
heard these words of the Weair, he perceived that they arose 
from excess o£ envy. So turning to 'Ala-cd-Din's mother, he said: 
"O wom^n, go to thy son, and tell him that 1 have accepted the 
dowry and 1 stand by my promise. My daiighter is his bride and he 
my son-in-lav/; and bid him come hither, in order that I may know 
him. He shall have naught but honour and esteem from me. And 
this night shall begin the wedding; only, as I said, let him come 10 
mo without delay.'* 

Then 'Aia-ed-Din's mother returned home with the speed of the 
wind, and abated not the quickness of her pace, in order to con- 
gratulate her son. She flew with joy at thinking that her child was 
going to become the son-in-law of the Sultan. After she had gone, 
the Sultan dismissed the audience and entered the apartments of the 
Lady Bedr-el-Oudur, and bade them bring the damsels and the bowls 
before her that she might look at them. And when they brought 
them and the Princess examined the jewels, sht was ama:;ed and 
said: ^'Methinks there is not found in the ireasuries of the universe 
a single gem like these!" Then she gazed upon the diimsels and 
marvelled at their beauty and grace. And she knew that all this was 
from her new bridegroom, who had sent it in her service. So she 
rejoiced, diough she had been sorrowful and sad on account of her 
bridegroom the son of the Wezir. Yet she rejoiced with great jcy 
when she looked upon the jewels und the beauty of the damsels; and 
she made merry, and her father was gready delighted at her cheer- 
fulness, because he saw that her sadness and grief had departed from 
her. Then he asked her, saying; "O my daughter. Lady Bedr-el- 
Budur, does this astonish theeP Mcthinks this bridegroom of ihine 
is goodher than the Wezir's son; and presently, please God, O my 
daughter, thou shalt enjoy supreme delight with him." Thus was it 
with the Sultan. 

As for *Ala-ed-Din> when his mother returned and entered the 
house, laughing in the excess of her joy, and he saw her so, he scented 
good news, and said: "To God be praise everlasting! My desire is now 


accomplished." And his mother said: "Good news for thep» O my 
childl Cheer thy heart, and refresh thine eye for the {ulfitmcnt of 
ihy wish. The Sultan h^th accepted thy present, the riches and 
portion and dowry of the Lady Bedr-el-Budur; and she is thy bride, 
and this night, O my son, is the wedding and thy union with tlis 
Princess. To assure me of his promise the SulMn hath proclaimed 
thee before the world as his son-in-law, and saith that to-night is die 
consummation. Moreover, he said to me: 'Let thy son come to me, 
that I may become acquainted with liim and welconie him with all 
honour and regard/ And here am I, my son; my ta^k is over; 
happen what may, it is now thy own aflair," 

Then *Ala-ed-Din arose and kissed his mother's hand and thanked 
her, and magnified her goodness to him, and went :ind entered his 
chamber and took the Lamp and ."ubbed it, and behold, the Shvs 
appeared. Saying, "At tliy service! Ask what thou desiresf," So 
'Ala-cd-Din answered: "1 desire thee to take mc to a bath the equal 
o£ which existeih not in the unL\'erse; and bring me there a dress so 
royal and exceeding cosdy that Kings possess not its match." AEid 
the Marid replied, "1 hear and obey." And he lifted him and took 
him into a bath such as Kings and Emperors never saiv, aTl of 
marble and carnelian, with wonderful pictures which captivated the 
eye; and not a soul was there. In it was a hall studded over with 
splendid jewels, which when 'Ala-ed-Din entered, there came to him 
one of the Jann in human shape, who washed and kneaded him to 
the top of his bent. After which Ala-ed-Din went from the bath into 
the spacious hall, and found his old cloihes gone and in their place 
a suit of royal robes. Then there was brought to him sherbet and 
collee flavoured with ambergris. And he drank and arose, and a 
number of slaves appeared before him, and clad him in resplendent 
clothes, and he was dressed and perfumed and scented. Though 
Ala-cd-Din was, in fact, a poor tailor^s son, none would have sup- 
posed it, but rather would say: "This is the greatest of the sons of 
the Kings. Extolled be he who changeth others but himself changeth 
not!" Then the Jinni came and lifted him and returned him to his 
house, and said: "O my master, hast thou further need?" And ^Ala^- 
ed-Din repbcd; "Yes, I want thee to bring me forty-eight memluks, 
twenty-four to go before me and twenty-four to follow me, with their 

'ala-ed'Din and the wonderful lamp 389 

ch:irgers and habiliments and armsi and everything on them and 
iheir horses must be o£ the very costliest, such as is not in the 
treasuries of Kings, Then bring me a stallion fit for the Crcsars^ and 
let his housings be of gold studded over with magnificenE jewels; 
and bring me forny-eight thousand dinars, to each memluk a 
thousand. For I wish to go to the Sultanas presence. So delay not, 
since without all these things of which I have told thee I cannot 
visit him. Bring me also twelve damsels; they must be of peerless 
beauty, and clad in the most sumptuous raiment, that they may 
accompany my mother to the palace of the Sultan, And let each 
damsel be attired like the King's ladies/' And the Slave answered, 
"1 hear and obey." And vanishing awhile, he brought him in the 
twinkling of an eye, all that he had commanded; and he led a steed 
the fellow of which did not exist among the horses of the Arabs, 
and his housings were of gorgeous cloth of gold. 

'Ala-ed-Din sent for his mother at once, and delivered lo her the 
twelve maidens, and gave her robes that she might be rohed, when 
[he damsels would escort her to the palace of the Sultan, And he sent 
one of the memluks which the Jinni had brought him to the Sukan, 
to ascertain whether he had come forth from his harem or not. So 
the memluk went quicker than lightning, and returned to him 
speedily, saying: "O my master, the Sultan expecteth thee." Then 
'Ala-ed-Din arose and mounted and the memluks rode before him 
and behind him. And they were snch as to make all men cry: 
"Extolled he the Lord who created them in such perfection of beauty 
and grace!'* And they scattered gold among the people before their 
master 'Ala-ed-Din, who excelled them \i\ beauty and comelinesSj — 
and make no mention of the sons of Kings! Extolled be the Bounti- 
ful, the Eternal! And all this came by virtue of the Wonderful 
Lamp, which whoso possessed, it brought him beauty and loveliness 
and wealth and wisdom. And the people were astonished at the 
generosity of 'Ala-ed-Din and his excessive bounty, and were dis- 
traught as they ga^.ed npon his beauty and comeliness and grace and 
courtliness. And they extolled the Compassionate for this his noble 
creation; and all blessed him, though they knew he was the son of 
Such-an-one the tailor; and none was envious of him, but all pro- 
nounced him worthy of his luck. 


Thus was the crowd dazzled by ^Ala-ed-Din and his bouniy and 
generosity, as he was going to the pafacc, scattering gold. And they 
blciscd him, great and small, lili he reached the palace, with the 
memluks before and behind him distributing largesse to the people. 
Now the Sultan had assembled the grandees o£ the state, and in- 
formed them that he had given his word for the marriage ot his 
daughter to 'Ala-ed-Din. And he bade them await his coming, and 
then go forth, one and all, and receive him. And he sent for ihc 
emiis and the wezirs and chamberlains and gentlemen of [he guard 
and officers of the army, and they were all in waiting for 'Ala-ed-Din 
at the gale of the palace. Now when 'Ala-ed-Din arrived he would 
have dismounted at the gate, but one of the emirs whom the Sultan 
had appointed for the office approached and said: "O my master, the 
order is that thou enter and remain moanied on thy charger till thou 
comesi to the gate of the Hall of Audience." And they all marched 
before him and escorted him to ihe gale of the Divan, when some 
of them approached and held his stirrup, and others supported 
him on each side or took him by the hand, and the emirs and officers 
of state went before him and led him into the Hall of Audience 
close ED the royal throne. Then the Sultan descended at once from 
his throne, and clasped him to his breast, and forbidding him to 
kiss the ground, kissed him and scaled him beside him on his right. 
And "Ala-ed'Din did as was proper towards Kings, in giving saluta- 
tions and benedictions, saying: "O our lord the Sultan, verily the 
generosity of thy Felicity caused thee to vouchsafe me the Lady 
Bedr-eUBudur thy daughter, although 1 am not worthy of so great 
an honour, since T am of ihe meanest of thy slaves. And I beg God 
to prolong thy bfe perpetually. Bui in truth, O King, my tongue is 
powerless to thank thee for the greatness of the surpassing favours 
with which thou hast overwhelmed me. And I beg of thy Felicity 
that thou give me a piece of land where 1 may build a palace suitable 
for the Lady Bedr-el-Budur." And the Sultan was bewildered as he 
gazed upon 'Ala-ed-Din in his princely robes, and looked upon him 
and considered his beauty and comeliness, and saw the memluks 
arrayed for his service and their handsome apparel. And his wonder 
increased when "Ala-ed-Din's mother approached in her costly attire, 
sumptuous as though she had been a Queen; and when he per- 


ceived t^c twelve damsels attending her standing before her in aU 
respect and worship. FurEher, the Sultan considered the eloquence of 
'Ala-ed-Din^ jnd the refinement of his language, and was astounded 
at itj he and all those who were with him at the levee. And fire ivas 
kindled in the he^rt of the Wezir for envy of 'Ala-ed-Din, till he 
almosr died. Then the Sultan, attcr hearing 'Ala-ed-Din's bene- 
dictions, and perceiving the loftiness of his bearing and his deference 
and eloquence, pressed him to his bosom and kissed him, saying: 
"Alas for mc, my Mtn, that I have not enjoyed thy company till 
ibis day!" 

When the Stiltan saw 'Ala-ed-Din in this respect he rejoiced with 
great joy, and immediately ordered the music and band to play. And 
he arose and took Ala-ed-Din and led him into the palace, where 
supper was made ready and the servants had laid the tabks. So the 
Sultan sat down and seated *A!a-ed-Drn on his right; and the wezirs 
also sat, and the grandees of the state and lords of the realm, all of 
them in their degree; and the band played, and they made very 
merry in the palace. And the Sultan waxed friendly with *Ala-ed- 
Din and conversed with him, and he answered with all courtliness 
and eloquence, as though he had been brought up in the palaces of 
Kings and had been their familiar. And the longer the conversation 
lasted between them the greater became the Sultin's joy and satis- 
faction, as he listened to his graceful replies and the charm of his 

After they had eaten and drunk and removed the tables, the Sultan 
commanded to bring the Kadis and witnesses, and they came and 
tied the knot and wrote the contract of marriage between 'Ala-ed- 
Din and the Lady 13edr-el-l5udur. After this *Ala-ed-Din arose and 
would have gone out, but the Sultan stopped him, saying: *'Whither, 
O my son? The festivities are beginning and the wedding is ready, 
and the knot is tied and the contract written.'* But he answered: 
"O my lord the King, it is my intention to build a palace for the 
Lady BedrH:^l-Budur befitting her rank and station; and it is im- 
possible that I should enter m to her before this is done. Butj please 
God, the building shall be finished in the briefest space by the energy 
of thy servant and the countenance o£ thy Felicity, And for me, 
much as 1 long for union now with the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, yet it 


behoveth me lo serve her and to do so first.'* So the Sultan said to 
him: ''O my son, choose ihe land which thou deemcst fit for thy 
project; take ii altogether into thy hands; but the best place would 
be here in from of my palace on the open plain; then if thou so 
f,knciest build ihe palace theie." ''This/' said *Ab-ed-Din» "is the 
height of my desire, to be near thy Felicity." 

Therefore 'Ala-ed-Din took leave of the Sultan and went forth 
riding with his mcmluks before and behind him. And all the world 
blcised him and said, "By Allah, he is worthy!" till he reached his 
house. There he alighted from his horse aad entered Ills chamber 
and rubbed the Liimp, and, behold, the Slave nppcaied before him 
and said: "Ask what thou wilt, O my master." So 'Ala-ed^Din said: 
"I require thee to do me an important service, which is to build me 
with all speed a palace in front of the Sultan's Serai; and let it be 
marvellous in its construction, such as Kings have not seen, and 
perfect in its fittings of stately furniture fit for princes; and so forth." 
And the Slave replied, "1 hear and obey,*' and vanished. But before 
the break of dawn he came to 'Ala-ed-Din and said: "O my master, 
the palace is finrshed to the utmost of thy desire, and if thou wish to 
see it, arise at once and look al it," So *Ala-ed-Din arose, and the Slave 
bore him in the twinkling of an eye to the palace. And when he 
saw it, he was astounded at its construction, for all its stones were 
of jasper and alabaster and porphyry and mosaics. Then the Slave 
took him into a treasury full of all sorts of gold and silver and 
precious stones, not to be numbered or estimated or appraised or 
valued. And again, he took him into another roouij where he saw 
all the table equipments, plates and dishes, ewers and basins, of gold 
and silver, and likewise flagons and goblets; and he led him to the 
kitchen, where he saw the scullions with all dieir requisites and 
cooking utensils, all of gold and silveri and next to a chamber full 
of chests packed with royal raiment, such as captivated the reason, 
brocades from India and China, and embroideries. Again he led him 
to numerous rooms all full of what defieth description; and then CO 
the stables, where he found horses the like of which were not found 
among the Kings in all the world; and from (here he took him to 
the saddle-room, which was full of costly harness and saddles, 
studded with pearls and fine stones and the like. And all this was 


done in a single nigh:, 'Ah-ed-Din was astounded and distraught 
at the vasEness o£ ihpse riches, which the mightiest sovereign on 
ejrih could not compass. And the palace was full of servants and 
tnajdcns whose loveliness would tempt a saint. But the most wonder- 
ful o£ all [he things to be seen in the palace was a pavilion or kiosk 
with tweniy-foLtr bays, all of emeralds and diamonds and other 
jewels; and one bay was not finished by 'Ala-ed-Din's wish, in 
order that the Sukan might be unequal to completing it. 

When *Ala-ed-Din had surveyed the palace in every part, he re- 
joiced and was greatly delighted. Then turning to the Slave^ he 
said : "I desire one thing of thee, which is still lacking, and of which 
I forgot to tell thee/' And the Slave said: "Ask on^ O my master, 
whatsoever thou wishest." So he said: "1 desire of thee a carpet of 
splendid brocade, and let it be all worked with gold, and such that 
when spread it shall reach from my palace to that of the Sultan, 
so that (he Lady Bedr-el-Budur when she cometb hicher may walk 
upon it and not tread upon the bare ground " So the Slave went 
away for a while, and on his return said: "O my messier, what thou 
didst ask of me is done," And be look and shewed him a carpet 
which captivated the reason, and it stretched from palace to palace. 
Then the Slave carried 'Ala^ed-Dm back to his bouse. 

At this moment it was already dawn, and the Sultan arose from 
sleep and opened the window of his chamber and looked out, and 
in front of his palace he perceived a building; so he began to rub 
his eyes, and opened them wide to observe it. And he saw a great 
palace, bewildering the wits; and he gazed upon the carpet laid 
down from his own palace to that other. And in like manner the 
doorkeepers and all the royal household were perplexed in their 
minds at this thing- Just then the Wezir came in, ^wd as he came 
he perceived the new palace and the carpet, and he too marvelled- 
And when the Sultan entered, the two began Talking of this strange 
spectacle, and ^vondcring at the sight of this thing, which dazzled 
the sight and delighred the heart, saying; "Of a truth, the like of this 
palace could not, we imagine, be built by Kings." And the Sultan 
turned to the Wezir and said: "Dost thou see now that 'Ala-ed-Din 
is worthy to mate my daughter the Lady fiedr-el-Uudur, after seeing 
and considering this royal edifice and these riches which the mind 


of man could not conceive?" But ihe Wczir, on account of his envy 
of *Ab-ed-Din, answered: *'0 King of the Age, verily this building 
and thii edifict! aad these riches could noL e\lsi sjve by means of 
miigic, for no m^n alive* be he the chicfesi in authority or the 
greatest in wealth, could complete this edifice in a single night." 
Then answered the Sultan: "It is a wontfcr to me how thou art 
always imputing evil lo 'Ala-ed-Din; mcsecms, however* that it 
procecdeth from thy envy of him; for ihou wast present thyself 
when I giive him this land, when he asked me for a site to build 
a palace on for niy daughter, and 1 granted him this piece of land 
tor his palace before ihmc eyes. liut shall he who bringeih such a 
dowry of jewels for my daughter as Kings possess not even a few 
thereof, shall he be unequal to building a palace like this?" 

When the Wezir heard the Sultan's words, aEid perceived that he 
loved *Ala-ed'Din greatly, his jealousy increased; only, as he could 
not do anything to avert it, he watched and could not ansiver the 
Suftan a word, But as to *Ala-ed-Din, when he saw that it was 
morning, and the time had come for him to go to the palace, because 
his wedding fete was going on, and the emirs and we/.irs and 
grandees of sE;itc had collected about the Sultan in order to be 
present at [he wedding, he arose and rubbed the Lamp and the 
Slave appeared to him and said: "O my master, ask what thou 
desirest, for I am here at thy service," So 'Ala-ed-Din answered: "i 
intend to go now to the Sultan's palace, as this is my wedding-day, 
and 1 need ten thousand dinars which I wish thee to bring me." 
Then the Slave vanished for the twinkling of an eye and returned 
with the ten thousand dinars. Then 'Ala-ed-Din arose and mounted, 
and there rode with liim his memluks, before and behind. And 
he proceeded to the palace, scattering gold to the crowd as he went, 
so that ihey were filled with affection for him, and his dignity was 
enhanced thereby. And when he arrived at the palace, and the 
emirs and aghas and guards who were drawn up in waiting saw 
htm, they hastened immediately to the Sultan and apprised him. 
Then the Stikan arose and met him and embraced and kissed him^ 
and holding him by the hand led him into the palace and sat down 
and seated him at liis side on the right; while the whole town was 
decorated, and the musical instruments resounded in the palace, 


and the singers sang. Then the Sultan commanded tliar the banquet 
should be served, and the eunuchs and memhiks hastened to by the 
rabies* which were such as befit Kings- And 'AJa-ed-Din and the 
Sultiin and the grandees of the realm and the chie£ officers of siatc 
sat down and aEe and drank till ibey were satisfied. And there were 
great rejoicings in the pabce jnd the city; and all the nobles were 
delighted* and the people in all the kingdom rejoiced; and the rulers 
of provjiices and chiefs □£ departments from distant regions came to 
see the wedding of 'Ala-ed-Din and the festivities. And the Sultan 
wondered in his mind at *Ala-ed-Din's mother — how she used to 
come to him in shabby clothes when her son possessed such vast 
wealth. And the people who came to the Sultan's palace to witness 
the fetes of ^Aia-ed-Din* when they saw his new palace and the 
beauty of the budding* marvelled greatly how a splendid palace 
hke that could be finished in a single night. And they fell to bless- 
ing 'Ala-ed-Din, and saying: "God give him enjoyment! By Allahj 
verily he desorveth ii! God bless his daysl" 

When *Ala-ed-DJn had finished the banquet he arose and took 
leave of the Sultan, and mounting* he and his memluks proceeded 
to his pakice, to prepare for the reception of his bride the Lady 
Bedr-el-Budur. And all the people cheered him with one shout as 
he went: "God give thee enjoyment) God increase ihy glory! God 
prolong thy lifel" And a vast concourse accompanied him as far 
as his home, while be scattered gold amongsi them. When he was 
come to his pabce, he dismounted and entered if and seated himself 
on the divan* and die memluks stood attentive before him; and 
presently they brought him sherbets. After which he gave command 
to his memluks and maidens, eunuchs and all his household, to 
prepare for the reception of die Lady Bedr-cI-Budur his bride. Now 
when it was afternoon and the air had become cool and the heat 
of the sun had abated* the Sultan ordered the troops and emirs of 
the state and wezirs to descend into the Meydan or riding-ground; 
so they ail went down* and the Sultan wrth them. And 'Ala-ed- 
Din arose, and mounted with his memluks, and went down also to 
the Meydan. And he displayed his horsemanship, playing with the 
Jerid' in the Meydan, so that none could stand against him. He wjs 

^JiV4;lin at palm. 


riding y. stallion ihc like of which did not exist iimong the horses 
o£ the purest Anibs. And his bride the Lady Hcdr-cUBudur watched 
him {rom a window of her apartments, and seeing his grace and 
horsemanship, she fell violently in love with him, and almost flew 
with joy- When they had jonsted round (he Meydan and had each 
shewn wh^it horsemanship he possessedj and 'Ala-ed-Din tlie best of 
ihem all, the Sultan proceeded to his palace, and 'Ala-ed-Din re- 
turned to his own. 

And when il was pvening, ihc nobles and wczirs came and took 
'Ala-ed-Din and conducted him in procession to the bath called 
Imperial, which he entered, and was bathed and perfumed, and 
coming forth put on a dress more gorgeous than before. Tlicn he 
mounted, and the guards and emirs rode before him, and escorted 
him in stately progress, while four of the wezirs surrounded him 
with drawn swords. And all the people, natives and strangers alike, 
and ah the troops, marched before him in procession, bearing candies 
and drums and pipes and instruments of joy and revel, till they 
arrived at his palace, where he dismounted, and entering, seated 
himself. And [he wezirs and emirs who were with him sat also; 
and the memluks brought sherbets and sweet drinks, and served 
all the crowd who had come with him in procession — a multitude 
past numbernig. And 'Ala-ed-Difi ordered his memluks to go 
forth from the palace gate and scatter gold among [he crowd. When 
the SuTtan returned from the Meydan and entered his palace, he 
forthwith ordered them to form a procession for his daughter the 
Lady Bedr-el-Budur, to escort her to her bridegroom's palace. There- 
upon the guards and officers of state xvho had taken part in 'Ala-ed- 
Din's progress, mounted, and the handmaids and eunuchs brought 
forth tapers and escorted the Lady Bedr-el-Budur in a stately pro- 
cession till they brought her to her bridegroom's palace. 'Ala-ed- 
Din's mother walked beside her; and in front were the wives of the 
wezirs and the emirs and grandees and chief officers; and along with 
her were the eight-and -forty damsels which *Ala-ed-Din had given 
her» each carrying in her hand a tall taper of camphor and ambergris 
set in a candlestick of gold inlaid with jewels. And ihey all went 
forth with her from the seraglio, men and women, and marched 
before her till they came to her groom's palace, when they took her 


10 her apartments and changed her dress Jiid displayed her. And 
when the displaying ivas over they led Ijer to the chamber of her 
bridegroom Aia-ed-Din, arid he went in to her. 

Now his mother was :vjth the bride, and when ho cume to unveil 
her» his mother began to observe the beauty o£ the bride and her 
loveliness. And she looked ar the chamber she was in^ all sparkling 
with gold and jewels; and there were lustres of gold all set with 
emeralds and rubies. And she said within herseif: "1 used to think 
the Sukan's palace magnificent, but this chamber is unique. Me- 
thinks not one of tiic greatest of limperors and Kings ever attained 
to its like, and 1 do not believe that all the world c^^uld make a 
chamber like ihis." And ihe Lady Eedr-el-Budur also began to look 
and wonder at this palace and ics splendour. Then the tables were 
laid, and they all ate and drank and made merry; after ;vhich eighty 
handmaidens came before them^ each with an instrument of joy 
and revel in het hand; and they stretched iheir fingers and touched 
the strings and evolved harmonious modulations till they rent rhe 
hearts o£ the hearers. And the Lady Bcdr-el-Hudur wondered the 
more, and said within herself: "Never in my life have i heard songs 
like these," till she left of! eating and gave herself up to hstening. 
And 'Ala-ed-Din poured ouL wine for her and gave it her wiih his 
own hand. And conteEit and great rcioicing fell upon them, and it 
was a glorious night, such as Alexander, Lord of the two Horns, 
never spent in his time. And when they had done eating and driLik- 
ing and the tables were taken away, 'Ala-ed-Din arose and went in 
to his bride. 

And when it was morning 'Ala-ed-Din arose, ajid the treasurer 
brought him a splendid costly suit of the richest of the robes of 
Kings. And he dresicd, :nid they brought him co/Tee with ambergris, 
and he drank; and then ordered the horses to be saddled, and 
mounted, and bis memluks rode before and behind him. And he 
proceeded to the palace of \he Sukan, and as soon as lie had arriveil 
and entered, the servants went and informed the Sultan of his 
arrival; who, when he heard of it, arose straightway to meet him, 
and embraced and kissed him as though he were his son, and seated 
him on his right. And the wezirs and emirs and officers of state and 
nobles of the realm blessed him, and the Sultan blessed and con- 


grarukied him. And he ordered breakfast i:o be brought nnd they all 
breakfasted. And when they had ejteii and drunk their fill, and the 
servants had removod the tables from before them, *A]a-ed-Din 
turned lo the Sultan and said: "O my lord, will ihy Felicity deign 
10 honour me [his day to dinner with the Lady Bedr-el-Bndur» thy 
well-beloved daughter^ atcompynied by all the wezits and nobles of 
thy realn:i?" And die Sultan, being charmed with him, answered: 
■*Thou art too hospitable, O my soii." And forthwith he ordered the 
wezirs and oflicers of stare and grandees of the realm, and arose and 
took horses, and they likewise^ and 'Ala-ed-Din rode with them 
till [hey came to the new paiace. And when the Sultan h^d 
entered and considered the building and its construction and 
masonry^ which was of jasper and carnelian, his reason was con- 
foiinded and distraught at this splendour and wealth and magnifi- 
cence. And turning to the Wezir, he asked: "What sayest thou, O 
Wezir? Hast thou seen in all thy time a thing like this, or is there 
to be found among the Kings of the world such wealth and gold 
and jewels as we sec here in this palace?" And the Wezir replied: 
"O my lord the King, this is a thing [ihat is not within the reach of 
any King o£ the sons of Adam, and all the people of the world 
could not have buik a palace hke this, nor could masons construct 
such a work, except^ as I said 10 thy Felicity, by the power of magic." 
But the Sultan knew that the Wezir could never speak without envy 
of Ala-ed-Din, and wished to prove to the Sultan that all this was 
not done by strength o£ mao> but wholly by force of magic. So the 
Sultan answered him: "Enough, O Wezir; ihou hast no more to 
say; and I know [he reason of thy speaking thus/' 

Then 'Ala-ed-Din walked before the Sultan till they came to the 
upper kiosk, where he looked at the ceiling and windows and lattices 
all set wi[h emeralds and rubies and other precious stones, and he 
was astonished and astounded and his wits were confounded, and 
he was distraught in his mind. Then the Sultan began to wander 
about the kiosk and look at things which captivated the reason. 
And he perceived the bay which 'Ala-ed-Din had purposely lett un- 
finished. And when the Sultan had examined it and saw that it 
was not complete, he cried: "Woe to thee, O bay, that thou art not 
perfect!" And turning to the Wezir, he said: ''Knewest thou the 


cause of ihe unfinished slate of ihis bay and its laitices?'' And he 
replied: *'0 my lord, I think this window is left unliiiished on 
account of thy Felicicy hastening the wedding of 'Ab-ed-Din, so thar 
he had not time to finish it." At that moment 'Aia-ed-Dm had gone 
to his bride, the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, to apprise her of the visit of 
her father the Sukan. But when he returned, the latter asked him: 
"O my son 'Alo-ed-Din, what is the reason that this bay of the kiosk 
is not completed" And 'Ab-ed-Din rephed: "O King of the Age, 
in consequence of the hurry of the wedding I could not get workmen 
to finish it,^* Then sard the Sukan: "Ir is a fancy of mine lo complete 
it myself/' "Ciod continue thy glory. O King," answered 'Ala-ed- 
Din, "So shall thy memory be perpetuated in thy daughter's palace-" 
Then the Sukan ordered ihem to bring the jewellers and gold- 
smiths, and commanded that they should be furnished from the treas- 
ury with all they wanted of gold and jewels and minerals; and when 
they were assembled he bade them complete what was lacking in 
the lattice of the kiosk. 

Meanwhile the Lady Bedr-el-Budur came to meet her father the 
Sukan, and as she drew near he noticed her face was smiling; so he 
embraced and kissed her, and led her into the kiosk, where all 
entered together. It was the time of the noon meal, and one table 
was prepared for the Sultan and the Lady Bedr-el-Budur and *Ala- 
ed-Din, and a second for the Wezirs and lords of state and grandees 
of the realm and otHcers of the army and chamberlains and gentle- 
men of the guard. 

Then the Sultan seated himself between his daughter and his son- 
in-law. And when he stretched forth his hand to the food and 
tasted it, he was filled with surprise at the viands and the admirable 
and savoury cookery. And before him stood eighty damsels, each 
iii whom might say to the full moon: "Get up, that I may seat 
myself in thy stead!'' And they all held instruments of joy and revel 
in their hands, and tuned them, and stretched out their fingers 
and touched the strings, and drew forth melodious strains, which 
would expand the heart of the sorrowful. And the Sultan was de- 
lighted. The moment was agreeable, and he was happy, and said: 
"Verily this thing cranscendeth the power of Emperors and Kings," 
So they fell to eating and drinking, and the cup went round among 


ihcm till ihey were saiislied; iheo fruits jnd sweetmeats and the 
like were brought and served in another apartment^ whither iliey 
repiiired atid louk iheir fill ot these delights. Then the Sultan arose 
to look at the work o£ the jewellers and goldsmiths, and see i£ it 
rcscmbfed that of the palace. So he ascended to them and inspected 
their work and how they had progressed; btit he perceived a strong 
contrast, and that they were UEiable to produce such work as the 
palace of ^Ala-ed-Din. "I'hcy tok! him that they had brought all the 
jewels they could find in the [ordinary] treasury, but it was not 
enough. Upon this lie ordered the Great Treasury to be opened^ 
and gave them what they wanted; and [said thaij if that were still 
InsulIicieEit, they might take the present which 'Ala-ed-Dhi had given 
him. So the jewellers took all the precious SEones ^vhieh the Sultan 
allowed, and they worked with them and ag;iin Wnd that they 
iiad not enough, and were unaE>Ie to complete half what remained 
unfinished of the lattices of the kiosk. Thereupon the Sulun com- 
manded them to seize all the jewels which they niighr find among 
the wezirs and grandees of the state. So the jewellers took them all 
and contintted their task, and even so there wa? not enough. 

When morning came, 'Ala-ed-Din ascendctl to see how the jewel- 
lers had worked, and perceived that they liad not completed half the 
deficient bay. So he immediately ordered them to take down all 
that ihey had done and return the jewels to their owners. So they 
undid it all, and sent to the Sultan what was his, and to the wezirs 
what was theirs. Then the jewellers went to the Sultan and told 
him that *Ala-ed-Din had ordered them thus, AntI he asked them: 
"What did he say? What was his reason, and why was he not 
pleased that the bay should be finLshcd, and why did he demolish 
what ye had done?" They answered: "O our lord, we have no 
knowledge at ah, hut he hade us demolish all we had done." There- 
upon the Sultan called for his horses and mounted and went to 
'Ala-ed-Din's palace. 

Now *Ala-ed-Din, after dismissing the goldsmiths and jeweflers 
retired into his closet, and rubbed the Lamp, when the Slave instantly 
appeared, saying: "Ask whatsoever thou desirestj for thy Slave is in 
thy hands" And *A!a-cd-Din said: *1 wish thee to finish the bay 
that was left incomplete." "On the head and also the eye," answered 


ihe Slave, and vanished, bui shortly returned, saying; "O my lord, 
ihiti which thou didst command mc to do is finished." So "Ab-ed- 
Din mounied tn the kiosk and saw all the bays were perfect. And 
whiisE he was inspecting them, lo, a eunuch came .ind said: "O my 
master, the Sukan cometh to thee, and eniereth the palace gate." 
So "AJa-ed-Din went down at once to meet jiim. When the Sukan 
saw him he cried: "O my son, wherefore hast thou doiie thus, and 
wouldest not let the jewellers finish the lattice of the kiosk, so that 
an unfinished spot remaincih in thy palace?" And "Ala-ed-Din re- 
plied: *'0 King of the Age* 1 left it imperfect only for a purpose 1 for 
I was not unequal to finishing it, nor could 1 wish thy Felicity to 
honour me at a palace ivherein anything was imperfect. But that 
thou mayest know ihaL I am not incapable of perfecting it, i beg 
of thy Felicity to inspect the bays of the kiosk, and see if there be 
aught unfinished there," So the King ascended to the jpartments 
and entered the kiosk and began to look over it to the right and the 
left, but he found nothing whatever incomplete, but found all the 
bays perfect. And seeing this he was astonished, and embraced *Aia- 
cd-Din and fell to kissing him, saying: "O my son, what strange 
doing is this! In a single night thou canst accomplish a work which 
the jewellers would fail to do in months! By Allah, I do not think 
thou hast A fellow or peer in the world." And 'Ala-ed-Din replied: 
■*God prolong thy life and continue thy length of days forcvcrl 
Thy servant is not worthy of such praise." But the King said, "O 
my son, verily thou art worthy of all praise, since thou hast ac- 
complished a tiling which all the workmen in the universe could 
not do," Then the Sultan descended and went to the apartments of 
his daughter the Lady Bedr-el-Budur to rest with her; and he sjw 
that she was very happy at the state and magnificence that sttr- 
rounded her, and after resting awhile he returned to his palace. 

Every day 'Ala-ed-Din used to ride through the city with his 
memluks before and behind, scattering gold right and left among 
the people, and all the world, foreigners and neighbotirs. the far 
and the near, were alike drawn with love to him by reason of his 
excessive generosity and bounty. And he increased the provision for 
the poor and indigent, and himself gave them alms with his own 
liand; for which deeds he acquired great renown throujihout the 


realm; and many of the grandees of the state and the emirs ate ac 
his uble, and men swore^ only "by his precious life!" And he went 
tEcquemiy to the chase and the Meydan and horse exercises and 
javeliTi jousts in the presence of Ehe Su]t;m. And whenever the Lady 
Eedr-el-Budur saw him performing on the backs of horses^ her love 
for him waxed stronger, and she thought within herself that God 
had been very gracioui to her in causing to happen ihai which 
happened with the son o£ the Wezir^ so that she was reserved lo be 
the virgin bride of 'Ala-ed-Din, 

Thus 'Ab-ed'Din daily increased in fsir fame and renown, and 
the love of him grew sponger in the hearts of all the subjects, and 
he was magnified in the eyes of the people. At this lime^ moreover, 
certain of the Sukan's enemies rode down agiiinsr him* and the 
Sukan equipped the troops to resist them, and made *Ala-ed-Din 
ieader of the army. So "Ala-ed-Din went with the troops, till he 
drew near to the enemy, whose armies ^ere very strong. And he drew 
his sword, and rushed upon the enemy, and die battle and slaLighrer 
began, and the conflict was sturdy, But 'Ala-ed-Din broke them and 
dispersed them, killing the greitter part, and looting their goods and 
provisions and cattle beyond number. Then he returned triumphanr 
after a glorious victory, and made his entry into his city, who had 
adorned herself for him in her rejoicing over him. And the Sukan 
went forth to meet him and congratulated him and embraced and 
kissed him, and there was a magnificent £ete and great rejoicings. 
And the Sultan and ^Ala-ed-Din ejitered the palace, where there met 
him his bride, [he Lady Bedr-ehBudnr, who was rejoicing over him, 
and kissed him between the eyes. And they went into her palace, 
and presently itie Sultan and all sat down, and the damsels brought 
sherbets. So they drank; and the Sultan ordered throughout the 
kingdom that they should illuminate for the victory of 'Ala-ed-Din 
over the enemy. And the chiefs and the soldiers and the crowd 
turned [their prayers] only to God in Heaven and 'Ala-ed-Din ot\ 
earth, for they loved him exceedingly, because of the excess of his 
bounty and generosity and his fighting for his country, and his 
charge, and his rout of the foe. And thus was it with 'Ala-ed-Dm. 

But as to the Moorish sorcerer, when he had returned to his 
country^ he spent all this time in lamenting the laboitr and trouble 

'ala-ed-din and the wonderful lamp 403 

he had taken in his qiiesE ot the Lnmp, and ihe more because his 
labour was fruitless; and the morsel had fallen from his hand just 
as it was touching his hps. And he fell Eo thinking over all this, 
and lamented, and cursed "Ala-ed-Din in his exceeding rage* and at 
times he would mutter: "That this misbegotten boy is dead below 
ground I am satisfted* and 1 hope yet to get the Lamp* since it is 
still safe." 

One day of the days he drew a table in sand and put the fibres 
down and e>:amined them carefully and verified the in, that he might 
perceive and be cetdhed of ihe death of 'Ala-ed-Din and the preser- 
vation of the Lamp, beneath the ground; and he looked into the 
figures, both '^mothers" and "daughters/' intently, but he saw not 
the Lamp. At this* anger overcame him* and he drew the figure 
agiin* to be certain of "Ala-ed-Din's deaths but he saw him not in 
the Treasury. So his rage increased and the more so when he 
ascertained that the boy was alive on the surface of the earth. And 
svhen he knew that he had come forth from underground and was 
possessed of the Lamp for which he himself had endured privations 
and labour such as man can hardly bear, then he said within him- 
self: ^'1 have home many pains and sufTored torments which no one 
else would have endured for the sake of the Lamp, and this cursed 
boy has taken it without an effort; and if this accursed knoweth the 
virtues of the Lamp* no one in the world should be richer than he." 
And he added: *'There is nothing for it but that I compass his 
destruction." i>o he drew a second table, and inspecting the figures, 
discovered that 'Ala-ed-Dio had acquired immense wealth and had 
married the daughter of the Sultan. So he was consumed with the 
i^ame of anger begotten of envy. 

He arose that very hour, and equipped himself* and journeyed to 
the land of China, and when he arrived at the metropolis wherein 
dwelt 'Ala-ed-Din, he entered and alighted at one of the Khans. And 
he heard the people talking of nothing; but the splendour of 'Ala-ed- 
Din's palace. After he had rested from his journey, he dressed him- 
self and went down to perambulate the streets of the city. And he 
never met any people but they were admiring this palace and its 
splendour, and talking together of the beauty of 'Ala-ed-Din and his 
grace and dignity and generosity and the charm of his manners. 


And ihe Moor approached one o( ihosc who were depicting ^Ab-ed- 
Diu witli these eiieomiunis^ and said 10 him: "O gentle youth, who 
may this be whom ye praise and commend i'" And the other re- 
plied : "It ii evident EhaL thou, O mjji, an a str^mger und eomest from 
disEani p:iTis; hue be ihou from over so disiitnt a land» how hast thou 
not heard oi the Emir 'Ala-ed-Din wliose fume, methinks, haih filled 
the world and whose [Jjlace ojie of the Wonders of the World hiilh 
been he.Jrd of LiT iind near? A[itl how hifsl thou not heard ai^y- 
ihiii^ of (his or oi: the name at 'Ala-ed-Diu» our Lord increase hi.s 
glory and give him joy?" liut the Moor J^l&^ve^ed: "Vetily it is [he 
height of my desire to see die palace, and if thou wilt do me die 
favour^ direct me to it, since I am a stranger," Then the man said» 
"I hear and ohcy>" antl proceeded before him and guided him to the 
palace of 'Ala-ed-Din. And the Moor began to examine it. and knew 
that it was all the doing of the Lamp, and cried: "Ah! There is 
notliing for it but that I dig a pit for this cursed son of a tailor, who 
could not even earn a supper. And if the fates aid me 1 will un- 
doubtedly ie\i<} his moiiier back to her spinnings as she was before; 
and as for him, 1 wiU take his litc-" 

He returned to the Khan in this state o( grief and regret and sad- 
ness for envy of 'Ala-ed-Din- When he arri\'ed at the Khan he took 
his insirimients of divuiaiion and drew a table to discover wdiete 
the Lamp was; and he found it was in the palace, and not on 'Ala- 
ed-Din himself. Whereat he rejoiced mightily, and said: "The task 
remaineth easy, to destrt)y the life of this accursed; and I have a way 
to obtain the Lamp." Then he went to a coppersmith and said: 
"Make me a number of lamps, and take their price* and more; only 
I wish thee to hasten to finish them/' And the coppersmith an- 
swered, "I hear and obey." And he sec to work at them and com- 
l^eted ihem; and ivhen they were tlone the Moor paid liim the price 
he asked for them, and took them and departed and wetit to the 
Khan, where he put them in a basket. Then he went about the 
streets and bazars of the city, crying: "O who will exchange old 
lamps for new F" And when the people heard him crying thus, they 
laughed at him, saying: '^No donbt this man is mad, since he ^eth 
about to exchange old lamps for new." And all the \vorld followed 
him, and the street boys pursued him from place 10 place and mocked 


3t him; bu: he gainsaid them not nor Ciired for that, but (lid not 
ccaie perambulaiing tbo city till he came under *Ala-ed-Dln's p^ilace, 
when he begiin to cry in :i louder voice, while the boys shouted at 
him, "Madmani Madman]'' 

Now by the decrees of desilny the Lady Bedr-el-ISudur was in the 
kiosk, and hearing some ont; crying and the boys ihoucing at him» 
and not understanding what it ^vas ah abotii, she ordered one of her 
handmaids, saying: ''Go and find out who it is that crieth and what 
he is crying." So ihe damsel went Lo look, and perceived a man 
crying: "O who will exchange old lamps for new?'' and the boys 
around him making sport of him. And she returned and cold her 
mistress Bcdr-cl-Budnr, s;iying: "O my lady, this man is crying: 'O 
who will exchange old lamps for new?' and the urchins are follow- 
ing him and laughing at him." So the Lady Bedr-el-Budur laughed 
too ai this oddity- Now 'Abed-Din had left the Lamp in his aparE- 
ment, instead oE replacing it in the Treasury and locking it up> and 
one of the maids had seen it- So she said: ''O my mistress, me- 
thinks I have seen in my master's room an old lamp; let us exchange 
it with Lhis man for a new one, to find nut if his cry be true or 
false." And the Lady Bedr-cl-Budur said to her: "Bring ihe Lamp 
which thou SLiycsr thou didst see in thy master's room. ' For the 
Lady Bedr-el-Budur had no knowledge of the Lamp and its qualities, 
and that it was this which had brought 'Ala-ed-Din her husband to 
his present high station; and her chief desire was to try and discover 
the object of this man who exchanged new lamps for old. So the 
damsel went and ascended to the apartment of 'AEa-ed-Din and 
brought the Lamp to her mistress, and none of them suspected the 
guile of the Moorish wizard and his cunning- Then the Lady Bedr- 
el-Budur ordered an agha of the eunuchs lo go down and exchange 
the Lamp for a new one. So he look the Lamp and gave it to 
the Moor and received from him a new lamp^ and returned 
to the Princess and gave her the exchange; and she» after examining 
it, saw it was really new, and fell a-laughing at the folly of the 

But he, when "he got the Lamp and knew it was the Lamp of the 
Treasure, instantly put it in his bosom and abandoned the rest of the 
lamps to the people wh^t were chaffering with him, and went run- 


ning till he came to ihe outskiris of the cky, when he walked on over 
the plains and waited patiently till nighi had fallen^ and he saw 
that he was alone in the desert, and none iherc but he. Then he took 
forth the Lamp from his bosoni and rubbed it, and immediately the 
Marid appeared lo him, and said: '*A: thy Jiervice, 1 am thy slave in 
thy liands; ask of me what thou desirest/' So the Moor replied: "I 
require ihee to remove the palace of "Ala-ed-Din from its site, with 
its inm^te^ and all that is in it, and myself also, and set it in my 
country, the land of Africa. Thou knowest my town, and 1 wish this 
palace to be In my town, among the gardens." And the Marid slave 
replied, *'I hear and obey- Shut thine eye and open zt, and thou will 
find thyself in thy country jlong with the palace/* And in a moment 
this was done, and the Moor and the palace of 'Ala-ed-Din and all 
in it were removed to the land of Africa. Thus it was with the 
Moorish sorcerer. 

To return to the SuUan and 'Ala-ed-Din. When ihe SuU,m arose 
ill the morning from his sleep, in his affection and love for his 
daughter the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, he was wont every day wlien he 
was aroused from sleep to open the window and look out towards 
her. So he arose that day, as usual, and opened the window to look 
upon his daughter. But when he approached the window and looked 
towards the palace of "Ala-ed-Din, he beheld nothing — nay, the 
place was as bare as it was of yore, and he saw neither palace not 
any other building. And he was wrapped in amazement and dis- 
traught in mind; and he rubbed his eyes, in case tliey were dimmed 
or darkened, and returned to his observation, till at last he was sure 
that no trace or vestige of the palace remained; and he knew noE 
how or why it had disappeared- So his wonder increased, and he 
smote his hands together, and the tears trickled down over his beard, 
because he knew not what had become of his daughter. 

Then he sent ac once and had the Wezir fetched. And he stood 
before him. and as soon as he came in he noticed the sorrowful state 
of his sovereign, and said to him: "Pardon, O King of the Age. 
God defend thee froni calamity. Wherefore dost thou grieve?'^ The 
Sultan replied: "Perhaps thou dost not know my troubleP" And ihe 
Wezir said: "Not a whit, O my lord. By Allah, I have no knowl- 
edge of it whatever." Then said the Sultan: "It is evident thou hast 

'ala-ed-din and the wonderful lamp 407 

not IfXfkcd lowards the palace of 'Ala-ed-Din." "True, O my 
msiter," lepLied [he Wezir, "ic must now be siill dosed." Then said 
the King: "Since thou hast no knowledge of anything^ arise and 
look out o£ the window aud see where 'Ahi-ed-Din's p^tace is which 
thou sayes: is shut up," So the Wezir arose and looked fiut of the 
window towards the palace o£ 'Ala-ed-Din, and could espy nothings 
neither palace nor anything else. So his reason was amazed and he 
was astounded, and returned to the Suhan, who said: "Dost thou 
know now the reason of my grief, and hasc thou observed the palace 
of 'Ala-ed'Din which thou syidst was shut?" The Wezir answered: 
"O King of the Age, I informed thy Felicity before [hat this palace 
and all these doings were magic." Then the Sultan was inflamed 
with wrath, and cried out: ''Where is *A|a-ed-Diii?'* He answered: 
"Gone to the chase " I'hereupon ihe Sultan instandy ordered some 
of his aghas and soldiers to go and fetch 'Ala-ed-Din, pinioned and 
shackled. So the aghas and soldiers proceeded till they came upon 
'Ala-ed-Din, whom they thus addressed: ''Chastise us not, O our 
master 'Ala-ed-Din, for the Sultan hath commanded us to take thee 
chained and pinioned. So we beg thy pardon, for we are acting 
under the miindaie, which we cannot oppose," When *Ala-ed- 
Din heard rhe words of the aghas and soldiers, wonder look hold 
of him, and his tongue became tied, for he understood not the cause 
of this. Then turning to them, he said; "O company, have ye no 
knowledge of the cause of this order of the Sukan ^ 1 know myself 
to be innocentj and to have committed no sin against the Sultan 
or against the kingdom." They ans:vered: *'0 our master, we know 
no cause at alL^' Then 'Ala-ed-Din dismounted and said to them: 
■'Do with me ivhat the Sukan ordered, for the command of the 
Sultan must be on the head and the eye." Then the aghas chained 
*Ala-ed-Din and manacled him and bound him with irons and led 
him to the city. And when the citizens saw him bound and chained 
with iroUj they knew that the Sultan would cut olT his hetid; and 
since he was exceedingly beloved of them all, the lieges assembled 
together and brought their weapons and went forth from their 
houses and followed the soldiers to see what would be the event. 
When the troops with 'Ala-ed-Din reached the palace, they en- 
tered'and told the Sultan; whereupon he straightway commanded 


the executioner to come and tut ofi hh head. But whea the citizens 
knew- this, ihey barred the g^ites and shut thp door^ of the palace, 
and sent a message to the Sultan^ spying: "We will instantly pull 
down [liy house over thy head ynd all others in it, if :iny mijichief 
or harm comG to 'Ala-ed-Din." So the We^-ir went in and in- 
fofnicd the 5ultan, saying: "O King o£ ihe Age, thy command is 
about to seal the book of our lives. Il were better to p^jrdon 'Ala-ed- 
Din lest there conic upon us the calamity of calamities; for the lieges 
love him more ihun us." Now the executioner had already spread the 
carpet of death, and seated 'Ala-ed-Din ihereon, and bandaged his 
eyes, and had walked round him thrjce, waiting for the King*s 
command, when the Stiltan looking out of "the window, beheld his 
subjects attacking him and scaling the walls with intent to pull them 
down. So he immediately ordered the executioner to stay bis 'hand, 
and bade the herald go out to the crowd and proclaim that he had 
pardoned 'Ala-ed-Din and granted him grace. When *Ala-ed-Din 
saw lie i\'as free, and espirjd the Sultan seated on his throne, he drew 
near and said to him: "O my lord, since thy "Felicity hath been 
gracious to me all my life, vouchsafe to tell me what is my offence." 
7'hcn the Suk.m said: "O traitor, hitherto 1 knew of no offence in 
thee." And turning to the We^^ir, he said: *'Take him and shew hini 
from the windo^vs where his palace is." And W'hen the We^ir'had 
led him and he had looked out of the windoiv in the direction of 
his palace, he found the site bare as it was before he built his palace 
thereon; and he saw never a vestige of the palace at all. So he was 
amazed and bewildered and knew not what had bapjiened. And 
ivhen he returned, the King asked him: "What hast thou seen? 
Where is thy palace, and where is my daughter, the kernel of my 
heart, my only child, than whom 1 have none other?" And *Ah- 
ed'Din answered: "O King of the Age, I know not at all, nor what 
this is that hath occurred/* Then said the Sultan: "Know, O 'Ala- 
od-Din, that T have pardoned rhee in order that thou mayest go and 
look into this matter and search for my daughter for mei and do nor 
present thyself without her- for if thou bringest her not, by my 
life T will cut off thy head." And 'Ala-ed-Din replied: *'i hear and 
obey. O King of the Age. Only grant mc a delay of forty days, and 
then if I do not bring her, cut oFf my head and do what thou wilt." 


And the Sakan answered; ''1 granc thee a deby oi forty day?, as thou 
askest^ but think not to escape from my hand, tor 1 would brJn^ 
[hec back cveo if thou wcrt up in the clouds instead of 011 che face 
of 'the earch." "O my lord the Sukan/' sard 'Ala-ed-Din. "as 1 told 
thy Felicity, if I fail to bring her ai the appointed time, I will come 
and have my head cut off.'* 

Now when all the people and citizens saw that "Ala-ed-Din was 
released, they rejoiced with exceeding joy and were glad at his 
escape; but the shame of what had befallen him, and bashfulness, 
and tlie jealous satisfaction [of his enemies] caused "Ala-ed-Din's 
he:id 10 droop. So he went wandering about the city, and was be- 
wildered at the case and knew not what had happened to him. For 
two days he remained in the city, in a sorrowful sUiie, knowin*; 
not how to hnd his wife and palace, while some of the people 
brought him food nnd drink, 'After the two days he left the city, and 
wandered about the desert in an aimless manner, and walked on 
without stopping till the road led him beside a river, where, in the 
heaviness of the grief that oppressed him he gave up hope, and 
longed to throw himself into the river. But being a Muslim, and 
professing the Unity of God, he feared God in his soul, and he stood 
at the river's 'bank to perform the religious ablutions. Now as he 
was taking the water in his hands* he began to rub his hngers to- 
gether, und, so doing, he chanced to rub she Ring. Thereupon the 
Marid [of the King] appeared and said: "At thy service! Thy slave 
is in ihy hands. Ask of me what ihuu desirest," And when he saw 
the Marid, 'Ala-ed-Din rejoiced with great joy, and said : "O Slave, I 
desire thee to'brlng me my palace and my wife, the Lady Bedr-el- 
JJuduri in it, and all else that it contameth." But the Marid an- 
swered ; "O my master thou askest a hard matter which I caiTnot do. 
This thing periaineth to the Slave of the Lamp, and I am not able 
to attempt it." So "Ala-ed-Din rephed: "Since this thing is beyond 
thy power, take me'only and pkice me beside my palace wherever 
it may he on the earth." And the Slave answered : "I hear and obey, 
O my master." So the Marid bore him away, and in 'the twinkling 
of an eye set him down beside his palace in the land of Africa, in 
front of the 'apartment of hb wife. It was then nightfall, yet he 
espied the palace and knew it to he his. And his grief vanished, and 


he hoped in God, after hope had been eui off, iJiac he'should see his 
wHg once more. And he began to consider the myscerious workings 
of God (glory lo his omnipuiencelj/and how ihe Ring hyd cheered 
him, when all hope \voLild have died hj.d noi God aided him wiih 
the Slave of the Ring. So he rejoiced, ;ind ii]l his tribulation lefi him. 
And as he had gone four dayi without sleep* from the heaviness of 
his grief and anxiety and excess of pondering, he went beside the 
palace and slept under a tree; for, lis hath been said, [he palace was 
amid the gardens of Africa outside the city. 

That nigh: he slept beside the palace under a tree in perfect 
repose, though he whose hojd belongeth to the headsman sleepeth 
not of nights save when tlrowsiness compelleth him. But for the 
space of four days sleep had deserted him. So he slept till broad 
day, when he was awakeiied by the warbling of birds, and arose and 
went to the river there, which flov^ed lo the city, and washed his 
hands and face^ and performed the ablutions, and said the morning- 
prayer. And when he had done praying he returned and sat under 
[he' window of the apartment of the Lady Bedr-el-Budur. Now she:, 
in rhe excess of her grief at her separation from her husband and 
from the Sultan, her father, and the horror of what had befallen her 
from the accursed Moorish wizard, was wonL to arise every day at 
the streak of dawn, and to sit weeping; for she slept not at all of 
nights, and avoided food and drink. And her handmaiden would 
come lo'her at prayer-time to dress her, and as fate had decreed, the 
girl had opened [he window at that instant in order fur her to look 
upon the irccs and the slreiims and console herself. And the maid 
looked out of the window and discovered 'Ala-ed-Din, her master, 
sitting beneath [he apartment, aitd she said to the Lady Bedr-el- 
Budur: *'0 my mistress, O my mistress! Here is my master 'Ala-ed- 
Din sitting under the window." So [he Lady Bcdr-el-Uudur arose in 
haste arsd looked out of the window and saw him, and 'Ala-ed-Din 
turned his head and saw her, and she greeted him and he "greeted 
her, and they were both like to tly with joy. And she said to him: 
''Arise and come in to me by the secret door, now that the accursed 
is away." And she bade the girl descend and open the secret door 
for him. And 'Ala-ed-Dtn arose and entered thereby, and his wife, 
the Lady Bedr-el-Budur, met him at the door, and they embraced 

'ala-eD'Din and the wonderful lamp 411 

and kissed one anoiher in perfect bliss till Lhey began to weep from 
excess of happiness. And when they were sealed 'Ala-ed-Din said 
to her; "O Lady Bedr-et-Budur, before anything if is my wish to 
ask thee somewhat. It was my habic to put an old copper lamp in 
my apartment in a certain place. . . ." When the Lady Bcdr-el- 
Buduf heard this, she sighed and said: "Alas, my beloved, it wa?. 
that Lamp that was the cause of our falling into this misfortune." 
And *Ala-ed-Din asked her, "How did this affair happen?" And 
she told him the wliole story from first to last, and how lhey had 
exchanged the old lump for a new one. And she added: "The next 
day we hardly saw one another in the morning before we found our- 
selves in this country; and he who cozened us and exchanged the 
Lamp told me that he had done this by force of magic by the aid 
of the Lamp, and that he is a Moor of Africa, and we are in his 


When the Lady Bedr-el-Budur had done speaking, 'Ala-ed-Din 
said to her; "Tell me what this accursed is going to do with thee, 
and what and how he speaketh to thee, and what is his will of thee." 
She answered: '^He cometh to see me every day only once, and he 
would win me lo love him, and marry him instead of thee, and for- 
get thee and be consoled for ihee. Atid he saith that the Suhan, my 
father, hath cut off ihy head, and telleth me that thou art of poor 
people, and that he h the cause of thy wealth. And he blandishech 
me with his words, but he never secth in me anything but tears 
and wee|)ing, and he hath not heard a kind word from me.'* Then 
^Ala-ed-Din said; "Tell me, i£ thou knowesi, where he kecpeth the 
Lamp/* But she replied: "He carryeth it always with him, and it is 
not possible 10 part him from it for a single instant. But once, when 
he told mo what ! had related to thee, be took it from his bosom 
and shewed it to me." So when 'Ala-ed-Din heard these words he 
rejoiced greatly, and said: "O Lady Bedr-el-Budur, listen. I propose 
to go out now and return after changing my dress. So be not sur- 
prised at it; but instruct one of thy maidens'to stand by the private 
door till she see me, and then open it at once. Aiid now I will plot 
how to slay this Accursed." 

Therefore 'Ala-ed-Din arose and went forth from the palace gate, 
and proceeded till he met by the way a peasant, to whom he said: 


"O man,'iake my doiTies and give me thine" But ihc peasant would 
noi do so. So 'Ala-t'd-Din compelled him and took liis clothes from 
hjm and put them uii» jind gave him his own coiily robes. Then he 
went along ihe road till he reached the city- And he went to the 
ba^ar of the perfumers and bouyhr of them some potent benj^ the 
son of an instant/ buying two drachms o£ it for two dinars. Then he 
returned along the road till he came to the palace; and when the 
slave-girl saw him she opened the private door. And he entered to 
the Lady Bedr-cl-Jiudur, and said to iier: "Lzstenl I wish thee to 
dress and adorn thyself and dismiss grief; and when this damned 
Moor comeilij do thou receive him with a pleasant wcicome, and 
meet him with a smiling face» and bid him come and sup with thee; 
and'shew him that thou hast forgotten thy beloved 'Ala-cd-Dm and 
thy father, and that thou lovest him with vehement love. Then ask 
him for a drink, and let it be red wine; and, shewing all the tokens 
of joy and happinesSj drink to his secret; and when thou hast served 
him with three cups of wine, so as to make him careless, pur this 
powder in the cup and crown it with wine; and as soon as 'he 
drinketh this cup wherein thou hast put this powder, he shall in- 
stantly fall» like a dead man, on hjs back." And when the Lady 
Bedr-el-Budur heard these words of 'Ala-ed-Din she said: "This is 
an exceedingly difficuh thing for mc to do; but to escape from the 
profanation of this accursed, who hath afflicted me with separiition 
from thee and from my father^ it is lawful to kill the wretch." Then, 
after *A]a-ed-Din had eaten and drunk with his wife and appeased 
his hunger, he arose without delay or hindrance and went forth 
from the palace. 

Then the Lady Bedr-el-Budur sent for her tirewoman, who at- 
tired her and adorned her and put on her handsomest dress and 
perfumed her. And whilst she was doing so, behold, the cursed 
Moor appeared. And when he looked at her in this array, he re- 
joiccd greatly, and 'all the more when she received him with a 
smiling face, contrary to her habit; and his love for her increased, 
and he desired her passionately. Then she took him by her side and 
sealed him, 'saying: "O my beloved, if thou wilt, come to me this 
Eight and let us sup together. Enough of sorrow have I had, and 

^ I.e., which took cfiwi in 3 ii>oment. 


were 1 to siL mourning for a thousand ye,irs or (.wo, 'Alj-cd-Din 
would not come back to me from the gr^ive. And 1 rely upon what 
tliou saidst yesterday, thai my father slew him in his sorrow at my 
ab&ence. Do not wonder that I am changed since yesterday; it is 
because I have resolved to take thee as my lover and intimate in- 
stead oi *Ala-ed-Diii, for 1 have no other man than thee. So I Ioo'k 
for thy coming to me to-night, that we may sup together and drink 
a little wine with one another. And it Is my desire that thou give 
me to ta<.te of the wine of thy native Africa; perhaps it is better 
than ours. I have with me some wine of our country, but I desire 
greatly to taste the wine of thine." 

When the Moor saw the love which the Lady Bedr-el-Budur dis- 
played towards him, and how she was changed from her former 
melancholy, he believed she had given up hope of ^Ala-ed-Din, and 
he rejoiced greatly, and said, '^O my soul, I hear and obey whatever 
thou dcsireit and hjddest me. 1 have in my house a jar of wine 
of my country, which 1 have kept laid up undergrouad for eight 
years; and now t am going to chaw sufficient for us, and will return 
to thee speedily." But the Lady Bcdr-ebBudur, in order to coax him 
more and more, said; "O my dearest, do not go thyself, and leave 
me; bm send one of the servants to fill for us from ir, and remain 
here sitting by me that I may console myself with thee." But he 
said: "O my mistress, none knowcih but I where the jar is, and I 
will not tarry long away from thee." So the Moor went out, and 
after a little thmc returned with as much wine as they needed. Thea 
the Lndy Bedr-cl-Budur said to him: "Thou hast taken p;uns for me, 
and I have sulTered for thy sake, O beloved." And he an,'iwered: 
*'Not so, O my eye; 1 am honoured in serving thee." Then ilie 
Lady Bedr-el-Budur sat with him at the table, and they aic, and 
presently the bdy asked him for drink; and immediately the hand- 
niaid filled for her a goblet, and then filled another for the Moor. 
So she drank to his long life and bis secret, and he to her life; and 
she made a boon-fellow of him. Now the Lady Bedr-ehBudur was 
accomplished in eloquence and refinement of speech, .ind she be- 
witched him by addressing him in a delicious way, so that he might 
become more in love with her. But the Moor thought this was 
sincere, and did not imagine that her love was feigned, a snare to 


kill him. And his infaiuation for her increased, and he almost died 
of love when he saw her shew him such sweetness of ^vord and 
thought; and his head swam, and the world seemed nothing in 
his eye. 

When they came to the end of the supper and the wine had al- 
ready mastered his brain, and ihe Lady Bedr-ehBiitlur observed it, 
she said: "We have a custom in our country, but 1 know not if ye 
have ir here. Tell me if ye have or not." And t)ie Moor asked, 
"What is this custoinP^' "At the end of supper," she replied, '1or 
every one to take the cup of his beloved and drink it." And she 
forthwith took his cup and filled it with wine for herself, and bade 
the handmaid give him her cup, wherein was wine mixed with the 
benj. Now iJie maid knew what to do, for all the maids and 
eunuchs in the palace wished for his death, and sympathised with 
the Lady Bedr-el-Budur. So the girl gave him the cup, and he, when 
he heard her words and saw her drinking out of his cup and giving 
him hers to drink, thought himself Alexander the Great, Lord of the 
two Horns, as he gazed upon all these tokens oi love. Then she said 
to him, undulating her sides^ and putting her hand in his: "O my 
soul, here is thy cup in my hand, and my cup in thine, thus do 
lovers drink from one another^s cups " Then she kissed his cup and 
drank it and put it down and came to him and kissed him on the 
lips. And he flew with delight, and resolved to do as she did, and 
raised the cup to his mouth iind drank it off, without thinking if 
there were anything in it or not. And instantly, in a moment, 
he fell on his back, like a corpse, and the cup fell from his 

Then the Lady liedr-el-Hudur rejoiced, and the maidens ran and 
opened the door to "Ala-ed-Din, their master, who came in, and went 
up to his wife*s room, and found her silling ai the table, with the 
Moor lying in front of her like a dead man. And he drew near and 
kissed her and [hanked her. Then rejoicing with excessive joy, he 
turned to her and said: "Do thou and thy sLive-girls retire to thy 
apartment and leave me alone now, that 1 may arrange my plan." 
And the Lady Eedr-el-Bndur delayed not, but went, she and her 
maidens. Then 'Ala-ed-Din arose, and locking the door after them, 
went up to the Moor and put his band into his bosom and took 


forth the Lamp; after which he drew his iword and cut olT his head. 
I'hciL he ruhbcd the Lamp, and there appeared the Marid slave, who 
said: "At ihy service, O my master. What wilt thouP^' And 'Ala- 
ed-Din answered: '1 desire iihee to life this piilace from this country 
and bear it lo the land of Chinaj and set it down in the place where 
it was, opposite the Sultan's palace/' And the Marid replied, "1 hear 
and obey, O my master." Then *Ala-ed-Din went and sat with the 
Lady Bcdr-eHiudur, his wife, and embraced and kissed her, and she 
him. And they sat in company while the Marid carried the palace 
and set it in its place opposite the palace of the Sultan. 

And *Al3-ed-Din ordered the maids to bring a table before him, 
and seated himself, he and the Lady Bedr-eUbudur, his wifej and 
they fell to eating and drinking in all joy and happiness till they 
were satisfied. Then withdrawing to the hall of carousal, they sat 
and drank and caroused and kissed each other in perfect bhss. For 
the time had been long since they had enjoyed themselves together. 
So they ceased not till the sun of wine shone in their heads, and 
drowsiness overcame them. Then they arose and went to bed in all 
contentment. Next morning ^Ma-ed-Din arose and aivoke his wife, 
[he Lady Bedr-el-Budur; and ihe slave-girls came and dressed and ar- 
rayed and adorned bcr, while 'Ala-ed-Din put on his handsomest 
dress, and both were like to fly for joy at their re-union after separa- 
tion. And the Lady Bed r-el-l3udur was the more happy that day, 
because she was going to see her father. Thus was it with 'Ala-ed- 
Din and the Lady Bedr-el-Budur. 

But as for the Sultan, after he had banished *Ala-ed-Din, he never 
ceased grieving for his daughter; and every hour of every day he 
would sit and weep for her like a woman, for she was his only child 
and he had none other. And as he shook off his slumber, morning 
after mornings he would go in haste to the window and open it and 
look where "Ala-ed-Din's palace once stood, and his tears would flow 
till his eyes were dry and his eyelids sore. Now that day he arose 
at daybreak and looked out as usual, when, lo* he espied before him 
a building; so he rubbed his eyes and considered it attentively till 
he was sure it was 'Ala-ed-Din*s palace. So he ordered liis horse 
Instantly on the spot, and when it was s;iddled he went down and 
mounted and went to 'Ala-ed-Din's palace. And when his son-in-law 


SLiw him comiiig, hi? wenL i\o\vi\ 10 mi^ti liim ha]L-\i\iy, and look him 
by the hand iiiid led him to ihe iipminicntb of ihe Ljdy Bedj-d- 
IJudur, his daughEer. And she, bcin^ very an.xiotis to see her father, 
came down and met him ai the door o£ the staircase in front o£ the 
hall OTi the ground floor. So her father embraced her and kissed 
her, and wept, and she likewise. Then 'Ala-ed-Din led him to the 
upper rooms, and they sat; and the Sukan asked her of her stale and 
what had befallen her. And the Lady Bedr-el-Budur told him all 
that had happened to her» and laid: "O my father, i did not arrive 
till yesterday, when 1 saw my hiiiband. Arid it was he \^'ho de- 
livered me from ilie power of th;iL man, the Moor, the ^vizard, the 
accursed. Mcihinks on the earth^s face liiere is none viler than he. 
And but for 'Ala-ed-Din, my beloved, I had not escaped from him, 
nor hadst thou seen me again all my days. But heavy grief and 
sorrow took possession of mc., O my father, not only for my separa- 
titfu from thee, but also for [he pariing from tny husband, in \vhose 
debt I shall be all the day^ of my life, seeing he dekvered me from 
that accursed wizard " Then she began to relate to her father all 
that had befallen her, and how the Moor had cheated her in the 
shape of a seller of lamps, exchanging new for old, and how she ha*.! 
thought this his folly and laughed at him, and being deceived, had 
taken the old lamp that was in her husband's room and sent it by a 
euntich and exchanged it for a new lamp. ^*And the next day» 

my father, we found ourselves, with the palace and all besides, in 
the land of Africa. And 1 knew not the virtue of the Lamp which 

1 exchanged till my husband came and plotted a stratagem by whicii 
we escaped. And had he noL helped us, the accursed would have 
possessed himself of me by force. But "Ala-ed-Din, my husband, 
gave me a potion and I put it into his wine-cup, and 1 gave it him, 
and lie drank and fell down like a corpse. Thereupon my husband, 
*Ala-ed-Din, came in, and I know not how it was done, but we were 
carried from Africa to our place here.^' And 'Ala-cd-Din said; "O 
my lord, when I ascended and saw him hke the dead, drunk and 
drowsy with benj, I told the Lady Bedr-el-liudur to go, she and her 
maids, to the inner apartments, and slie arose and went, she and her 
maids, from that polluted place. Then I drew near to that accursed 
Nfoor and put my hand into his bosom* and drew out the Lamp (for 


itie Lady iJedr-cl-IiutlEir had informed me thai he always kept it 
there), and when 1 had lakeu ii, 1 bared my si\"ord ^nd cut oti his 
damnabitf hciid. Then 1 worked the Lamp aiid ordered its Slave to 
bear the palace and all therein ^iid sei it down in this spot. And i£ 
thy Felicity doubt my words, arise with me and look upon this 
cursed Moor." So the King arose and ^\"ein with 'Ala-ed-Din to the 
apartment and saw the Moor, and im media [el v commanded that 
they should take the carcase aw^y and burn it and scatter the ashes 
to the winds. 

Then the Sultan embraced 'Ala-ed-Din and fell a-kissing him, 
saying: "Forgive me, O my son, that 1 was going to take thy life, 
through the wickedness ot this curst'd sorcerer, w[iu threw thee into 
this calamity; but I may be excused, my son, for what 1 did to thee, 
since 1 saw myself deprived of my daughter, the only child I have, 
dearer to mo than my kii'igdom. Thoti knowcst how the hearts of 
parents yearn over their children, and the more when they ar^ like 
me, who have only the Lady Bedr-el-liudur." Thus the Sultan began 
ejicusing himself to Ala-ed-Din and kissing him. But 'Alj-ed-Hm 
replied: "O of [he Age, thou didsL nothing to mc contrary lo 
law, nor did 1 sin against thee; but all this arose from the Moor, 
that filthy wizard." Then the Sultan ordered that the city should 
be decoraied, and they adorned ii, and [he rejoicings and festivities 
were held. And he ordered the herald to proclaim through the 
streets; "This day is a high festival, and let rejoicings be held through- 
out the kingdom for a whole month of thirty days, for the return of 
the Lady Bedr-el-Undur and her husband/' Thus was it with 'Ala-ed- 
Din and the Moor. 

Vet 'Ala-ed-Din was not wholly qui[ of [hat accursed Moor, al- 
though his body had been burnt arid its a&hes scattered to the winds. 
For this miscreant had a brother viler than himself, and evc[i more 
skilled in necromancy and geomancy and astrology,^-"iwo beans 
split," as the proverb s.iich. Lach dwelt iu his own region of the 
world, lo fill it with his spells, hii^ deceit, and his wickedness. Now ic 
chanced one day rhac: this brother wished to know how it was with 
the Moor; and he brought nut his table and marked the figu